Imatges de pÓgina


From le, along with, or together with.

Plural 1 liom, with me

1 linn, with us 2 leat, with thee

2 lib, with you s mas. leis, with him 3 leo, with them, (33) S | fem. leite, with her

From air, upon.

Plural 1 orm, upon me

1 oruinn, upon us 2 ort, upon thee

2 oruib, upon you s mas. air, upon him S orra, upon them, (34) 3 fem. uirre, upon her

From de, from, off

1 diom, from me 1 dinn, from us
2 diot, from thee

2 dib, from you
Smas. de, from him 3. diob, from them
{ fem. di, from her

From roime, before.

Plural 1 romam, before me 1 romuinn, before us 2 romad, before thee 2 romuib, before you

sma. roime, before him 3 rompa, before them 3 fe. roimpe, before her

From tar, beyond, or over,
Singular !

1 thorum, torin, over me 1 torainn, over us
2 torad, tort, over thee 2 toruib, over you

stairis, over him 13 torra, over them
| tairste, over her

From ua, from.

Plural 1 uaim, from me

1 uainn, from us 2 uait, from thee 2 uaib, from you

Smas. uad, from him 3 uadfa, from them 3 fem. uaite, from her.


From um, about, or upon, as cloaths, &c.

1 umam, about me 1 umuinn, about us
2 umad, about thee

2 umuib, about you S mas. uime, about him s umpud, about them

fem. uimpe, about her



Personal, possessive, and compound pronouns, take an additional syllable, when used with a particular emphasis; or placed in contra distinction to each other. (35).

In personal and compound pronouns,' if the last vowel be broad, sa is added to the first; second and third person feminine of the singular; and to the second person plural; but se'is added, if the last vowel be small.

In like manner san or sean is added to the third person masculine, singular, and to the third

person plural.

Ne is added to the first person plural: as,

Dam, to me, danisa, to myself; duit, to thee, duitse, to thyself; sinn, 70, sinne, ourselves; è, he, esean, himself; me I, mise, myself: i, she, ise, herself; liom, with me, liomsa, with myself; linn, with us, linne, with ourselves.

In this manner decline all the personal and compound pronouns, except in the genitive case; for,

Possessive pronouns require the increase to be made in the nouns that are joined with them; as, lam, a hand, mo lamsa, my own hand; or if that noun be followed by an adjective, the increase is made in that adjective; as, mo lam gcalsa, my white hand.

In this manner decline, Mo ceann dub, my black head. a leabar, his book. ar natair, our father. a gcosa duba, their black feet. bur şuile arda, your lofty eyes. (36)

V E R B. Verbs are of three kinds, Active, Passive, and Neuter or Reflected.

There are seven variations of the Verb, as to signification; viz, the Imperative, and Infinitive Moods, Participles, Indicative, Potential, Optative and Subjunctive Moods.

There are four variations of the Verb, as to time; viz. the Present, Preter, Consuetudinal, and Future Tenses. (37)

Conjugation of the Auxiliary, Bi, be.



Plural 1

v 1 Biodhmaoid, biodh sinn, let us be 2 Bi, be thou

2 Bigidhe, or biodh sibh, be ye 3 Biodhse, let him be

let him be 3 Bidis, or biodh siad, let then be The negative be not, &c. is formed by prefixing na to each person; as, na bidis, or na bíod siad, let them not.


Do bheith, or a bheith, to be,

Negative gan a bhenh, not to be. (38)





hading US le bheith, or about to
been } ar ti bheith, {be. (39)

or a bheith; being} larmbeith,


TN 37.

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Present Tense. Affirmative.

Plural 1 Ataim, ata me, I am

| Atamoid, ata sinn, we are 2 Ataoir, ata tu, thou art 2 Ataoi, ata sibh, ye are 3 Ata, ata se, he is

3 Ataid, they are


Plural 1 Taim, la me, I am

Tamoid, ta sinn, we are 2 Tais, ta tu, thou art

2 Ta, ta sibh, ye are 3 Ta, ta se, lue is

3 Ta, ta siad, they are. (40)
Present, Negative.

1 Ni bhfuilim, niel me, I am Ni bhfuil sinn, ni bhfuilmid,

or nielmid, we are not 2 Ni bhfuilir, niel tu, thou art 2 Ni bhfuilti, ni bhfuil sibh,

niel sibh, ye are not 3 Ni bhfuil se, niel se, he is 3 Ni bhfuil siad, niel siad, not

they are not Present. Interrogative. Singular

Plural | Bhfuil me? am I?

1 Bhfuilmid? bhfuil sinn? are 2 Bhfuil tu? bhfuilir? art thou?

2 Bhfuil sibh? are ye? 3 Bhfuil se? is he?

3 Bhfuil siad? are they? (41)
Preter Tense. Affirmative.

Do bhios, do bhi me

S Dobhiomur, do bhi sinn,

Do bhadhas, do bha me

do bhamur, do bha sinn,
was, or I have been

we were, or have been
S Do bhidhis, do bhi tu 2 Do bhi sibh, do bha sibh,
do bhadhais, do bha tu

ye were, or have been thou wast, or hast been


s 3 Do bhi se, do bha se, he was, or has been

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{ {

{ do bhadar, do bha siad;}

they were, or have been


we were not


Plural 1 Bhios, bhi me, I was, or

1 Bhiomur, bhi sinn, we were, have been

or have been 2 Bhidhis, bhi tu, thou wast, 2 Bhi, bhi sibh, ye were, or or hast been

have been 3 Bhi, bhi se, he was, or has 3 Bhi, bhi siad, they were, or been

have been. (42) Preter. Negative. Singular

Plural 1 Ni rabhas, ni raibh me, 1 Ni rabhamar, ni raibh sinn,

was not 2 Ni raibh tu, thou wast not 2 Ni raibh sibh, ye were not 3 Ni raibh se, he was not 3 Ni raibh siad, they were not.

(43) Preter. Interrogative. Singular

Plural 1 Raibh me? was I? or have 1 Raibh sinn? were we? &c. I been?

2 Raibh sibh? were ye? &c. 2 Raibh tu? wast thou ? &c. 3 Raibh siada were they? &c. 3 Raibh se? was he? &c.

Consuetudinal Tense. Afirmative.

Plural 1 Bim, I am usually

Bidhmid, biann sinn, we are 2 Biann tu, thou art usually usually 3 Biann se, he is usually 2 Biann sibh, ye are usually

3 Biann siad, they, &c. (44) The negative I am not usually, &c. is formed by prefixing ni to each person; as, ni bhim, ni bhiann tu, &c.

The interrogative are you usually ? &c. is formed by prefixing m to each person; as, mbiann tu? mbiann se? &c. (45)

Future Tense. Affirmative.

Plural 1 Beich, beidh me, I shall be 1 Beidhmid, beidh sinn, we 2 Beir, heidh tu, thou shalt be shall be 3 Beidh, beidh se, he shall be 2 Beidh, beidh sibh, ye, &c.

3 Beidh, beidh siad, they shall

be. (46)


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