Imatges de pÓgina


The Duties of a Recreation Board Member

Some thoughts on the responsibilities and
functions of the board member and his re-
lationships with the recreation executive

HE MEMBER of a recreation board or commission occupies a position of pub

lic trust offering unlimited op

President, Recreation Commission
Long Beach, California

portunities for service to the community. No other type of public service needs leadership of higher quality than does public recreation, and members of recreation boards should be among the ablest and most devoted men and women of the community. Upon them and upon their vision and judgment depends the quality of service offered the public.

Within rather broad limitations the recreation board determines the amount of money to be spent on recreation, the kind of leadership employed, and the scope of the program and its expansion. In short, every fundamental policy of a department is influenced by the members of the board, and it is therefore essential that they be thoroughly familiar with their official responsibilities and that they realize to the full the importance of the duties they have undertaken.

Functions of a Recreation Board

There are certain recognized functions of the governing board that are fundamental. Among them are the following:

The interpretation of the community recreation program to public officials and to the general citizenship in terms of adequate moral and financial support.

The maintenance of high standards in recreation leadership and in quality of program service.

The selection of the recreation executive or superintendent and the defining of the scope of his powers and duties.

The appointment, upon recommendation of the recreation executive, of all em

ployees, and the determination of their functions and duties. (A number of authorities advise the appointment of all employees by the recreation executive alone on the basis that he is responsible to the board for the carrying out of certain objectives and the method of accomplishment should rest in his hands. Many believe, therefore, that the executive should have the power to select his own assistants and to define their duties and functions in a way which will best accomplish his objectives. Civil Service. would be utilized wherever possible in selecting local personnel on a merit basis.)

The determination and establishment of the general policies to be followed in carrying out the purpose for which the department was established.

(As a matter of practical experience the executive, being a trained and experienced technician, may be the official actually to develop the plans and policies adopted by the board.)

The consideration of and passing judgment upon the recommendations coming from any source outside the department, especially if such suggestions involve matters of general policy.

Appropriation of the budget and the securing of the required funds.

The authorization of expenditures within the budget granted and the careful examination of expenditures.

"Some of our leisure must be devoted
to public affairs. . . . Any contribu-
tion we can make is not only a pa-
triotic duty but we shall find it also
very much our own business. Leisure
gives us this opportunity. If demo-
cracy ever could mean anything it
must mean that each citizen should
joyously contribute of time, thought
and energy to the benefit of the
whole group."-George B. Cutten
in Challenge of Leisure.

A strict accounting to the people of the community through the proper fiscal authorities of the use of all funds.

A full report to the public. of all the activities of the department during the year.

To Insure Successful


Upon the wisdom of the board in dealing with its execu(Continued on page 46)

Pegs-And What to Do With Them!


EDW. J. RONSHEIM Director of Recreation Anderson, Indiana

N OUR COMMUNITY we found ourselves with greatly reduced funds for the purchase of play supplies. Consequently, when a local manufacturer presented the Recreation Department with several scores of pegs great deal of consideration was given the question of what to do with them.

At first it seemed impossible to conjure up any use for the pegs, which were slightly under two inches in diameter and eight inches long, with one beveled end. But at last we had the idea of using them to replace the old broken and expensive Indian clubs. No sooner said than done! Out came the pegs. They were counted out in sets of twelve, two painted one color and ten another. A box or basket was provided as a kit and into it went the pegs, two six-inch Voit balls (six-inch inflated rubber balls) and two twelve-inch square pieces of old linoleum. Two old croquet mallets or improvised ones included in the kit made more activities possible. Additional pegs could be made of 2 x 2 x 8 inch wood with the edges beveled with a plane.

The kits proved very popular and around them developed a large number of games, many of which were adaptations of old games and some of which were completely new. Here are some of the more popular games:

Peg Bowl Ball. This game may be played by from ten to thirty players and may be played indoors or out. An area about 30 feet square is needed. Line up teams and pegs as in the diagram below-"A" and "B" are the two teams of players, "X" indicates a peg and "O" the bowler's box.

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front of players "A", and "O" is ten to thirty feet from the middle peg.

The first bowler ("B") steps into the bowler's box and bowls an air-filled ball not over six inches in diameter at the pegs. If he misses a peg he is out and moves to the right out of the box. If he knocks one or more down he scores a point for each knocked over, even though the ball hits a player "A" and bounces back to the peg, He continues to bowl until he is out. Three outs make "side-out" and teams then change positions. The bowler must keep one foot in the box until the ball has left his hand, otherwise he is out. The team "A" merely retrieves the ball for the bowlers. Five innings at least should be played. Play fast.

Peg in the Ring. One peg and a six-inch ball are all the equipment needed. The players align themselves as in the diagram. "V" represents the players, while "X" is "it" and "O" represents two players who retrieve the ball, taking their turns last at bowling. The lines are thirty or forty feet apart and players stand two feet apart. The center circle at P is three feet in diameter with a play peg placed in its center.

Line "A"


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bowler knocks down a peg he runs to line "B," while "it" or "X" sets the peg up and then tries to tag him. If he is caught he becomes "it" and the old "it" takes the place of an "O" who joins the "V" players. If the bowler misses all five chances he must run on the last one and take a chance on being tagged and made "it." At any time when the peg is down or a bowler has the ball, a runner behind line "B" (other than an "O") may return. He may be tagged and be made "it." Once he starts away from "B" he can not turn back. Players bowl in turn; but always from the middle of the line. Should a player's turn to bowl come when he is behind "B" he becomes "it." Caution: Do not bowl so hard that the game becomes merely a matter of "chase the ball" for the "O's."

Peg One Out. Set out the pegs in a line on the ground (in grass, if possible), some three to five feet apart. Use one less peg than the number of players. Players line up from thirty to forty feet away. On the word "go" the players race to the pegs and try to seize one. The player left out is retired from the game and one peg taken from the row. Each time a player is left out a peg is taken away as in "Going to Jerusalem." The game continues until only one player is left.

Although the game is a bit rough it is great sport if kept under control. If you have a very large group, divide it into smaller groups and play, letting team champions compete in a final game for first honors.

Play Peg Golf. Nine pegs, nine pins and numbered paper flags, golf or croquet balls, putters or croquet mallets are required for this game. Place the nine pegs ten to thirty feet apart on smooth bare spots. Pin a numbered flag on the top of each peg. Place the pegs in order as one might find them on a golf course, leaving clear "fairways" between holes, although hazards may be set on either side of these clear areas. At a spot not less than ten feet from the first peg make a clear space for a "tee." Make such a clear space ("tee") about three feet to the right or left of all other pegs except number nine.

As many as four players may play, each taking turns hitting his ball toward the peg ahead. The player who first knocks down the peg (with fewest shots) puts down I on his score card and sets up the peg. The next to knock it down scores 2, third 3, and so on. In case of a tie, both take the number while the next player takes the next

higher number. Players do not start for the second peg until all have completed the first "hole." When a player is behind an obstacle placed on the course, he moves his ball back from it counting one hit before hitting the ball. The ball of another player which blocks a striking player's ball counts. as an obstacle. A tournament may easily be organized for this game.

Grab the Peg. This game is similar to "Snatch" in many ways. Players line up, standing shoulder to shoulder, in two parallel teams facing each other. The two teams are some forty feet apart. Midway between the players is a three-foot circle. in which stands a peg. Players of one team count off, each remembering his number. The other team counts off beginning at the other end of the line, so that the two "one's" are at opposite ends. The game leader (not a participant) calls a number and the two players, one from each line, who have that number dash to the center of the field; each tries to snatch the peg and return with it to his own team line without being tagged by his opponent. If a player reaches his team untagged with the peg he scores a point for his team. If he is tagged, the opposing team scores. If a player steps into the circle or knocks over a peg, he forfeits a point. Once a player touches the peg he must take it. There may be no shoving or holding. | Ten points constitute a game.

Pegs in a Circle. Have players form a circle by taking hands and moving backwards until arms are extended. Players then drop hands, turn so that they are facing outward and put their feet. together. Each stands a peg in front of himself. "It" stands in the circle.

"It" moves about in the circle trying to tag a player whose hand (or finger) is not on a peg. (Players must bend over, not stoop, to touch the peg.) "It" may also knock down an unprotected peg. The owner of a knocked down peg or a tagged player becomes "it." This game is great fun if played fast and fairly.

Peg and Ball Relay. Divide players into two or more equal teams. Then divide each team into two sections. Place the two divisions of each team in file formation and about twenty feet apart. Between the two divisions place a peg in a circle (0).

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The Feast of Ascending on

ANY PAGES could well be ex

tracted from the Chinese

book of life experience by nations considered more advanced and more civilized-especially

Public Information Service
Works Progress Administration
New York City

those concerning the use of leisure and the ways in which high and low, rich and poor in the Orient, enjoy their hours for play.

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Leisure in China is truly re-creation. All the arts and sciences, as well as social graces and physical activities, are called upon to occupy idle time. During the months moons, as they are called there preceding the festival known the length and breadth of the land as the "Feast of Ascending on High," all China thinks, plans, builds kites. This day is the carnival of the wind the ceremony of the kite.

Pioneer in so many inventions, the Chinese should be given credit for the first primitive machine to conquer the air element. The creatures they launch into the sky seem at home. The kites of the Orient live as surely in the air as do our modern airplanes.

Legends are told of the origin of kites some sentimental, and others martial. The general besieged in an ancient Chinese town by hordes of Tarters from the north is said to have invented the kite to communicate his distress to distant allies, and to have laid the foundation of the wigwag system of war communication at the same time. After thousands of years the kite still holds its place in the life of the race; old and young, farmers and artists, coolies and mandarins, not only fly kites but make them, decorate them and on that day of days, the Feast of Ascending on High, travel to the nearest high ground and send aloft their kites.

Kites of All Types Some of the Chinese kites are rarely beautiful; some are grotesque; all are fascinating. Small kites of varied shape soar aloft from children's fingers; huge aerial monsters requiring a dozen men to launch and another crew to control the flying ropes, make the air a vivid, even a gaudy, sight,


especially at the Festival. Kite clubs for adults are as popular there as tennis associations and golf clubs are in America. Guilds of workers and craftsmen often associate themselves in the building and ownership of huge kites, entering into keen rivalry in races with high stakes as the reward of victory.

The kitemaker is not without honor in China. His craft is a profession and the results of his skill are often true "objéts d'art." Dragon-flies a hundred times the size of the originals glide in the air on gauzy wings. Moths, beetles and butterflies sail on high; birds of brilliant plumage make natural kites; bats are huge and more frightening than real ones.

These artist kitemakers are not content to use merely natural denizens of the air. Fish are favored kites because they are bringers of good luck. Imagination plays a part too. Dragons with glistening scales, fifty feet long, controlled by ropes in the hands of twenty men, can be seen in the air. The eyes of the dragon rove and smoke billows out of the nostrils by virtue of cunningly contrived wind power apparatus.

One of the most curious kites is the popularity one. Actors are particularly favored by this form of adulation. Dressed in costumes of their most famous rôles stage favorites float in the air, the kite string held by devoted admirers. An Oriental form of stagedoor worship! Mei Lan Fang, who a few seasons ago brought his ancient art to American theaters, has for many years been honored on festival days.

Kite flying is one of the most thrilling sports of childhood that need not be dropped when maturity is reached. From the craft activity that is fostered by the actual making of the kite in the home to the physical recreation in the open with its manipulation, there is much to recommend this sport as leisure time activity.

"Depressions might fade more quickly
if Occidentals would follow the Chi-
nese philosophy of kites. During the
winter the man who is worried makes
his kite, writes all his woes on its tail,
and on the day of the festival goes
to a hill and literally flies his troubles
away with the kite that he sends
out into the blue! He descends the
hill smiling and without fear; all
his troubles have been flown away!"

There are many simple types of kites which may be made in the home. A boy is apt to prefer the tailed type. Most of the early ones were of that variety. The famous kite with



which Franklin drew electricity from the thunder clouds had a tail, and for the novice at the art of flying them, the tailed kite type is the easiest to manipulate.

The square kite is the one which can be most easily manufactured in the home by the amateur. Because it requires the least effort, is inexpensive to make and very interesting to operate, it has been chosen as the type to be described in this article.

How to Make a Square Type

Wood is used for the framework upon which the square kite is built. In selecting the wood the craftsman should make sure that it is well seasoned and true, that it lies parallel to a flat surface and that there is no buckling along the length.

Take two sticks of equal length. Fifty inches makes a kite of excellent size for the beginner. These sticks should be square with a diameter of three-eighths of an inch. Larger kites will need heavier wood of larger diameters. Having made sure that the selected sticks are seasoned wood and true along their entire length, look for the grain and select sticks with a smooth and even grain. Sandpaper the sides of each stick until they are smooth and velvety to the touch.

These two sticks form the foundation of the kite. The skeleton is made by balancing them exactly across each other so that they form a true right-angled cross at the center. Place the sticks on a flat surface. Then you are prepared for the second operation in making the kite.

Winding the Sticks. This is the winding or binding of the skeleton sticks together at the center where they meet in a right-angled cross. The cross is lashed together with a winding of string. The greatest care should be taken with this lashing to see that it is even and close. However, it must not be too tight or the sticks will buckle at the center. Emphasis should be laid upon the importance of doing kite craft upon a large, flat surface so that buckling will be instantly detected.

In winding kite sticks together the string should be twined evenly and diagonally over both sticks in one operation, and then the process should be reversed. The return windings are made between the sticks and around the other windings. A smooth firm cord, strong rather than heavy, is the best type to use. The craftsman will speedily learn the amount of winding necessary to anchor the sticks in a perfect square at the center without overburdening the kite with bulk. When the cen

ter is firm, tie the ends neatly and slip them under the winding.

A protective coating is now given to the entire winding at the center. Either glue or shellac may be used for this. The coat should be light, covering all the strings of the winding. If the first light coat does not seem to be sufficient to produce a firm center, another coat should be added after the first one has dried. If glue is used, the sticks should be dried under a weight. One caution is pertinent here; no tacks or nails ever should be used to hold the sticks together at the center. They would set up a stress in the framework and prove to be the weak spot that cracks in the wind when the kite is in operation.

To make a true center for the kite is the heart of the craftsman's job, and the quality and performance of the finished kite can be measured by the precision of its center. It must be a true and right-angled cross at this point, well braced by lashing, or the kite will not fly smoothly. If the sticks slip during the process of winding, the wire or cord must be unwound and the winding begun anew. After some trials the craftsman will be able 'to hold this vital center of the frame firm and true as he winds. This is the most important part of the kite to consider. Unless it is perfect the flight of the kite will be neither accurate nor sustained.

The best material to use for the lashing is heavy linen thread; some people use fishing tackle which is fine and strong. Either one makes a firm center that is flat and not bulky.

Outlining the Shape. The next step in the kitebuilding process is to outline the shape of the finished article. This outline is made with wire or string. Any hard twisted cotton cord is suitable for the purpose. This outline should be light, yet strong and wind-resistant. A fine gauge steel wire makes an excellent outline. Piano wire is also very good for the purpose. In making the outline attach one end of the wire to a tip of the framing stick with a slip loop. Keeping the frame flat on a level surface, carry the end of the wire from one point to the next until the circumference of the kite has been described. Be certain that the wire, while not loose, is never so taut that it buckles the frame; it should lie very flat and parallel to the table top on which you are working.

The kite is now ready for the covering.

Covering the Kite.. Many materials can be used for this purpose. There are four reasons why paper is to be preferred: 1. Its lack of weight:

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