Imatges de pÓgina

vantages to be derived from the cultivation of every branch of science. They give activity, strength, sagacity, and patience of thought to the mind of the pupil; and they form, it may be observed, the groundwork of all the arts, and of all the improvements and happiness which man has derived from scientific pursuits and scientific discoveries. These are the real benefits that result from such a course of education, which must be based on the grand principle of cultivating as far as possible all the faculties of the human mind, and of imparting such kinds of knowledge as are most likely to be found available for the purposes of after life. The chief peculiarity of the improved system of education, lies in applying the lessons read at school, not merely to the common purposes of reading, spelling, and grammar, but also to the higher objects of exercising the judgment, and furnishing the learner with a copious store of definitions and varied information.

It may be proper to mention that the questions and exercises on Mathematics and Natural Philosophy were given by the late Dr. Ritchie to the pupils of Colebrooke House Academy at their annual examinations. The questions on Chemistry were put by the Rev. D. Lang, M.A., Lecturer on Chemistry, &c. All the questions and exercises are derived from the works read in the Academy.

Colebrooke House Academy, Islington,

December, 1837.





Ver. 1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

How did the heavens and the earth come into existence? In the beginning God created them. What do you mean by the beginning? The time when the heavens and the earth were at first created. What is time? A measured portion of eternity. What is the measurement of time called? Chronology. Whence is the term chronology derived? From the Gr. chronos time, and logos an account of time, or the science of dividing and computing time. How do we divide and compute time? By periods, epochs, centuries, years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, and seconds. What is a period? A certain portion of time from one great event to another. How many days in a year? Three hundred and sixty-five days five hours forty-eight minutes and fifty-four seconds. How many hours in a day? Twenty-four. How many minutes in an hour? Sixty. How many seconds are there in a minute, Sixty. What do you call a seculum or century? A hundred years. Which day of the week is the first? The Sabbath, called sometimes the Lord's day or Sunday. Was the Sabbath always the first day? No; the Jewish sabbath was the seventh or last. How came the Sabbath to be changed? In order to commemorate our Saviour's

rising from the dead. How long is it since the creation of the heavens and the earth? About six thousand years ago. How many years have elapsed since the birth of our Saviour Jesus Christ? 1837. By what means did God create all things? By the word of his power. How long was God in creating all things? He completed the entire work of creation in six days. Does man create? No; man makes. What does man make? Houses, tools, ships, watches, clocks, and steam-engines. What does he make them from? Wood, iron, and brass. What do you mean by the heavens? The sun, the moon. and the stars. What do you mean by the earth? The ground upon which we walk, and all that is on it or in it. How does it appear that there is a God? The works of creation prove that there is infinitely greater power and skill displayed in the formation of the world than in the making of a watch.

Ver. 2. And the earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

In what state was the earth before its formation into a habitable globe? It was without form and void. What is the meaning of the earth being without form and void? It means that the land and the water were mingled together in a rude and shapeless mass and had no inhabitants. What is form? Shape. Of what form did God make the world? It is nearly round like a ball or an orange. What is the proportion of land and water on the surface of the earth? Nearly twothirds of the surface of the earth are covered with water. What is the diameter of the earth? About eight thousand miles.

What do you mean by its diameter? The line which passes through the centre of a circle divides it into two equal parts. What is the cir

cumference of the earth? Nearly twenty-five thousand miles. What motions has the earth? Two. What are they? The diurnal and annual motions. How does the earth move in her daily or diurnal course? Round her own axis. What does axis signify? The line, real or imaginary, that passes through any thing on which it may revolve. Is the axis of the world real or supposed? Supposed. In what manner does the earth move in her annual or yearly motion? In the open space, in her course round the sun. What is the line which describes the earth's course round the sun called? Her orbit Is there any other name by which the earth's course round the sun is designated? The ecliptic. What is signified by darkness being upon the face of the deep? It signifies that there was neither sun nor moon to shine upon it, and of course was invisible from the want of light. What colour is darkness? Black. What is like darkness? Ignorance. What else is like darkness? Sin. What do you think is meant by the spirit of God moving upon the face of the waters? It seems to denote that a Divine power was exerted in separating the water from the dry land. What proof have you that God separated the sea from the dry land? The Almighty says, I laid the foundations of the earth, and shut up the sea with doors, when it brake forth, and said, Hither. to shalt thou come but no further, and here shall thy proud waves be stayed.

Ver. 4. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness.

Ver. 5. And God called the light day, and the darkness he called night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

What did God say of the light? That it was good. What did he do with the light? Divided it from the darkness. When the waters and the dry land were

separated from each other, what did God say? Let there be light; and there was light. What did God call the light? Day. What did he call the darkness? Night. What is the nature of light, and whence does it proceed? Light is a substance composed of very small particles called rays, that are emitted from luminous bodies, such as the sun or moon. At what rate does light fly? At the rate of twelve millions of miles in a minute. In what time does it proceed from the sun to the earth? In about eight minutes. In what manner did God regard the production of light? It is said that God saw the light, that it was good. How may light be said to be good and beneficial to men and animals? It enables us to perceive all the beauties of nature, and to perform all the operations of life. What was the next thing the Almighty did in the work of creation? God divided the light from the darkness. How does the succession of light and darkness constantly take place? By the daily revolution of the earth round its own axis. Explain to me the uniform cause of day and night. That part of the earth is enlightened which is turned towards the sun, while that part of it is dark which is turned from him. Are there not two names by which the day is distinguished? Yes; by the natural and artificial day. What do you mean by the natural day? It is that portion of time between the rising and setting of the sun. What do you mean by the artificial day? It is that portion of time which the earth requires to revolve round her axis. You have said that the earth has the shape of a ball; can the sun therefore light the whole of it at once? No; only a part of the earth. Does the sun go completely through the heavens? Yes. What line does

the sun describe in his course-a straight one? No; an arch or half circle. Is this arch always of the same size? No; sometimes it is larger than at others. When is it the largest? At the beginning of summer, on the

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