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many other nations, whose names one cannot | vanced in age a liberty of living as they please, enumerate. He ruled the Greeks that were do then enjoin their people not to steal, not to settled in Asia ; and descending to the sea, the plunder, not to enter a house by violence, not Cyprians and Egyptians. These nations he to strike unjustly, not to be adulterous, not to ruled, though their languages differed from his disobey the magistrates, and other things in own and from each other; and yet was he able like manner; and, if any transgress, they imto extend the fear of himself over so great a pose punishments on them : but the Persian part of the world as to astonish all, and that no laws, taking things higher, are careful, from one attempted any thing against him. He was the beginning, to provide that their citizens shall able to inspire all with so great a desire of not be such as to be capable of meddling with pleasing him, that they ever desired to be go- any action that is base and vile. And that care verned by his opinion and will. He connected they take in this manner : they have a public together so many nations as it would be a labour place, called from the name of liberty, wbere to enumerate, to whatsoever point one under the king's palace and the other courts and took to direct one's course, whether it were houses of magistrates are built; all things that east, west, north, or south, setting out from his are bought and sold, and the dealers in them, palace and seat of empire. With respect there- their noise and low disingenuous manners, are fore to this man, as worthy of admiration, I banished hence to another place, that the rout have inquired by what birth, with what natural of these may not mix and interfere with the disposition, and under what discipline and edu- decent order of those who are under the inge. cation bred, he so much excelled in the art of nuous discipline. This place, near the public guverning men. And whatever I have learned, courts, is divided into four parts : one is allotor think I know concerning him, I shall endea- ted to the boys, one to the youth, one to the vour to relate.

full-grown men, and one to those who exceed II. Cyrus is said to be descended from Cam- the years of military service. Each of these byses, king of the Persians, as his father.' orders, according to the law, attend in their Cambyses was of the race of the Perseidæ, several parts; the boys and full-grown men as who were so called from Perseus. It is agreed soon as it is day; the elders when they think that he was born of a mother called Mandane; convenient, except on appointed days when and Mandane was the daughter of Astyages, they are obliged to be present; the youth take king of the Medes.' Cyrus is said to have up their rest round the courts, in their light had by nature a most beautiful person, and a arms, all but such as are married ; these are mind of the greatest benignity and love to man- not required to do it, unless beforehand orderkind, most desirous of knowledge, and mosted to attend ; nor is it decent for them to be Ambitious of glory, so as to bear any pain, and absent often. Over each of the orders there undergo any danger, for the sake of praise ; and are twelve rulers, for the Persians are divided he is yet celebrated as such among the barba. into twelve tribes. Those over the boys are rians. Such is he recorded to have been with chosen from amongst the elders, and such as respect to his mind and person; and he was are thought to make them the best boys; those educated under the institutions and laws of the over the youth are chosen from amongst the Persians.

full-grown men, and such as are thought to These laws seem to begin with a provident make the best youth ; and over the full-grown care of the common good; not where those of men, such as are thought to render them the most other governments begin ; for most other most ready to perform their appointed parts, governments, giving to all a liberty of educat. and to execute the orders they receive from the ing their children as they please, and to the ad-chief magistrate. There are likewise chosen

presidents over the elders, who take care that

these also perform their duty. And, that it 1 According to Herodotus, Cambyses was a Persian of obscure origin, to whom Astyages gave his daughter in may appear what means they use to make their narriage. The king had been terrified by dreams which citizens prove the best, I shall now relate what threatened the loss of his crown by the hand of his part is appointed for each degree. daughter's son,-a calamity which he hnped to avert by this means ; but he was eventually dethroned by instruction, pass their time in learning justice;

The boys, who frequent the public places of Cyrus. Astyages' deposition is stated to have been occasioned by his cruelty and oppression.

and tell you that they go for that purpose, as

those with us, who go to learn letters, tell you , use of by their magistrates, in case they want they go for this purpose. Their rulers, for the them for any public service; and when it is most part of the day, continue dispensing jus necessary they all attend about the courts. tiee among them; for as amongst the men, so But when the king goes out to hunt he takes the boys have against each other their accusa- half the guard off with him; and this he does tions for theft, robbery, violence, deceit, and several times every month. Those that go calumny, and other such things as naturally must have their bow and quiver, a smaller sort oecur; and when they fiud any acting unjustly, of sword in its proper scabbard, a shield, and in any of these ways, they punish them; they two javelins; one to throw, and the other, if punish likewise such as they find guilty of false necessary, to use at hand. They are careful accusation; they appeal to justice also in the to keep up these public huntings; and the king, case of a crime for which men hate one another as in war, is in this their leader, hunts himself, excessively, but never bring to the bar of jus- and takes care that others do so; because it tice, that is, ingratitude ; and whomsoever they seems to be the truest method of practising all find able to return a benefit, and refusing to do such things as relate to war. It accustoms it, they punish severely : for they are of opin- them to rise early in the morning, and to bear ion that the ungrateful are careless and neglect. heat and cold; it exercises them in long ful both of the gods, of their parents, of their marches, and in running; it necessitates them country, and of their friends; and ingratitude to use their bow against the beast they bunt, seems to be certainly attended by impudence; and to throw their javelin if he fall in their and this seems to be the principal conductor of way: their courage must, of necessity, be ofmankind into all things that are vile. They ten sharpened in the hunt, when any of the instil into the boys a modest and discreet tem- strong and vigorous beasts oppose themselves ; per of mind; and it contributes much towards they must come to blows with the beast, if he establishing this temper in them, that they see comes up with them, and must be on their every day their elders behaving themselves in guard as he comes on them. So that it is no that discreet and modest manner. They teach easy matter to find what one thing there is that them obedience to their rulers ; and it contri- is practised in war, and is not so in their huntbutes much to their instruction in this, that they ing. They attend this hunting, being provided sce their elders zealously obedient to their rul- with a dinner, larger, indeed, as is but fit, than ers. They teach them temperance with respect that of the boys, but in all other respects the to eating and drinking; and it contributes much same; and during the hunt sometimes, perto this their temperance, to see that their elders haps, they shall not eat it; either waiting for do not quit their stations for the service of the beast, if it be necessary, or choosing to their bellies before the magistrates dismiss spend more time at the work: so they make themr ; and that the boys do not eat with their their supper of that dinner ; hunt again the mothers, but with their teachers, and when the next day, until the time of supper; and reckon magistrates give the signal. They bring from these two days as but one, because they have home with them bread for their food, and a ate the food but of one day. This they do to sort of berb, much in use with them, to eat accustom themselves, that in case it may be with it. And they bring a cup to drink in, that necessary for them in war, they may be able to if any are thirsty, they may take from the river. do it. They of this degree have what they They learn, besides, to shoot with the bow, catch for meat with their bread. If they catch and to throw the javelin. These things the nothing, then they have their usual herb. And boys practise till they are sixteen or seventeen if any one think that they eat without pleasure, years of age; then they enter the order of when they have this herb only for food with youth. The youth pass their time thus : for their bread, and that they drink without pleaten years after they pass from the order of boys, sure when they drink water, let him recollect they take their rests around the courts, as is how pleasant it is to one who is hungry to eat said before, both for the security and guard of plain cake or bread; and how pleasant to one the city, and to preserve in them a modesty who is thirsty to drink water. The tribes that and governableness of temper; for this age remain at home pass their time in practising seems the most to need care. In the day time the things they learned while they were boys, they chiefly give themselves up to be made in shooting with the bow, and throwing the

javelin. These they continue exercising in | excluded from honours and magistracies, but all emulation one against another : and there are are at liberty to send their boys to the public public games, in these kinds, and prizes set; schools of justice. They who are able to mainand in whichsoever of the tribes there are the tain their children idle, and without labour, send most found who exceed in skill, in courage, and them to these schools ; they who are not able, iri obedience, the citizens applaud and honour, do not send them. They who are thus edunot only the present ruler of them, but also the cated under the public teachers are at liberty person who had the instruction of them while to pass through the order of youth ; they who boys. The magistrates likewise make use of are not so educated have not that liberty. They the remaining youth, if they want them, to keep who pass through the youth, fully discharging guard on any occasion, or to search for criminal all things enjoined by the law, are allowed to persons, to pursue robbers, or for any other be incorporated amongst the full-grown men, business that requires strength and agility. and to partake of all honours and magistracies ; These things the youth practise, and when they but they who do not complete their course have completed ten years they enter into the through the order of boys, and through that of order of full-grown men. These, from the the youth, do not pass into the order of the fulltime they leave the order of youth, pass five grown men. They who make their progress and-twenty years in this manner. First, as the through the order of the full-grown men unex. youth, they give themselves up to be made use ceptionable become then the elders ; so the of by the magistrates, on any occasion that may order of elders stands composed of men who occur for the service of the public, and that re- have made their way through all things good quires the service of such as have discretion, and excellent. And this is the form of governand are yet in vigour. If some military expe- ment, by the use of which, they think, they bedition be necessary to be undertaken, they who come the best men. There yet remain things are under this degree of discipline do not en- that bear testimony to the spare diet used gage in it with bows and javelins, but with what among the Persians, and to their carrying it off they call arms for close fight, a corselet about by exercise ; for it is even yet shameful among the breast, a shield in the left hand, such as the them to be seen either to spit or to blow the Persians are painted with, and in the right a nose, or any such matter ; and these things larger sort of sword. All the magistrates are could not possibly be unless they used a very chosen from amongst these, except the teachers temperate diet, and spent the moisture by exof the boys ; and when they have completed ercise, making it pass some other way. five-and-twenty years in this order they are These things I had to say concerning the then something upwards of fifty years of age, Persians in general. I will now relate the acand pass into the order of such as are elders, tions of Cyrus, on whose account this discourse and are so called. These elders are not oblig- was undertaken, beginning from his being a ed to attend any military service abroad, but boy. remaining at home, have the distribution of III. Cyrus, till twelve years of age, or little public and private justice; have judgment of more, was educated under this discipline, and life and death, and the choice of all magistrates; appeared to excel all his equals, both in his and if any of the youth or full-grown men fail quick learning of what was proper, and in his in any thing enjoined by the laws, the phy- performing every thing in a handsome and in larchs, or magistrates of the tribes, or any one a manly way. At that time Astyages sent for that will make discovery of it, the elders hear his daughter and her son ; for he was desirous the cause, and give judgment on it; and the to see him, having heard that he was an excelperson so judged and condemned remains infa- lent and lovely child. Mandane therefore came mous for the rest of his life.

to her father, and brought her son with her. That the whole Persian form of government As soon as they arrived, and Cyrus knew Asmay the more plainly appear, I return a little tyages to be his mother's father, he instantly, back; for, by means of what has been already as being a boy of great good-nature, embraced said it may now be laid open in a very few him, just as if he had beer bred under him, words. The Persians are said to be in num- and had long bad an affection for him : and ber about twelve myriads, or a hundred and observing him set out and adorned, with his eyes twenty thousand; of these none are by law and complexion painted, and with false hair,

things that are allowed amongst the Medes (for things.”“What ground,” replied Astyages," have the purple coat, the rich babit called candys, you to say so!” “ Because," said he," when you collars about the neck, and bracelets about the touch your bread, I see you do not wipe your bands, all belonging to the Medes; but amongst hands on any thing; but, when you meddle with the inbabitants of Persia, even at this day, their any of these, you presently clean your hands on babits are much coarser, and their diet much your pkin, as if you were very uneasy to have plainer)-observing this dress of his grandfa-them daubed with them." To this Astyages is ther, and looking at him, he said : “O mother, said to have answered : “ Well, child, if this be how bandsome is my grandfather!" And his your opinion, eat heartily of plain meats, that you mother then asking him which he thought the may return young and healthy home;" and at bandsomer, either his father or his grandfather, the same time he is said to have presented to Cyrus answered : “ Of the Persians, mother, him various meats, both of the came and wild my father is much the bandsomest; and of all kinds. Cyrus, when he saw this variety of meats, the Medes that I have seen, either on the road is reported to have said : “ And do you give or within the city, this grandfather of mine is me all these meats, grandfather, to do with much the handsomest.” Astyages, then em- | them as I think fit ?” “Yes,truly, I do,” said Asbracing Cyrus, in return put on him a fine tyages : then Cyrus, taking of the several meats, robe, bonoured him, and set him out with col. is said to have distributed around to the servants iars and bracelets ; and, whenever he went about his grandfather, saying to one, " this for abroad, carried him with him, mounted on a you, because you take pains to teach me to borse with a bridle of gold, and such as he used ride : this for you, because you gave me a jahimself to appear abroad on. Cyrus being a velin ; for I have it at this time : this for you, boy much in love with what was fine and ho- because you serve my grandfather well: this nourable, was pleased with the robe, and extreme- for you, because you honour my mother :” and ly delighted with learning to ride ; for amongst that thus he did till be distributed away all he had

the Persians, it being difficult to breed horses, received. Astyages is then reported to have ! and even difficult to ride, the country being said : “And do you give nothing to this Sacian,

mountainous, it is a rare thing to see a horse. my cup-bearer, that I favour above all ?” This But Astyages being at table with his daughter, Sacian was a very beautiful person, and had the and with Cyrus, and being desirous to treat the honour to introduce to Astyages any that had boy with all possible delight and pleasure, that business with him, and was to hinder those he night the less miss what he enjoyed at home, ) that he did not think it seasonable to introduce. set before him several dishes, with sauces and Cyrus to this is said to have answered, in a pert

meats of all kinds ; on which Cyrus is reported manner, as a boy not yet struck with the sense ! to have said: “What a deal of business and of shame ; “ For what reason is it, grandfather,

trouble, grandfather, have you at your meals, that you favour this Sacian so much?” Astyif you must reach out your hands to all ages replied, in a jesting way: “Do not you these several dishes, and taste of all these kinds see,” said be,“ how bandsomely and neatly he of meats !” “ What, then," said Astyages, “ do pours me my wine?" For these cup-bearers to hot you think this entertainment much finer kings perform their business very cleverly; than what you have in Persia ?" Cyrus is said they pour out their wine very neatly, and give to have replied : “ No, grandfather ; with us we the cup, bearing it along with three fingers, and have a much plainer and readier way to get sat present it in such a manner, as it may best be isfied than you have ; for plain bread and meat received by the person who is to drink. “Grandsuffices for our meal ; but you, in order to the father," said Cyrus, “ bid the Sacian give me the same end, have a deal of business on your hands; cup, that pouring you your wine to drink, I may and, wandering up and down through many gain your favour if I can." Astyages bade the mazes, you at last scarce arrive where we have Sacian give him the cup; and Cyrus taking it, got long before you.” But, child," said As. is said to have washed the cup as he had obsertyages, “ it is not with pain that we wander ved the Sacian to do; and settling his countethrough these mazes; taste," said he, “and you nance in a serious and decent manner, brought will find that these things are pleasant.” “Well, and presented the cup to his grandfather in such but, grandfather,” said Cyrus, “I see that you a manner as afforded much laughter to his mother yourself have an aversion to these sauces and I and to Astyages. Then Cyrus, laughing out,

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leaped up to his grandfather, and kissing him, then, when he came to supper, I wo cried out : “ O Sacian, you are undone! I will him that he was bathing :' and if he w turn you out of your office: I will do the busi- pressing for his victuals, I would tell h ness better than you, and not drink the wine be was with the women :' and so on, t myself.” For these cup-bearers, when they have tormented him as he torments me w given the cup, dip with a dish and take a little keeps me from you." Such like sul out, which, pouring into their left hand, they mirth did he afford them at meals : swallow; and this they do, that, in case times of the day, if he perceived bis grar they mix poison in the cup, it may be of no ad. or his mother's brother in want of any vantage to themselves. On this Astyages, in was a difficult matter for any one to be a jesting way, said : “ And why, Cyrus, since hand with him in doing it : for Cyrus you have imitated the Sacian in every thing tremely delighted to gratify them in ar else, did not you swallow some of the wine ?” that lay in his power. But when N “ Because, truly,” said he, “ I was afraid there was preparing to return home to her h had been poison mixed in the cap; for when Astyages desired her to leave Cyrus wi you feasted your friends on your birthday, I She made answer that she was willing to plainly found that he had poured you all poi- her father in every thing; but to le

“ And how, child,” said he, “ did you child against his will she thought har know this ? ” “ Truly,” said he, “ because I this occasion Astyages said to Cyrus : saw you all disordered in body and mind: for, if you will stay with me, in the first pl first, what you do not allow us boys to do, that Sacian shall not have the command you did yourselves ; for you all bawled toge. access to me; but, whenever you come, ther, and could learn nothing of each other : be in your own power; and the ofter then you fell to singing very ridiculously; and will come,” said be, " the more I sha without attending to the singer, you swore he myself obliged to you. Then you sha sung admirably : then every one telling stories the use of all my borses, and of as man of his own strength, you rose up and fell to as you please ; and, when you go aw: dancing; but without all rule or measuse, for shall take as many of them as you plea you could not so much as keep yourselves up- you : then, at meals, you shall take wł right: then you all entirely forgot yourselves; you please to get satisfied in what you you, that you were king, and they, that you temperate way: then all the several cr were their governor; and then, for the first that are now in the park I give you ; a tine, I discovered that you were celebrating a besides collect more of all kinds, th festival, where all were allowed to talk with may pursue them when you have le: equal liberty; for you never ceased talking.” ride, and with your bow and javelin la Astyages then said: “Does your father, child, prostrate on the ground, as grown m never drink till he gets drunk ?” “ No, truly,” Boys I will furnish you with for playfe said he ? “ What does he then.” “ Why, he and whatever else you would have, do quenches his thirst, and gets no farther harm; me, and you shall not go without." Whe for, as I take it, grandfather,” said he, “it is no tyages had said this, Cyrus' mother aske Sacian that officiates as cup-bearer about him." whether he would go or stay. He did His mother then said : " But why, child, do you all hesitate, but presently said that he make war thus on the Sacian ?" Cyrus to this stay. And being asked by his mother t? is said to reply : “ Why, truly, because I hate son why, it is said that he made answer : him ; for very often, when I am desirous to cause, mother, that at home, both at th run to my grandfather, this nasty fellow hin- and javelin, I am superior to all of equ ders me.

Pray, grandfather," said he, “ let me with me, and am so reckoned; but here, but have the government of him but for three know that in horsemanship I am their in days." “ How would you govern him ?” sa and be it known to you, mother, this g Astyages. Cyrus replied : “ Why, standing as me very much. But if you leave me her he does, just at the entrance, when he had a I learn to be a borseman, then I reckor mind to go in to dinner, then would I tell him when I am in Persia I shall easily master that he could not possibly have his dinner yet, there, who are so good at all exercises on because : "he was busy with certain people" and when I come amongst the Medes I

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