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ram shook the gates of the metropo lis." Thus parted Buonaparte and his Chambers of Legislature, he to try his fortune in the field of battle, they to their task of altering and modifying the laws, and inspiring a more popular spirit and air into the enactments he had made, in hopes that the dictatorship of the jacobins might be once again substituted for the dictatorship of the emperor. All men saw that the imperialists and republicans only waited till the field was won that they might contend for the booty; and so little was the nation disposed to sympathize with the active, turbulent, and bustling demagogues by whom the contest was to be maintained against the emperor, that almost all predicted with great unconcern their probable expulsion, either by the sword of Buonaparte or of the Bourbons.

neither of these galling topics to pass unnoticed. He proceeded to school this unmanageable assembly into a respect for the constitution with which they proposed to tamper. "The constitution," he said, "was the pole-star in the tempest." All public discussion tended to diminish the necessary confidence which ought to be reposed in it. Respecting the hint given to him to resist all inducements to foreign conquest, he observed, that the nation had not at present to dread the seductions of victory-they were to struggle for existence. "The crisis in which we are placed is imminent. Let us not imitate the conduct of the Roman empire, which, pressed on all hands by barbarians, made itself the laughing stock of posterity, by occupying itself with the discussion of abstract discussions, while the battering

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CHAP. XIII.

Insurrection of La Vendee.-Motion of Seguevel.-Death of La Roche-Jaquelein, and Capitulation of the Royalists.-Preparations of the Allies.-The Position of their Armies.-Forces of Wellington-Of Blucher-Preparations of Buonaparte.-His Plan of Attack.-He fortifies the Frontier on the Austrian Line.-Calls his best Generals around him.-Concentrates his Army at Avesnes-His Address to them.-Commences the Campaign-Takes Charleroi, and compels Ziethen to retire.-Battle of Ligny under Fleurus-Dreadful Conflict.-Prussians finally defeated.-Imminent Danger of Blucher.-He effects his retreat unmolested.-Ney attacks the Advanced Guard of Wellington at Quatre Bras.--The British Army comes up-Severe Action.-The French take the Wood-But are dislodged by the Guards-And finally compelled to retire. Loss on cùher Side.-The Duke of Wellington retreats-Is pursued by the French.-Skirmish at Genappes.-The British arrive on the Field of Waterloo, and bivouac for the Night.

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ants in the royal cause. Brittainy, Poitou, Anjou, and Maine, were the scenes of a variety of conflicts fought at Aizenai, at Aiquillon, at Legé, in the marshes near St Gilles, and at various other points, between the royalists and the soldiers of Buonaparte, of which the result varied according to circumstances. The object of most of these skirmishes was to secure or intercept the quantities of arms and ammunition which the English vessels landed at different points for the service of the insurgents. The minister at war saw himself compelled to send a considerable body of forces to the scene of action, which were commanded by Generals Lamarque and Travot. They were empowered to treat the insurgents with the utmost severity, and when, after the restoration of Louis, they were in danger of being called to

down their arms on condition of being suffered to live unmolested on their estates. It seemed to be destined that no Frenchman, whatever his situation or principles, should have any direct influence in the second restoration of the Bourbons; as a penalty for their national vanity, which had asserted the first to be their own voluntary deed. Thus ended the affair of La Vendee.

account for various acts of military violence, they justified themselves by producing the instructions of Carnot, which were found to equal in atrocity any that had been issued since the reign of terror. Yet the Chamber of Deputies did not in all respects sanction the severities of the government. When a member, called Leguevel, made a motion for punishing with pains and penalties the royalists of the west, the assembly heard him with patience and approbation propose that the goods and estates of the revolters (whom he qualified as brigands, priests, and royalists,) should be confiscated; but when he added, that not only the insurgents themselves, but their relations in the direct line, whether ascendants, or descendants, should be decla red outlaws, a general exclaniation of horror drove the orator from the tribune.

There is little of general interest in the events of this second war of La Vendee, which was terminated by an action near La Roche-Serviere, in which both parties claimed the advantage, but which was decided against the royalists by the death of the gallant La Roche-Jaquelein. This gentleman possessed all the loyalty and devotion of his gallant brother, who had fallen in the same cause. Like him, he addressed his adherents :— "If I advance, follow me-if I fly, kill me if I fall, avenge me." La Roche-Jaquelein fell, but his followers failed to avenge him. The spirit of the insurgents subsided after his death, and they submitted to BuoJune 26. naparte by an armistice, or capitulation, just when holding out a few days longer would have brought them news of the desperate condition of his affairs. Augustus, brother of the fallen La Roche-Jaquelein, signed the armistice, or rather surrender, by which the chiefs disbanded their followers, and laid

While these events were passing in France, the allies made the most gigantic preparations for the renewal of war. The Chancellor of the Exchequer of England had achieved a loan of thirty-six millions upon terms surprizingly moderate, and the command of this treasure had put the whole troops of the coalition into the most active advance.

The seat of the Congress had been removed from Vienna to Frankfort, to be near the theatre of war. The Emperors of Russia and Austria, with the King of Prussia, had once more placed themselves at the head of their respective armies. The whole French frontier was menaced by immense forces. One hundred and fifty thousand Austrians, disengaged from Murat, might enter France through Switzerland, the Cantons having acceded to the coalition. An army equal in strength menaced the higher Rhine. Schwartzenberg commanded in chief, having under him Bellegarde, and Frimont, Bianchi, and Vincent. Two hundred thousand Russians were pressing towards the frontiers of Alsace. The Archduke Constantine was nominal generalissimo, but Barclay de Tol li, Sacken, Langeron, &c. were the efficient commanders. One hundred and fifty thousand Prussians, under Blucher, occupied Flanders, and were united with about eighty thousand troops in British pay, and others under the Duke of Wellington. There was also to be reckoned the contin

gents of the different princes of Germany, so that the allied forces were grossly computed to amount to upwerds of one million of men. The reader must not, however, suppose, that such an immense force was, or could be, brought forward at once. They were necessarily disposed on various lines for the convenience of subsistence, and were to be brought up successively in support of each other.

The Duke of Wellington's army might contain about thirty thousand English troops. They were not, however, those veteran soldiers who had served under him during the peninsular war; the flower of which had been dispatched upon the Anierican expedition. Most were second battalions, or regiments which had been lately filled up with new re cruits. The foreigners were fifteen thousand Hanoverians, with the celebrated German legion eight thou sand strong, which had so often distinguished itself in Spain; five thousand Brunswickers, under their gallant duke; and about eighteen thousand Belgians, Dutch, and Nassau troops, commanded by the Prince of Orange. Great and just reliance was placed upon the Germans; but some apprehensions were entertained for the steadiness of the Belgian troops. Dis contents prevailed amongst them, which, at one period, broke out in open mutiny, which was not subdued without bloodshed. Most of them had served in the French ranks, and it was feared some of them might preserve predilections and correspondencies dangerous to the general cause. Buonaparte was under the same belief. He brought in his train several Belgian officers, believing there would be a movement in his favour so soon as he entered the Netherlands. But the Flemings are a people of sound sense and feeling

Whatever jealousies might have been instilled into them for their religion and privileges under the reign of a protestant and a Dutch sovereign, they were swallowed up in their ap prehensions for the returning tyranny of Napoleon. Some of these troops behaved with distinguished valour; and most of them supported the ancient military character of the Walloons. The Dutch corps were in general enthusiastically attached to the Prince of Orange, and the cause of independence.

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It had been expected and designed, that the Duke of Wellington's army should receive a large and valuable addition, by a detachment of that Portuguese army, which had been formed by British officers, and distinguished itself under the com mand of the British general. But the jealous or selfish policy of the Portuguese Council of Regency declined to listen to this proposal, although Portugal was at least as much interested as any nation in Europe, in the instant suppression of Napoleon, and his usurped power.

The Prussian army had been recruited to its highest war-establishment, within an incredibly short space of time, after Buonaparte's return had been made public, and was reinforced in a manner surprising to those who do not reflect, how much the resources of a state depend on the zeal of the inhabitants. Their enthusias tic hatred to France, founded partly on the recollection of former inju ries, partly on that of recent success, was animated at once by feelings of triumph and of revenge, and they marched to this new war, as if to a national crusade against an inveterate enemy, whom, when at their feet, they had treated with injudicious clemency. They were, however, deprived of a valuable part of their army by the discontent of the Saxon troops.

were occasioned chiefly by treachery, and especially the delivering up of all the strong places, by order of the Count d'Artois, in his capacity of Lieutenant-General of the kingdom. By this single act, France had lost 12,000 pieces of cannon, mostly of brass, the value of which is estimated at 200,000,000 of francs. This loss, however, had been entirely supplied; the arsenals, magazines of powder, and armouries, were in full activity; and after having armed the national guard and associations, there would remain in the magazines 600,000 muskets in reserve."

A mutiny had broken out among them, when the Congress announced their intention of transferring part of the Saxon dominions to Prussia; much bloodshed had ensued, and it was judged most prudent that the troops of Saxony should remain in garrison in the German fortresses.

Such was the nature and quality of the armies of the allies stationed in the Netherlands.

The means of France to meet and repel so formidable an invasion, were enumerated by Carnot in a report made to the two Chambers on the state of the nation, after the departure of Buonaparte for the army. The result of this document bore, that "on the 1st of April, 1814, the army consisted of 450,000 men, exclusive of 150,000 prisoners, all veteran soldiers, and of 115,000 conscripts of the levy of 1815, of which 45,000 only, out of 160,000, had been raised. The last government, at once prodigal and avaricious, alarmed at its own strength, and essentially hostile to the army, had taken, it was said, every possible means of diminishing it. The orator then described the various oppressions to which the army had been exposed, particularly by the introduction of the emigrants, and which had reduced its number to 175,000 men. Since the 20th of March last, its number had been raised to 375,000 combatants of every description and before the 1st of August, it would amount to 500,000, independent of the national guards. The imperial guards, termed the surest bulwark of the throne in time of war, and its finest ornament in time of peace, had a separate article allotted to it in the official report. The minister condemned the injustice with which it was treated by the last go. vernment, and announced that it already amounted to 40,000 men.

"The losses of artillery had been in a great measure repaired; they

There remained to be added to these large armies, the national guards, amounting probably to a million of armed men, but of whose capacity and zeal for actual service, beyond that of securing the public tranquillity, great doubts might be entertained. Corps of federates were formed in almost all the districts where materials. could be found of which to construct them.

From this immense armed force, Buonaparte had selected a grand army to serve immediately under his own command. The preparations were of the most extensive and formidable nature. The number of the troops amounted to about 150,000 men, as many perhaps as can possibly move in one line of operations, or be conveniently subjected to the imme. diate command of one general-inchief. This army comprehended the imperial guard of all descriptions, and the most chosen and devoted regiments of infantry and cavalry of the line. The cavalry was completed and remounted in such a manner as to excite the surprise of the British officers, who naturally concluded, that after the immense losses of the campaign 1814, Buonaparte must have been deficient both in cavalry and artillery. It was generally supposed

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