Imatges de pàgina

for adverbs? Yes; as Extreme bad, for extremely bad. How may "his strength was exceeding great” be parsed ? Though some grammarians consider such expressions correct, yet they admit at the same time that exceedingly strong is the preferable phraseology. When should the ordinal precede the cardinal number ? When contrast is intended. The first four lines are good.

What do you understand by the term Composition as applied to language ? Such a relation and arrangement of words in speech or writing as render them fit to express our thoughts or opinions upon any subject. Is composition an important acquirement? Perhaps the most so of any, as upon it mainly depend the spread of knowledge and enlightening of the world. What are the chief requisites for attaining accuracy in composition ? A thorough knowledge of grammar, and of the signification of words, with a constant perusal of the best authors. Can you mention any of the different qualities of style. The strong, the weak, the simple, the florid, the concise, the diffuse. What do you conceive to be the greatest excellence of style? Perspicuity. On what does perspicuity depend? On the choice of words, and the construction of sentences. What are the chief things to be attended to in the choice of words? Purity, propriety, and precision. What do you understand by the structure of sentences ? Such an arrangement of the different words and members as is best fitted to express the meaning intended to be conveyed. What do you mean by purity of style? The use of such words and modes of expression as are perfectly English and warranted by good authority. What is the standard of purity ? The practice and authority of the best speakers and writers. Can you give any examples of the violation of purity of construction ? “He will repent himself of such conduct, " is a French, not English mode of expression. How would you correct this? By leaving out the word himself. Will you endeavour to correct the following violations of purity ? He strọamed idly about the fields. He was certainly an extra genius. They showed too much hauteur. He is a very unpopular speaker. What do you mean by propriety, as applied to style? The selections of such words as are best adapted to express the meaning intended to be conveyed. What is the first rule to be observed with regard to propriety ? Avoid such words and expressions as are low and vulgar, or tend to excite mean.conceptions; as to see a thing with half an eye, to get into a scrape ; which should be, to see a thing at a glance, to get into a difficulty. What is the rule next to be observed ? We should avoid technical terms, unless when writing to persons who understand them. What do you mean by the term precision? The using of no more words to convey our meaning than the sense absolutely requires. What tends most to produce precision ? Clear and accurate thinking. What do you understand by clearness in the structure of sentences ? Such arrangment of the several words and members as distinctly indicates the author's meaning. What do you mean by the unity of a sentence ? Closeness and compactness of arrangement, and the restriction of the sentence to one leading idea. What do you mean by the strength of a sentence ? The power which it

possesses of making a deep impression upon the mind. Give a few examples of words which are termed synonymous. To abhor, to detest, To abhor imports strong distike : to detest, strong disapprobation. A man abhors being in debt, he detests treachery. To invent, to discover. We invent things that are new, we discover what was before hidden. Galileo invented the telescope, Harvey discovered the circulation of the blood.--Custom, habit. Custom respects the action, habit the actor. By the custom of walking often in the streets, one acquires a habit of idleness. Entire, complete. A thing may be entire although wanting some of its parts ; complete, by wanting none of its appendages. A man may be master of an entire house, which has not one complete apartment.-Wisdom, prudence. Wisdom leads us to speak and act with propriety ; prudence prevents our speaking or acting improperly. A wise man employs the most proper means for success; a prudent man the safest means to avoid being brought into danger.-Enough, sufficient. Sufficient sometimes expresses rather less than is desired; such a quantity or degree as commands acquiescence, rather than full satisfaction. Enough signifies so much as gives content. The covetous man never has enough although he has what is sufficient for nature.—Authentic, genuine. Authentic refers to the character of a document; genuine to the connexion between any production and its reputed author. We speak of the authenticity of Buchanan's history, that is, of its authority as a record of facts; and of the genuineness of Ossian's poems,

that is, whether or not they were composed by the person to whom they are ascribed.-Only, alone. Only (from one, signifying singly) imports that there is no other object of the same kind; alone, (from all and one, signifying solitary) imports being unaccompanied by any other object. An only child is one that has neither brother nor sister; a child alone, is one that is left by itself.


The value and importance of the study of geography are so obvious and indeed so universally acknowledged, As to require little illustration. Nothing an be mor

interesting to man, or more gratify his thirst for knowledge, than a survey of the earth which he inhabits, peopled as it is by beings of the same nature with himself. The great importance of this branch of knowledge must be sufficiently obvious. Geography embraces a vast variety of those objects which are most interesting in themselves, and with which it most concerns man to be conversant. It is also essential to the clear understanding of every branch of the history both of man and nature. Every form both of animal and vegetable nature is modified in the most striking manner by the climate or the country in which it is placed.

The text-books used are Ewing's System of Geography, Stewart's Compendium of Modern Geography, White's Outlines of Geography, and Murray's Geography. The mode of examining a class is, by pointing to the places on the map, and asking their names, their situation, and for what they are remarkable ; by naming the places and causing the pupils to point them out on the

map; and by describing the situation of the places and for what they are remarkable, and then asking their names.


What is geography ? Geography is that science which describes the surface of the earth, consisting of land and water, its climates, its inhabitants, its productions, and the extent of its population. Describe the figure of the earth. The figure of the earth is very nearly that of a sphere or globe. What gives it this figure ? It is occasioned by every thing on it being attracted to its centre by the laws of gravitation. What is the magnitude of the earth? The earth is twenty-four thousand nine hundred and twelve miles in circumference, and seren thousand nine hundred and thirty miles in diameter. What is its circumference? The circumference of the earth is a line drawn round its surface, so as to divide it precisely into two equal parts or halves. What is the diameter of the earth? The diameter of the earth is a line drawn from two opposite points of its surface, and passing through its centre. What is meant by the axis of the earth? A straight line passing through its centre, from north to south, is called its axis. What are the poles? They are the extremities of the axis upon which the earth performs its diurnal revolutions: that which is immediately opposite to the pole-star, is called the North or Arctic Pole, and the opposite is called the South or Antarctic Pole. Is the earth at rest or in motion ? Our world, though it appears to stand still, is in constant and rapid motion. Does the earth alone revolve round the sun? It is only one of a number of globes or planets which revolve round the sun, at different distances, and in different periods. What is the distance of the earth from the sun? The earth is 95,000,000 miles from the

In what period does the earth revolve round its own axis? It turns rounds its own axis once in twentyfour hours. How would you demonstrate the roundness of the earth's figure ? If we approach a distant mountain or vessel at sea, we first perceive its top, and gradually see its lower parts; which can be the case only from the surface of the earth or sea being a curve, or part of a circle. The sun rises sooner to those who dwell towards the east, and gradually later to those towards the west; this also arises from the surface of the earth forming a curve. It is also proved by eclipses of the moon, which are caused by the earth coming between it and the sun. Define the terms, hori. zon, zenith, and nadir. Horizon signifies, something that bounds our view of the earth and heavens. Ze


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