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CH A P. XXIII.
Of the Civil Magistrate.
OD, the supreme Lord and King of all the Y world, hath ordained civil magiftrates to be under him over the people, for his own glory and the public good, and to this end, hath armed them with the power of the sword, for the defence and encouragement of them that are good, and for the punishment of evil-doers*.
II. It is lawful for Christians to accept and execute the office of a magistrate, when called thereunto"; in the managing whereof, as they ought especially to maintain piety, justice and peace, according to the wholesome laws of each
I. a Rom. 13. 1. 3, 4. Let wrath upon him that doeth every fuul be subject unto the evil. 1 Pet. 2. 13, 14. Submit higher powers. For there is yourselves to every ordinance no power but of God: the of man for the Lord's fake: powers that be, are ordained of Whether it be to hings as fu. God. For rulers are not a ter- preme;-Or unto governors, tor to good works, but to the as unto them that are sent by evil. Wilt thou then not be him, for the punishment of afraid of the power ? Do that evil-doers, and for the praise of which is good, and thou shalt them that do well. have praise of the fanie :--For II, b Prov. 8. 15. By me he is the minister of God to kings reign, and princes decree thee for good. But if thou do jultice. Verse 16. By me that which is evil, be afraid; princes rule, and nobles, even for he beareth not the sword all the judges of the carth. See in vain : for he is che minister in letter a. of God, a revenger, to execute
commonwealth, ,so, for that end, they may law. fully, now under the New Testament, wage war upon just and neceflary occasions".
III. Civil magistrates may not assume to themselves the administration of the word and facra. ments®; or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven'; or, in the least, interfere in matters of faith'. Yet as nursing fathers, it is
¢ Psalm 82. 3, 4. Defend the the Lord, but to the priests, poor and fatherless: do justice the fons of Aaron, that are to the afflicted and needy.- consecrated to burn incense ; Deliver the poor and needy: go out up the fanctuary, for rid them out of the hand of the thou haft trespassed : neither wicked. 2 Sam. 23. 3. The fall it be for thinç honour (ruin God of Israel said, the Rock of the Lord God. Israel spake to me,
He that f Mat 16. 18, 19. at large. Juleth over men must be just And I will give unto thee che ruling in the fear of God. See keys of the kingdom of hea- 1 Pet 2. 13. let. 2.
ven : and whatsoever thou shalt d Luke 3. 14. And the fol- bind on earth, th Jl be buuud diers likewise demanded of in hcaven : and whatsoever • him, saying, And what shall thou thalt loofe on earth, shall we do? And he said unto them, be loosed in heaven, i Cor. 4. Do violence to no man, neither 1, 2. 1.et a min fu account of accuse any falsely, and be con• us, a: of the ministers of Chrift, tent with your wages.
Mat. and stewards of the mysteries 8.9 and 10. at large. For 1 of God.-Moreover it is re
man under authority, quired in stewards, that a man having soldiers under me: and be found faithful. I say in this inan, Go, and he g John 18. 36. Jesus angoeth; and to anoher, Come, swered My kingdom is not of and he cometh: and to my this world. Mal. 2. 7. For fervant, Do this, and he doeth the priest's lips should keep it. Acts, 10. I, 2.
Rom. 13. knowledge, and they should 4.
seck the law at his mouth ; for III.e 2 Chron. 26. 18. And he is the messenger of the Lord they withstood Uzziah the of hosts. Ads 5. 29. Then king, and said unto him, It Peter and the other apostles appertaineth not unto thee, answered and said, We ought Uzziah, to burn incense unto to obey God rather than men.
the duty of civil magistrates to protect the church of our common Lord, without giving the preference to any denomination of Christians above the rest in such a manner, that all ecclefiaftical persons whatever shall enjoy the full, free, and unquestioned liberty of discharging, every part of their facred functions, without violence or danger". And, as Jesus Christ hath appointed a regular government and discipline in his church, no law of any commonwealth, should interfere with, let, or hinder, the due exercise thereof, among the voluntary members of any denomination of Christians, according to their own profeffion and belief. It is the duty of civil magistrates to pro:ect the person and good name of all their people, in such an effectual manner as that no person be suffered, either upon pretence of religion or infidelity, to offer any indignity, violence, abuse or injury to any other person whatsoever : and to take order, that all religious and ecclefiaftical assemblies be held without moleftation or disturbancek.
IV. It is the duty of the people to pray for
h Isa. 49. 23. And kings phets no harm. Acts 18. 14, shall be thy nursing fathers 15. at large. and their queens thy nursing k 2 Sam. 23. 3.
I Tim. 2. mothers.
J and 2. at large. Rom. 13. 4. i Pfal. 105. 15. Touch not at large. mine anointed, and do niy pro
magistrates', to honour their persons", to pay them tribute and other dues", to obey their lawful commands, and to be subject to their authority, for conscience' sake". Infidelity or difference in religion, doth not make void the inagiftrate's just and legal authority, nor free the people from their due obedience to himn": from which eccle. fiaftical persons are not exempted"; much less hath the Pope any power or jurisdiction over them in their dominions, or over any of their people ;, and least of all to deprive them of their
IV. 1. Tim. 2. I, 2. I ex ready to every good work. hort therefore, that first of all p 1 Pet. 2. 13, 14, 16. Subfupplications, prayers, intercef- mit yourselves to every ordifions and giving of thanks benance of man for the Lord's made for all men: for kings, fake, whether it be to the king and for all that are in authority; as supreme;-Or unto goverthat we may lead a quiet and nors, as unto them that are peaceable life in all godliness sent by him, for the punishand honesty.
ment of evil.doers, and for m 1 Pet. 2. 17. Fear God. the praise of them that do well. Honour the king.
As free, and not using their lin Rom. 13. 6, 7. For, forberty for a cloke of maliciousthis cause, pay you tribute also; nefs, but as the servants of for they are God's ministers Gou. attending continually upon this 4 Rom. 13. 1. very thing.-Render therefore soul be subject unto the higher lo all their dues, tribute to powers.
10, 11. whom tribute is due, custom Then said Paul, I ftand .at sto whom cuftom, fear to whom Cæsar's judgment feat, where fear, honour to whom honour. I ought to be judged; to the
o Rom. 13. 5. Wherefore Jews have I done no wrong, ye must needs be subject, not as thou very well knoweft. only for wrath, but also for For if I be an offender, or have conscience' fake. Tit. 3. 1. committed any thing worthy Put them in mind to be sub- of death, I refuse not to die; jea to principalities and powo , but if there be none of these iers, to obey magistrates, to be things whereof these accuse
together, as man and wife'. The man may not marry any of his wife's kindred nearer in blood than he may of his own, nor the woman of her husband's kindred nearer in blood than of her own'.
V. Adultery or fornication, committed after à contract, being detected before marriage, giveth juft occasion, to the innocent party, to diffolve that contract. In the case of adultery after marriage, it is lawful for the innocent party to fue out a divorce", and after the divorce to marry another, as if the offending party were dead".
i Mark 6. 18. For John Joseph her husband, being a had said unto Herod, It is not just man, and not willing to law ful for thee to have thy bro. make her a public example, ther's wife. Lev. 18. 24, 25, was minded to put her away 26, 27, 28.
privily. But while he thought k Lev. 20. 19, 20, 21. And on these things, hehold the an. thou shalt noc urcover the gel of the Lord appeared unto nal:edness of thy mother's sister, him in a dream, saying, Jo. nor of thy father's filter, for feph thou son of David, fear he uncovereth his near kin; not to take unto thee Mary they shall bear their iniquity. thy wife, for that which is And if a man shall lie with his conceived in her, is of the uncle's wile, he hath uncovered Holy Ghoft. his uncle's 'nakedness; they m Mat. 5. 31, 32. It hath shall bear their fin, they shall been said, Whosoever fall put die childless. And if a man away his wife, let him give shall take his brother's wife, her a writing of divorcenient, ic is an unclean thing : he But I say unto you, that whohath uncovered his brother's foever fall put away his wife, nakedncss, they shall be child- saving for the cause of fornicaless.
tion, causeth her to commit V. 1 Mat. 1. 18, 19, 20. adultery: and whosoever shall Now the birth of Jesus Christ marry her that. is divorced, was on this wife; When as his committeth adultery. mother Mary was espoufed to n Mat. 19. 9. And I say Joseph, before they come to unto you, Whofvever shall put gether, she was found with away his wife, except it be child of the Holy Ghost. Then for fornication, and fall marry