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ginal rude Aate. Till lately, the commerce on the manners and morals, Portugueze were the only pation that, on the fecurity and happiness, of the with their subjugation, had attempt. Africans, has begun to be perceived ed their improvement. The Portü. by the natives themselves ; many of gueze did not contine thentselves to whom, though occasionaly engaged trading factories, but formed large in the slave trade, have expreffed their colonies under a regular government joy at the prospect of its abolition. on the coasts. They attempted to in. They not only complain of the frauds ftruct the natives in the cultivation and the impofitions of the whites, but of their foil, and taught them a reli of the general infecurity they have gion which tended to soften their introduced. So early as the year manners as well as to reform their 1787, the chief of Almammy not morals. In Loango, Congo, Angola, only prohibited the five-trade in his and Benguila, they have been fo fe- own territories, but refused to allow dulous in the conversion of the ne- the French to march their flaves from groes, that they are believed to have Gallam through his country, so that made them better Chriftians than they were obliged to change their themselves. From Benin, Guinea, route. As a Marabout, having in his and Negritia, they were expelled by youth received an education fuperior the other European powers, co ope to that of other black princes, he rating with the natives, before their rendered himself entirely independent establishments had acquired folidity of the whites, ranfomed his subjects They have ftill various factories in when seized by the Moors, and enthese countries; and, at different couraged them to raise cattle, to culplaces of the coałt, a mongrel race tivate the land, and to practise all are found, who boaft their Portu kinds of industry. Falconbridge's gueze extraction, though they have character of the negroes is unqucf. adopted the manners of the negroestionably juft : “ They feaft,” said he, and their modes of life. In colour « round graves ; and were they to they are hardly diftinguishable from “ see their country in flames, they the darkest negroes; a fact which '" would cry, let it burn, without in. feems to show, that Loropeans, adopt. " terrupting their singing, dancing, ing the negro manner of life, would or drinking. They are equally-inin time acquire the 'negroe hue. In « sensible of grief and nect flity: They several of these countries, the Portu- "sing till they dic, and dance into gucze miffions, from the want of a “ the grave." In spite of this infen. steady and perfevering support, have fibility, or rather levity of character, experienced a great declination of in- they have learned to estimate the fuence. Their nation, however, has character of the traders. Though the credit of trading in Africa pro those who are immediately concerned duce to greater extent than any other in the slave trade fay, nation, and of carrying on the lave- * good for black man to love white trade with as much humanity as it is man, and not hurt but make trade poflible to unite with so inhuman à " with him, because white man's ships traffic. Their fave-veffels are never “bring all the good things and strong crowded, and are navigated chiefly " liquors into black mani's country;" by black mariners, who sympathize yet the most discerning fcruple not to more with the sufferings of their declare, that wherever white maa countrymen than the white fore comes, the comes a {word, a gun. the flaves are shipped, they are cate powder, and ball

. They are defirous chized and receive the rite of haptism. of educating their children in white The pernicious effets of Eurupean man's falhion, that he may read book

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and learn to be rogue, so well as white -tions, to regard with extreme fufpiman; for, say they, if white man not cion the introduction of every species read, he be no better rogue than black of commercial speculation into those

systems of colonizacion which have Thus it appears that all inter- been founded upon principles of hucourse with the negroes, as it has manity. But surely every method, been carried on upon commercial by which the curiotity of the favage * -principles, has tended uniformly to may be rouzed, and his industry ex

the debasement of their understand- cited, without calling his malevolent ings, and the degradation of their paffions into exertion, mutt ultimately moral nazures ; every kiod of connec. tend to the amelioration of his social tion has been fatal, like the touch of ftate. Agriculture is the principle of the putrid fide of the gigantic devil, vitality in a colony, but the producin which the negroes of Anto, on the tion of the raw materials of manuGold Coast, believe. This circum- facture, or the acquisition of the maHance has induced some of the friends terials of exchange and barter, conti. of humanity, who have interested them- tutes its credit,, and creates its inselves in the fate of the African pa- fluence as a province or a pation.

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THE SWEDISH DESIGN OF AN

AGRICULTURAL COLONT IN AFRICA-CHARACTER OT WADSTROM.

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FROM
ROM the discovery of Welt A. of carrying into execution the firkt

frica by the Portugueze to the agricultural establishment, for in-
latter part of the 18th century, the fructing the negroes in the cultiva-
fame iniquitous commercial princi- tion of their fertile foil, and teaching
ples continued to regulate the inter- them to avenge their wrongs on the
course of white men with their fable abettors of Navery, by rearing a bul-
brethren, to degrade the negro, and wark for freedom in the Land of
disgrace the European. The immenfe Slaves.
edifice of lavery Atill continued to The Swedish defign of establishing
insult the eyes of the sons of freedom ; a colony in Africa, which, by its ori-
and, undeterred by the groans of an- ginal organization, might exclude
guilh, the clanking of chains, and the every political, financial, and mercan-
echo of the whip that resound through tile principle, which appeared to be
the pile, free men wounded deeply inconsistent with the happiness of
the liberties which they boatted, by mankind, though it only terminated
assuming the lash of the task malter. in exploring a part of that continent,
Who firft attempted to demolish the originated in the purest and most dif-
infernal prison-house, and to raise interested motives. In the year 1779,
over its ruins the temple of freedom fome members of a society, formed
Who first attempted to vindicate-in- for diffusing those principles of civi.
fulted humanity, and to burst the lization which appeared to be best
chaing which the sanction of ages had calculated for promoting social order
rivetted? The Swedish nation may and general happiness, met at Nor-
claim the glory of forming the first kioping in Sweden, to consider the
specific plan for alleviating the evils colonization and cultivation of waste
which the inbuman man-trade has lands in Europe, upon philaothropi.
occalioned in Africa; and the Danes cal principles. What seemed imprac.

ticable

ticable in Europe, from the jarring journey to Paris, where, through the interests and fluctuating politics of representations of Baron Stael von her powers,-the erection of a com. Holstein, Swedish ambassador, after munity, who might have the privilege fome delay, they procured from the of enacting its own laws, coining of Marefchal de Caftries, minister at war iis own money, and exempting its and of the colonies, orders to the fumembers from imprisonment for perintendants of all the French facdebt, --was deemed practicable on tories, as well as their consuls on the the western coast of Africa. To the coast of Barbary, to afford them every execution of this plan, which had a possible affistance at the expence of more extensive object than even the government. They failed from Havre emancipation of the negro race, the de Grace, in August 1787, and armost formidable obstacle appeared to rived at Goree about the end of the be the opposition which it would ne- rainy season, where they were receffarily receive from the slave-trade; ceived by the Chevalier de Boufflers a specific plan was however forined, with the utmost politeness. His de. and a charter, empowering 40 fami- Parture to Europe, soon after their lies to settle on the western coast of arrival, rendered abortive their exAfrica, under the protection of Swe. pectations of affittance from the agents den, to organise their own govern- of the Senegal Company, who refused ment, to enact their own laws, and to furnish them with those goods to eftablish a fociety entirely inde which were absolutely necessary for pendent of Europe, was procured their proposed expedition into the infrom his Swedish Majesty Gufavus terior parts of the country. The geIll. through the influence of the neral war, which the rapacious and Chamberlain Ulric Nordonkiold. The oppressive monopoly exercised by the only conditions annexed to those pri. Senegal Company, whose cupidity vilèges were, that the society should even extended to parrots and natural defray the expences of their expedi- curiofities, had provoked the most sion and eftablishment, and not in- powerful negro nations to declare fringe the territories pofseffed or against the French, rendered the inclaimed by other European powers. terior entirely inaccessible. These unThe esecution of this plan was, for expected and irrefiltible eventsobliged fome time, retarded by the American Waditrom and his companions to rewar; but, as it was judged expedient, turn to Europe, with the observations as a preparatory itep, to explore Weit they had made on the coast, and the Africa, the Association entered into oral information they had been able engagements with the mercantile to procure concerning the interior house of M. Chauvell of Havre de regions. Grace, to conduct an expedition of That the Swedish design of agri. discovery at their joint expence. In cultural colonization proved abortive, this expedition embarked Wadstrom, must be regretted by every person of who was an enthufiaft with respect to humanity; for, though it originated colonization ; Sparrman and Arrhe- in ideas of extravagant philanthropy, nius, who were enthusiasts in natural depended for its fupport upon persons fcience ; while the enthusiasm of their of opposite views, and could never joint employer. M Chauvell, coinci. have realized the fanguine expectaded entirely with the financial views tions of the founders ; yet, when we of his Swedish Majesty, who loved consider the rude fimplicity of the gold much better than any other na. Africans, the romantic nature of the tural production. These adventurers plan was perhaps the very circumleft Swiden in May 1787, on their ilance which would have ensured its

success.

success. The exclusion of artificial referred to in the parliamentary de: credit, a practice fo averse to the ideas bates. The opinions he delivered conof Europeans, would not shock the cerning the abolition of the flaveprejudices of Africans, among whom trade, and the eftablishment of phi. the rights of property are vague and lanthropic colonies, gave rise to the indeterminate; and peculiarity of settlements of Sierra Leona and Bou. customs, when once introduced, would lama, which may be considered as be the most powerful support of the monuments erected to humanity, by institution. A fyftem, approximating the friends of mankind. During his to equality of property, could have stay in London, the war between produced in an infant colony none of Russia and Sweden commenced, and those violent convulsions that have deprived him of all hopes of aslistance deprived the French of every possible in his colonial project from that quar, adyantage that could have accrued ter; but, ai the same time, a much from the destruction of despotism, more favourable prospect opened in and united the name of liberty with England, Wadstrom's applications to every epithet of horror and detefta. the British ministry were so effection.

tually supported by perions of the first Charles Berns Waditrom was born respe&tability, that, in 1789, a vessel at Stockholm in the year 1746. After was ordered to be equipped for an finishing his academical studies, he expedition to discover the beit fitua. entered as engineer into the service tions for colonies on the western coast of his Swedilh Majefty. From his of Africa. This voyage was interknowledge in mechanics and minera rupted by the contest with spain conlogy, a part of the works that were cerning Nootka Sound; and after erecting, in order to render navigable Captain Roberts had waited a confithe cataract of Trochaitta, was confi- . derable time for orders, he was ordered ded to his care, in 1767 and 1768. to fail on a secret expedition. In In 1769, he was employed in con- 1789 he published a small tract, comduding the working of the copper. piled from his journals, entitled, mines at Arvidaberg. He was after- Gs Observations on the Slave-trade, wards engaged in the direction of " in a voyage to the coast of Guinea,'' various establishments, and had fre. containing much interesting informaquent personal intercourse with the tion concerning his African expediKing of Sweden, before his African tion. From the year 1799, to the expedition. At his return to Europe, commencement of the Republican Arrhenius went directly to Sweden; war. the precarious state of Europeare but Wadftrom, with his friend Sparr. politics prevented him from forming man, went to London, where the any new colonial arrangements, and queition of the abolition of the flave- death terminated all his plans before tiade had begun to be agitated in the peace of Europe was restored, Parliament. They were summoned But during the interval between his before the British Privy Council, and death and his return from Africa, he repeatedly examined. Waditrom, did not renounce his favourite scheme who had obtained permiffion to re

of colonization Having, while he main in England during this import. resided in Africa, been struck with ant discussion, produced the journal the inclination of the Negroes to spin of daily transactions which he had and weave cotton, and having been kept in Africa, to vouch for the fi. surprised at their perseverance and delity of his report. His evidence success, with the most imperfect ma. was considered as highly curious, chinery, he engaged in the cottonuseful, and interesting, and frequently manufacture at Manchester, in order to acquire such a knowledge of the pectations and fimplicity of heart, business as might qualify him for in- often made him the dupe of his own ftructing the natives of Africa. In credulity. It is now the fashion 'to 1794, he published in 4to, “ An'ef- decry, with every term of virulence, " say on colonization, particularly and in one indiscriminate mafs, all “ applied to the weitern coast of i those who approve, or have approved «frica, wi-h fume free thoughts on of the French Revolution," Yet, * cultivation and commerce, and brief surely, there were many persons of “ descriptions of the colonies already the pureft benevolence, of the most « formed, or attemp cd.” Of this humane and upright views, perfons work, Buonaparte is said to have whose souls were fickened by concarried a copy with him, when he de templating, with vain regret, the mi. parted on his Egyptian expedition. series and wretchednefs, which they As the difficulty of communication could aot relieve, who beheld its combetween France and England render- ' mencement with fupreme pleasure, ed it almost impoffible to procure a its progress, at first, with anxiety and copy, he was presented with the only chagrin, and afterwards with deep remaining one in the poffeffion of deteftation and abhorrence. It is the author, then residing at Paris. cqually injurious and unjust, to con. This expedition, which in future found thelé humane and benevolent times will be "censured or applauded, men, who credulously expected an according to its ultimate success, equality of happiness, instead of an ab. which the laws of nations and the surd equality of property, to be produfaith of treaties must condemn, but ced by the revolutionizing fyftem, which the laws of that aggrandizing with those votaries of anarchy and patriotism, which, in ancient times, confufion, whose rapacious hands, characterized the 'Romans, and, in and upfeeling hearts, have marked modern. the Russians, must approve, the paths of Revolution with murder was beheld with triumph by Wad. and blood. With the former class, Atrom, who believed that the civiliza.' few will scruple to rank the benevo." tior of Africa, and the liberty of Afia, lent Wadftrom, though he seems to depended on its success. He saw the have retained, to the last, his ideas of French in poffeffion of Egypt, but the ultimate consequences of the his days were terminated by a pul. French Revolution, with the same monary confumption, in less than a credulous fimplicity which is faid to year after the arrival of Buonaparte have prompted him to seek for the in that country.

New Jerusalen of Swedenborg, amid Those who condemn, with the the unexplored regions of Africa. greatest bitterness, the political opi. His effay on colonization contains an nions of Wadstrom, muft, in their immense collection of materials on hearts, venerate the active benevo. that subject, with a particular refelence of his character. His errors rence to Africa, combined in no ju. were the diseases of too tender a fen. dicious or luminous order, but confibility; the exceflive confidence of taining almoit every observation, new too liberal a fpirit, the unbounded or old, trite or original, which seemed benevolence of tho warm a heart. His to be intimately connected with the heart feemed more enlarged than his subject. Theoretical fpeculations, underftanding his feelings were always practical observations, original docuin the right, though his judgment was ments, and citations from authors, often in the wrong. His philanthro are immethodically produced, and pic fchemes were generally romantic, lose much of their value from their and often delufive; his fanguine ex inartificial arrangement. His ftyle is

loose,

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