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the pope's bull and the decretals at Wittemberg, 1520. Who was the most distinguished of the champions that
the pen against Luther? One of the first champions who took up the pen against Luther was Henry VIII. of England. How did the pope reward Henry for that service ? Pope Leo conferred on him the title of Defender of the Faith. Which side did the emperor Charles take? Charles V., studious of the friendship of the pope, took part against Luther. What steps did the emperor take against Luther? He summoned him to answer for his doctrines before the imperial diet at Worms. What measures were taken in Saxony in consequence of the reformation? In Saxony the mass was now universally abolished, the images destroyed, and the convents shut up. Who was the great reformer of Switzerland ? Zuinglius of Zurich. Which were the three cantons that first declared against popery ? Zurich, Berne, and Basle. What became of Zuinglius? In a desperate engagement between the two parties the Protestants were defeated ; Zuinglius was slain 1531. By whom were Sweden, Denmark, and Norway governed at that time? They were governed by Christiern II. the Nero of the north. Who was his minister? Troll, Archbishop of Upsal. What measures did they take to keep Sweden in subjection? The king and his primate, armed with a bull from Pope Leo X., massacred the whole body of the nobles and senators, amidst the festivity of a banquet at Stockholm. Who was the deliverer of Sweden? Gustavus V asa. What effect had the bloody bull of Leo X. on Denmark and Sweden ? The bull of Leo X. and its bloody consequences were sufficient to convert Sweden and Denmark to the tenets of the reformed religion. What became of Christiern II. and Archbishop Troll? Christiern II. died in a Danish prison, and the Archbishop died of wounds received in
a battle which he had excited the people of Lubeck to undertake against Denmark. What states of Germany embraced the doctrines of the reformation ? As early as 1525 the states of Saxony, Brunswick, Hesse Cassel, and the cities of Strasburg and Frankfort had embraced the doctrines of the reformation. What new sect was founded at that time, and by whom? Two reformers of Saxony condemned infant baptism, and were hence termed Anabaptists ; Munster was the strong hold of Jack of Leyden, where he was put to death with red-hot pincers by order of the bishop of Munster. Whence did the Lutheran party take the name of Protestant, and in what year? Fourteen cities of Germany and several of the electors protested formally against the articles of the diet of Spires, and hence the Lutheran party acquired the name of Protestants in the year 1530. What circumstances were favourable to the reformation? The virtuous lives and conduct of the protestant leaders; the solemn manner in which the states of Switzerland had discussed every point of the controversy, and yielding only to the force of rational conviction, attracted the respect of all Europe. Who was the celebrated Frenchman that eme braced the protestant doctrines ? John Calvin became a zealous convert to the new doctrines. What famous book did he publish ? His Institutions, and enforced their authority by the establishment of synods, consistories, and deacons. By whom was Calvin's discipline adopted ? By six of the Swiss Cantons, by the Protestants of France, and the Presbyterians of Scotland and England. Who was the discoverer of America, and in what year? Christopher Columbus, 1492. Of what nation was columbus ? A Genoese. From whom did Columbus finally obtain help? From Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. With what help did Ferdinand and Isabella furnish Columbus They furnished him with three small ships, ninety men, and a few thousand ducats for the charge of his voyage. What were the first discoveries of Columbus? He discovered San Salvador, and soon after the islands of Cuba and Hispaniola. What did he bring hoine from thence ? He brought home some of the natives, some presents in gold, and curiosities of the country. How was Columbus treated by the Spaniards on his return? He was treated by the Spaniards with the highest honours. What did Columbus discover in his second voyage? He discovered the Caribees and Jamaica. What did Columbus discover in his third voyage ? In a third voyage, 1498, he discovered the Continent of America, within ten degrees of the line towards the Isthmus of Panama. From whom did America derive its name? From the geographer Americus.
This is a branch of science of the greatest importance to every individual and every rank in a free state. Wealth, the source and nature of which political economy alone can explain, is an essential element not'only in the welfare but in the very existence both of individuals and of states. The study of it is at the same time the interest and the duty of every class of the community. The price of all sorts of commodities, the profits of the farmer, manufacturer, and merchant, the rent of the landlord, the wages of the labourer, nature and tendency of poor rates, the influence of legislative interference, with the freedom of industry and commerce, the incidence and effects of taxes and loans, the science of money, and the question of the currency;these subjects, and many others equally important, depend on principles which it belongs to political economy alone to ascertain and elucidate. A minute and general view of economical science ought to be communicated to youth at an early period in every academy.
What is political economy? It is that branch of the science of government which points out the principles upon which national prosperity depends. What is national prosperity ? National prosperity in the general acceptation of the term consists in a continued accumulation of wealth ; but the true nature of national prosperity consists in neither accumulating nor losing wealth. What is wealth? Wealth consists in the accumulation of property or capital. What is property or capital ? Property or capital consists in lands, houses, machinery, implements of husbandry, victuals, clothes, money, or goods of any description which will fetch money to the possessor. What is cash or money ? Cash or money is the current coin of the country paid for capital or property, and generally consists in the most valuable of metals, as copper, silver, and gold; it also forms capital or property. What are the essentials of life? The essentials of life are such food, clothing, and shelter as are necessary to ensure health. What are the superfluities of life? The superfluities or superfluous articles of life, are such as are not necessary for ensuring of health, as spirits, confections, decorated furniture, ornamental clothes, &c. What is productive labour? Productive labour is such as increases man's comfort and happiness. What is unproductive labour ? Unproductive labour is such as does not increase man's comfort, as digging ground that will not produce fruit. What is rent? Rent is money or goods paid to a proprietor by a tenant for the use of his property. What is profit? Profit is the clear neat gain made by a mer
chant, manufacturer, or tradesman, in any given time, after paying for raw materials, wages, rent, tear and wear of machinery, without including household and personal expenses. What is fixed capital ? Fixed capital consists in lands, houses, and such machinery as cannot easily be turned into money. Under what terms are all the productions of nature comprehended ? The productions of nature are all comprehended under animals, vegetables, and minerals. What are the productions of art? The productions of art are the productions of nature altered or formed by man's art and labour to suit man's circumstances. What are manufacturers ? They are all those who form the raw materials into any shape or purpose after they come from the landowner, whether they possess a large or small capital. Explain the advantages of commerce. It gives the nation as it were the advantages of all the different soils, climates, inventions, and improvements known throughout the world. Are there any other advantages that accrue from foreign commerce? Yes; it tends to wear off prejudices; it softens and polishes the manners of men. approve of poor-laws? By no means. The principle of poor-laws, or of a compulsory assessment for the poor, under whatever circumstances, is liable to many objections. What are tithes? Tithes are a tax on the gross produce of the land; a tenth of that produce set apart for the maintenance of an established church. What is taxation? Taxation expresses
aggregate of particular taxes, or the science or mode according to which taxes may be most advantageously raised. What do you mean by a tax? A tax is the portion of the capital and labour of a country levied by government, and placed at its disposal.