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State of the BAROMETER, in inches and decimals,

and of Farenheit's THERMOMETER in the open air, taken in the morning before sun-rise, and at noon; and the quantity of rain-water fallen, in inches and decimals, from Dec. 31. 1799 to Jan. 31. 1800 in the vicinity of Edinburgh.

M.

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High Water at LEITH

for FEBKUARY 1800. (From the Town and Country Almanack.)

Morn. Even. Days.

H. M. H. Sa.

I 7 27 7 47 Su. 2. M. 3.

8

53 T.

4. 944 9 W. S. 10 35

II O Th. 6. 11 27

Il 55 Fr.

7. II 57 Sa. 8. o go

118 Su. 9.

1 46

2 38 3 3 T. 11.

3 27

9 18

N.

IO

2 13

M. 10.

38

3 48 4 36

4 12

W. 12. Th. 13. Fr. 14. 5. 47

58

5 24

35

6 14

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Sa. 15.

6

39 Su. 16.

7 34 M. 17. 8 30 18.

9

28 W. 19. 10 32

31

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9 10

1800. Barom. Thermom. Rain. Weather. Jan.

M

In. Pts.
I 29.478 15 23

Stormy 2 29.5 32 32 0.05

Rain 3 29.371 37 37

Cloudy 29.351 38 | 2y 0.045

Showers 5 29.54

28
29

Cloudy 6 29.412 29 29

Ditto 7 29.385 36

Ditto 8 29.35 36 | 38

Ditto 9 29.361

37

Ditto JO 29.65 35 35

Ditto 29.411 33 34

Ditto 12 29.351 35 36

0.05

Rain 13 29.189 35 37 0.0555

Ditto 14 29.25 37 37

0.0651 | Ditto
37
0.251

Ditto 16 29.03

0.1

Ditto 17 29.2 33 35

Snow 18 29.151 34 35

Cloudy 19 29.145

33

Clear 20 29.2 31 31

Ditto 21 29.311

34

Ditto 22 29.452 32 35

Cloudy 23 29.081 40 37 | 0.651 Rain 24 29.

43

Clear 25 29.315

41
0.021,

Shovers 26 29.1 44

0.04

Showers 27 29.415 37 40 0.355

Rain 28 29.25 41 -45 0.251

Ditto 29 28.8 34 37

Stormy 30 28.989 35 38

Clear 31 28. 29 35

Ditto

I

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38

II

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138

38

Th.20. Fr. 21. Sa. 22.

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Su. 23• M. 24•

31

2 59

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T. 25. 3 17 W. 26.. 4 Th. 27. Fr. 28.

3 39 4 21 5 2 5 44

4 32 5 24

36 36

46

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even.

First Ortr, 1. 8 10
Full Moon 9. 4 56 aftern.
Last Qrtr. 16. 3. 21 aftern.
New Moon 23. 4 40 aftsra.

Quantity of Rain 1.9346

THE

EDINBURGH MAGAZINE,

OR

LITERARY MISCELLANY,

FOR JANUARY 1800.

FOR THE EDINBURGH MAGAZINE.

The GLEANER, No. XV.

[Having been favoured by a friend with the following fragment of Icelandic

history, ir, order to insert it, the Gleaner is forced to postpoi.e the critique on

Kotzebue to the next Number.] IN N the Kristnisaga is contained an dran, who having visited Saxony in

account of the introduction of quest of adventures, embraced the Christianity among the barbarous in- Christian faith, and brought from habitants of Iceland, in the tenth and that country Frederic the first Iceeleveoth centuries, which the curious landic bishop. Thorwald at his remay compare with the modern rela- turn to Iceland attempted to convert tions of the African and South Sua his father Kodran, who refused to miffions. The ftile of the Kristni- suffer himself to be baptized, until he saga is plain, fimple, and unadorned; had determined the comparative power events are narrated precisely as they of working miracles, possessed by the are supposed to have happened ; mira. Chriftian bishop, and the sacred stone cles, murders, massacres, fanguinary which he worshipped as inhabited by combats, and those traits of manners a spirit. The issue of this contest which mark the barbarous genius of was entirely in favour of Frederic, the age, as in the annals of every whose powerful prayer over the fa. rude nation, are related with little at. cred stone foon split it, and expelled tention to order or connection. It the dæmon. After this triumph Thor. is commonly attributed to Hauk the wald traversed Iceland with the bi, fun of Erland, who in 1306 was e. ihop; at Vatnsdal they were encoun: lected legiflator of Iceland, and died tered by two Maniacs or BERSERKER, in 1334. He is the reputed author who rayed, stormed, and, through of the Landnama Bok, to which the the power of their familiar spirits, Kristnisaga is generally appended, and walked unhurt amid the burning fire; of which it is reckoned a part by but when Frederic had confecrated J. Gudmund. A meagre account of the fire, they were miserably scorchBp. INeif of Iceland is commonly ed and fain. In their peregrinations annexed to this Saga. The author the Scalds ridiculed Thorwald and relates that Christianity was intro- the bishop his attendant ; Thorwald duced into Iceland about the year revenged himself by killing the bards, 31, by Thorwald the son of Ko. and the good bishop refused any

A2

company

longer to accompany the man of ven- cise or definite idea. They are regeance. As this mission proved un presented as agitated by fits, during successful, another attempt was made which, with wolfish ferocity, and disto convert the Icelanders, by Olaf, torted countenances, they gnawed king of Norway, who dispatched and devoured their shields, displayed Stefner for that purpose. On his the Atrength of bulls and bears, threw arrival in Iceland, Stefner, provoked themselves, without injury, on the by the obftinacy with which the points of swords, walked amidit flames ilanders adhered to their ancient opi. of fire unhurt, and swallowed burning nions, began to destroy their temples, coals. This unnatural habit is attriand break their idols. This summa- buted to various caufcs, as magical ry method, as may be supposed, did practices, furious paffions, and herenot greatly conciliate the minds of ditary disease. The idea of its mathe Pagans, or facilitate their con- gical origin is implied in the terms version; on the contrary, they attack. TRYLLAST and HAMAST, by which ed the reformer, who with difficulty it is often denominated, and which made his escape to Norway: About are properly applied to enchantment, this time Thangbrand, a priest, being or power derived from malevolent accused of piratical practices, recon- genii. By Snorro Sturlefon, and the ciled himself to Olaf, by undertaking author of the Havamaal, it is attrithe conversion of Iceland. Thang buted to Odin. Sometimes it was brand, renouncing piracy, proceeded believed to derive its origin from the to Iceland, where he quickly convert. giants, or evil beings ; at least the ed many heathens, who were enchant. Jotunmodr, or characteristic madness ed by the tinkling of his bells, the of the giants, or rather the Jutes, odour of his frankincense, and the seems to have resembled that of the splendor of his fillets and purple gar- Berserkers. From the supposition of ments; and a sorcerer was hired, in its origin from malevolent spirits, it vain, by the Pagans, to cause the was punished with banishment by the earth to swallow him up. Thang. laws of Icelandand Norway. brand proceeded towards the west of The opinion of those, by whom it Iceland, where he was encountered was attributed to ferocious passion, is by Tiorin the Berserker or forcerer, plausible and philofophical. Barbawho, like another Elymas, challeng- rians, whose constitutions are harden. ed him to a trial of skill. This chal- ed by inceffant exertion, and the selenge was readily accepted by the verity of the climate, who have been priest, when the forcerer declared, inured to rapine, de valtation, and “ Had you known my power, you cruelty from their birth, when cxaf“ would have declined the contest; perated with rage, derive from its “ I walk barefooted over the burn- ftimulus a prodigious increase of muf« ing fire, and throw myself without cular strength. The Berferkers are “ injury on the poinis of naked always represented as exasperated to 6 fwords." God will determine madness by opposition, and advancing that, said Thang brand, who coníe. to the fingle combat bellowing with crated the fire, and marked the sword rage, and gnawing their fhicids. Like with the fign of the cross, when the the licensed bullies or champions of fire scorched the feet of the Berser- former times, they were accustomed ker, and the sword peneirated his to acquire money by their success in body, and killed him.

tingle combats. The paroxysm of Of these Berserkers, who are fre. fury was commonly succeeded by a quently mentioned in the Icelandic Itate of debility and exhaustion like annals, it is difficult to form any pre: madness, and the violent cxertions of

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