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or, as it is pronounced in Scotland, and the North of Ireland, nian, a daughter.
117. It seems most convenient to treat of the several kinds of pronouns separately, though it may occasion some repetition; as the use of them is more clearly shewn thus, than by attempting to reduce them to general rules.
118. The anomaly, in the use of these pronouns, was probably introduced, for better sound's sake, and after. wards committed to writing. In the Scottish Galic, inn, ibh, &c. are much more frequently used, as nomina- : tives.
119. This might be variously expressed in Irish; thus, is e an ni a dfag me a nocht faci bbròn, a bheith ann aonar. indiaigh chaich, the thing that left me this night in sorrow, is to be alone after all.
120, 121. A distinction is observed in the use of these compound pronouns. Liom is used to denote mental affection only; but agam, and orm, relate both to mind, and body.
122. As there is nothing, in the Irish language, in which learners are apt to find more difficulty, than in the use of the emphatical increase, the closest attention to these rules is necessary. There is a remarkable analogy between the emphatical Greek particle y, added to pronouns, and the increase, in the Irish language.
123. This is agreeable to the principle of the most polished languages, in which these pronouns alone never can follow the verbs with which they agree. 124. The use of the personal terminations is very
inconsiderable, in those parts of Ireland that are adjacent to Scotland. In the latter country they are now little used. But in ancient writings they are continually used. And, in the south and west of Ireland, they are so frequent, in the mouths of the common people, that it occasions a considerable difficulty to an illiterate native of the north in understanding them.
125. The pronoun is never used in the first and second persons of the consuetudinal, after da; as, da mbuailfinu, had I struck; da mbuailfeadh, hadst thou struck.
126. This corresponds exactly to the absolute case, in other languages; but it is much more frequently used, in Irish. For wherever the word when can be used with a noun, or pronoun, in English, it may be turned in this manner, in Irish ; as, when the old man heard that, aga gcloinsin sin don tseanduine. 127. This form of expression is much more common,
in Irish, than in any modern language; and corresponds remarkably with the idiom of the Greek language.
128. There is a considerable latitude in the use of this expression. When any thing is to be expressed positively, or definitively, the consuetudinal form is bardly ever used.
129. This corresponds exactly with the second supine, in Latin; as, greanmhar le faicsin, dulce visu, pleasant to see, or to be seen.
130. It is not easy to account for this distinction between masculines and feminines; and, although generally used, it appears almost entirely arbitrary.
131. Chum, for the purpose, is commonly used before the infinitive; as, chuaidh se chum contas a thabhairt, he went to give an account. In rapid speaking, the sign do, or a, is omitted before the infinitive; as, ni tharla dbamh a leitbid siu fhaicsin ariamh, I never happened to see the like. And this elliptical form has been adopted io writing also.
132. Even nouns, and adjectives, are sometimes used in the same manner as refected verbs; as, ta me mo shuan, I am (in) my sleep; bbi me mo thoirchinn suain, I was (in) my drowsy sleep, or rest.
133. There were some auxiliary verbs in use, anciently, which it is useless to enumerate here, as they are not met with, in any recent manuscript, or publication.
134. This distinction must be considered as purely logical; it is a very nice one, yet the native and illiterate Irish never err in the use of it,
135. May there not be an ellipsis of some noun, after ann? Or is ann bere equivalent to the Greek oy, being?
136. This is upon the same principle, that monosyllabic adjectives, prefixed to their nouns, aspirate them. See page 95, rule 5*.
137. Passive verbs are not susceptible of any influence from particles.
138. This dative, however, is not governed by the adverb, but by the preposition do, to, which follows it; as, angar don teine, near the fire.
139. This ablative is governed by de, of, ag, at, as, out of, or the like, by which the adverb is followed.
140. There is some variety, in the different provinces of Ireland, with respect to the prepositions that aspirate, &c. according to the ear of the speaker; but it is impossible to specify these local varieties.
141. The influence of iar, in this place, is the same as upon yerbs. See note 137.
142. Re, with, was commonly written, some time since; and still is, in the Scottish Galic; having the same infinence with le.
·143. It is evident, that the genitive here is governed by the noun, which forms the principal part of these expressions,
144. This is a licence taken, for sound's sake, deviating from strict orthography, but commonly received, in speaking, and writing
145. “ When two or more nouns, coupled by a conjunction, are governed by a preposition, it is usual to repeat the préposition before each noun; as, air fad agus air leithead, in length and in breadth.” Stewart, 165. :
146. The influence of some other conjunctions varies, according to the idiom of the place, but the only authentic and original ones are here expressed.
147. It is not uncommon to say, a thiarna Dia, or a thiarna, a Dhe; but the first of these expressions is ungrammatical, and the latter is only a distinct vocative.
148. The adjective, being joined to the noun, is aspirated in this case; and the pronoun may be aspirated or not, according to the ear of the speaker.
END OF PART I.