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XENOPHON

ON THE

INSTITUTION OF CYRUS.

Β Ο Ο Κ Ι.

CONTENTS OF BOOK I.

1. Xenophon's opinion of Government-Cyrus, by his conciliatory mode of governing, obtains dominion over
the Medes and many other nations -Xenophon's admiration of Cyrus as a ruler. - 11. Genealogy of Cyrus –
Description of his person and mind-Account of the laws established among the Persians.-III, Conversation
of Cyrus with Astyages his grandfather and Mandane his mother, when only twelve years of age-His opinion
of his father and grandfather-Cyrus's aversion to luxurious living-His opinion of the effects of intemperance.
-IV. Cyrus acquires a great taste for Hunting--His dexterity in that amusement.-V, Is made commander of
the expedition into Media-Description of his army-His harangue to the juvenile part of his soldiers.-
VI. Supplicates the gods for success on his undertaking-His father's discourse to him-His reply to his father.

INSTITUTION OF CYRUS.

BOOK I.

1 I HAVE beretofore considered how many against none sooner than against those whom popular governments have been dissolved by men, they perceive undertaking the government of wbo chose to live under any other sort of go- them. When these things were in my mind, I vernment rather than the popular ; and how came to this judgment on them; that to man many monarchies, and how many oligarchies, it was easier to rule every other sort of creature have been destroyed by the people; and how than to rule man. But when I considered that many of those who have attempted tyrannies there was the Persian Cyrus, who had renderhave, some of them, been instantly and entire ed many men, many cities, and many nations, ly destroyed; and others, if they have conti-obedient to himself, I was necessitated to pued reigning but for any time, have been ad- change my opinion, and to think that the go. mired as able, wise, and happy men. And Ivernment of men was not amongst the things thought I observed many masters, in their own that were impossible, nor amongst the things private houses, some possessing more servants, that are difficult, if one undertook it with unsome but very few, who yet were not able to derstanding and skill. I knew there were those preserve those few entirely obedient to their that willingly obeyed Cyrus, who were many commands. I considered withal that keepers days' journey distant from him; those who were of oxen, and keepers of horses are, as it were, months ; those who bad never seen him ; and the magistrates and rulers of those oxen and those wbo knew very well that they never horses ; and, in general, all those called pastors should see him; yet would they subrnit to his or berdsmen may be properly accounted the government : for be so far excelled all other magistrates of the animals they rule. I saw, I kings, both those that received their dominion thought, all these several herds more willing to by succession, as well as those that acquired it obey their pastors, than men their magistrates; themselves, that the Scythian, for example, for these herds go the way that their keepers though his people be very numerous, has not direct them; they feed on those lands on which been able to obtain the dominion of any other their keepers place them; they abstain from nation, but rests satisfied if he hold but the those from which their keepers drive them; rule of his own; the Tbracian the same; the they suffer their keepers to make what use they Illyrian the same; and other nations, as I have please of the fruits and profits that arise from heard, the same : for the nations of Europe them. Besides, I never did perceive a herd are said to be sovereign and independent of each conspiring against its keepers, either so as not other. But Cyrus, finding in like manner the to obey them, or so as not to allow them the nations of Asia sovereign and independent, and use of the fruits arising from them. Herds setting forward with a little army of Persians, are rather more refractory towards any others' obtained the dominion of the Medes by their than they are towards their rulers, and those own choice and voluntary submission; of the who make profit of them; but men conspire Hyrcanians the same. He conquered the Sy

rians, Assyrians, Arabs, Cappadocians, both | Xenophon's Cyropædia or Institution of Cyrus, Phrygias, the Lydians, Carians, Phænicians, frem external evidence and because it contradicts other and Babylonians. He ruled the Bactrians, bietorians, is not considered as an authentic history, but rather as an historical romance, showing what should be Indians, and Cilicians; in like manner the Sathe conduet of a wise and virtuous tronarch. cians, Paphlagonians, and Megudinians, and

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