Imatges de pÓgina

them, about a page and a half long. The circumstances given in eviIt was an inexplicable piece of ambi. dence are all that have been certainguity, which I had no sooner read, ly known. What I have here related, than I said to the cardinal with could not be proved, but by my testiwarnith - If it be not, my lord, the mony, which was not taken, or by molt respectable woman in the king- Madame La Mothe's correspondence, dom, who has written this letier, you and that was burnt an hour after the are shamefully played upon. What cardinal's arrett. He was so thoroughdoes all this signify? There are ex- ly convinced, that that correspone pressions in it which may apply to dence contained the queen's secret, some circumltances relative to the and that the severity, with which her necklace, whien we know them, but majelty had created him before the they may as well, and better, be ap- king, was a proof of the implicit conplied to a hundred other stories : in fidence she had in his discretion, that, Thori, this letter is fu inapplicable, instead of attempting to justify him. that, happen what will, you can make 'self to the king, he only thought of no use of it: and I am convinced not exposing the queen.

After conthat the person who wrote it had firming, sometimes by his filence, this in view.'- Fie! do not take sometimes by the embarrassment of it in that manner : you would speak his replies to their majetties questions, very differently, if you knew how a charge that could not but excite much that person is in every respect their indignation againit him, his first above all fufpicion : besides, have you care, the moment he was arrested, not seen the agreement Signed, and was to dispatch one of his people post approved by the queenYes; to Paris, with an order to open the but, as I am unacquainted with her press in his closet, which contained majesty's writing, which may very all Madame La Mothe's letters, and well have been forged, and also with to burn them. This order he deli., the lady so eftimable, and who may vered to his man in German, that be much less so than you imagine, he might not be understood by the I am more apprehensive than ever, officer, who went with him from the that this affair may turn out very king's chamber to the apartinents of troublesome to you. There is but cupied by the high almoner, in the. one thing that can remove my fears; palace. An adjutant of the gardesand that is, as you have not yet des corps was charged to take him, delivered the necklace, that you pro- first to Paris, to seize bis papers,

and mise me, and I conjure you, not to then to the Bastille. part with it, but to the queen her- By deltroying this correspondence, self.'—" I do promise you, and so you the cardinal lolt the most important may be easy; indeed you would be papers for his juftification : for they perfectly so, if you knew the name would have thewn the manæuvres, of the person ; all I can tell you is, the profound and studied subtilty that there is not a more diftinguithed practised by the most intriguing of one in the kingdom.

women, to convince him of the kind"Two days after this I went into ness, extreme confidence, and friendBrittany, where I had not been fix hip which the queen bestowed upon weeks, before I learned, by the pub. her; of the essential service it was lic papers

that the cardinal was ar- in her power to render him with her refted, without any particulars of the majelty, and the like. Had this cause of so 'extraordinary an event, point been cleared up, the obscurity but it was not difficult for me to in which the affair remained envegucfs it.

loped would have been dispelled. It

E 2


would have been evident to all, that blained the excess of his credulity : the cardinal, far from being seduced but to judge in what degree he deby the ambitious and criminal hopes served this censure, it would have of which he was accused, had no been neceffary to know all the art other object in view, than to gain praaised by Madame La Mothe to the queen’s good opinion, by lerd. make herself mitress of his confi. ing her his credit for the purchase denes, which, unfortunately for hin, of a necklace, which he could not it was but too easy, both to gain and but believe the very much wished to keep. to possess, as the fact was attested to Being absent from the court, him, not only by a person who he and from Paris, a great part of the thought had received the commission year, he knew Madame La Mothe expressly from her majesty, but by a only from her genealogy, by the writing, which he imagined to be patronage she had received from the igned and approved by the queen. king and queen, and by the favour

It has been very inconfiderately able accounts given of her to him fupposed, that the cardinal was too by all persons whose good offices she well acquainted with the queen's had managed to secure. Finding her writing, and particularly her signa. sprightly and amiable, the cardinal ture, to be fo grossly deceived in it. was naturally led to believe, that thefe : He had never received a letter from qualities, which the name of Valois her majesty, and could never have mult render till more interesting in feen her writing, or rather, her fig- the eyes of the queen, had gained nature, but twice or thrice in a hurry, Madame La Mothe her majesty's af. on the registers of baptism; and does fection and implicit confidence. Most it tlierefore follow that he could have of those who have cast the greatest preserved fo accurate a remembrance blame on the cardinal, would perof it, as to know it long after, though haps have fallen as blindly into the written in a different manner, or same fault, had the same snares been with different pens? It was said, that. laid for them. at least he knew that the queen’s fig- The severity, as unmerited as nature was Marie Antoinette, and not impolitic, with which this error was Marie Antoinette de France. It was, punished, would be a stain upon the doubtless, pussible for him to have memory of Louis XVI. had he not observed this from the registers of been entirely ignorant of all the facts baptism: but. it was also possible for I am relating: had not the minister him not to have attended to it, or, (the baron de Bretuil), who was the if he did, to have imagined that the informer, or reporter of the inforqueen might fign differently in pub- mation againft the cardinal, no doubt jic registers and private deeds. Nay, more induced by his zeal than by how could he suspect it, when he had his former enmity to the high alin his hands a deed that he must as moner, represented this affair to their firmly have believed to have been majefties in all the odious lights in figned by the queen, as if he had which it could be placed: and had feen-her write her oame to it because he not painted it as so serious aa ofa a part of the first installment, to fence against the honour of the queen, which the instrument bound her ma-, or at least so calculated to implicate jefty, was paid on her account into her, that the flightest indulgence the cardinal's own hands by Madame might cast a suspicion of connivance La Mothe?

on her majesty. The king confiThe most moderate censurer of dered the cardinal, and could do no the cardinal's conduct must have otherwise, as guilty of high treason :




for, accuding to the laws of France, refpe&tability, and fervices; deserved the crime of which he was accused confideration, it was alidnating the came under that defcription: and in first nobleinen of the kingdom, and being so pointedly harih to him, his alarming every body; it was, in short, majetty meant to make the most law- preparing and facilitating the revoluful use of his authority, and at the tion, by awaking ideas of despotism same time such as the queen's honour which the reign of Louis XVI. had imperioudly prescribed.

buried in oblivion, and by exciting a This exertion of power was cer- general defire of seeing the royal au. tainly unmerited, and its consequences thority limited. The unfortunate have sufficiently proved that it was affair of the cardinal de Rohan is not no less impolitic. It was humbling less connected with the history of the unneceflarily a powerful and nu- revolution than with that of the Barmerous family, whose rank, alliances, tille.


From Strutt's View of the Drejs, &c. of the People of England, Vol. II. The Horned Head-Dress of the Ladies The knight, who has already fur

in the Fifteenth Century. nished us fo largely with selections*, ABOUT this time (fifteenth cene calls in, upon this occasion, the au

tury) a preposterous kind of thority of an “holy bishop,” who, head-dress made its appearance among declaiming from the pulpit againtt the fair sex, diftinguished by the ap- the fashionable foibles of the fair sex, pellation of “the Horned Head-Dress," accuses them of being marvellously which is severely reprobated by John arrayed in divers quaint manners, de Meun, in his poem called the Co. and particularly with bigb horns. The dicil: he fpeaks to this effect: “ If I prelate then gravely, with more zeal “dare say it, without making them, perchance than learning, attributes "(that is the ladies,) angry, 1 should the cause of the deluge to the "dispraise their hofing, their vesture, pride and difguifing of the women, “their girding, their head-dreffes, who, he tells us, were thereby led “ their hoods thrown back, with their astray into the paths of vice : but, re"" borns elevated and brought forward, fuming the former fubject, he com. "as if it were to wound us. I know pares the ladies of his day to horned " pot whether they call them gala fnails, to harts, and to unicorns; de.

loufes or brackets, that prop up the claring that, by such unnatural ad"hoins, which they think are so justments, they mocked God; and “handsome; but of this I am certain, proceeds to relate a itory of a gentle. 65 that Saint Elizabeth obtained not woman, who came to a feast, having “paradise by the wearing of such her head so ftrangely attired with

trumpery." He then proceeds to. long pins, that her head-dress resem. deride the exceflive widih of these bled a gibbet; “and so,” adds he, hrad.dreffes, and speaks of the quan- "she was fcorned by all the company, tity of fine linen that was uled to de- " who ridiculed her talte, and said, corate them, with much disapproba. .. the carried a gallows upon her tion.

" head." All the remonftrances from

the * From a work in MS. compiled towards the conclufion of the fourteenth century, for the usef three young ladies, daughters of a knight in Nordiandy in the Harleian Library at the British Museum, marked 17614 3.63

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the pulpit, the admonitions from the fhionable one he thus 'describes :
moral writers, and the satirical re- • The ladies ornamented their heads
Hections of the poets, were not sur- “ with certain rolls of linen, pointed
ficient!y powerful to conquer the pre. “like steeples, generally half, and
valency of this fashion, or at leatt, not “ sometimes three quarters, of an
very haitily; for the horned head “ eil in height" These were called
dress maintained its ground nearly by some great butterflies, from hav.
two centuries. Lidgate, the monk ing two long wings on each side re •
of Bury, who lived in the reign of sembling those of that infe&t. The
Henry the Sixih, has written a long high cap was covered with a fine piece
ballad upon this subject ; and he of lawn hanging down to the ground,
therein endeavours to perfuade the the greater part of which was tuck-
ladies to lay aside their horns, which, ed under the arm. The ladies of a
he infifts upon, are no addition to middle rank wore caps of cloth, con.
their beauty; for beauty, adds ke, fisting of several breadths or bands;
will show itself, though the horos be twisted round the head, with two

He uses also another ar. wings on the side like asses' ears ; 0gument, namely, the example of the thers, again, of a higher condition, Virgin Mary, who never submitted wore caps of black velvet, half a yard to any such disguisement.

high, which in these days would apAt the commencement of the fif- pear very strange and unfeemly. 6 It teenth century, this species of head- “is no easy matter," continues the dreis was extended to a preposterous author, " to give a proper description fize. We learn, that, when Isabel of « in writing of the different fashions Bavaria, the vain and luxurious con- " in the dresses of the ladies ;" and fort of Charles the Sixth of France, he refers the readers to the ancient kept her court at Vincennes, it was tapestry and painted glass, in which necessary to make all the doors in the they may see them more perfectly repalace higher and wider, to admit the presented ; to these he might have head-dresses of the queen and her la. added the illuminated manufcripts, dies. Indeed, it is by no means wherein they are frequently enough wonderful, that large coiffures should to be met with. have continued long in fashion, efpecially among the women of high rank, Cumbersome and Extravagant Dreses when it is considered, that they ad- of the Men, Temp. Hen. IV. mitted of a proporcionable variety of Henry the Fourth, foon after his ornainents, and afforded an oppor. accession to the throne, revived the tunity for the ladies of displaying fumptuary statutes of Edward the their taste to greater advantage than a Third; but, if they had then been smaller compass would admit of. ftrenuously carried into execution,

A foreign author* speaks of the Thomas Occliff, who wrote in the horned head-dress, as it was worn at reign of that monarch, would not Lyons, in the following manner:“ It have had the occafion of complaint o confiited of a mixture of woollen which he exhibits against the extracó cloth and lilk, with two horns re- vagance of dress existent in his time.

sembling turrets, and was cut and This poet, after enumerating many " pinked after the falhion of a Gerthings requiring amendment, comes

man hood, or crisped like the bel. to the subject of apparel: " and this,"

ley of a calf.” But at the time of says he, “in my thinking, is an evil, his writing, this attire seems to have to see one walking in gownes

of been upon the decline ; the more fa- “ scarlet twelve yards wide,' with

sleeves Paradin, Hift. de Lyons, p. 271. Thesc fashions were in use A. D. 1461,

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64 it is

“ fleeves reaching to the ground, and his back: “ In days of old," says he, " lined with fur, worth twenty pounds, " when men were clad in a

or more ; at the same time, if he “ fimple manner, there was abun. “ had only been master of what he “ dance of good eating ; but now

paid for, he would not have had they clothe themselves in such an “ enough to have lined a hood.”.

expensive manner, that the former He then proceeds to condemn the “ hospitality is banished from their pride of the lower classes of the peo. “ houses.” He then laments, “ that ple, for imitating the fashions and “ a nobleman cannot adopt a extravagances of the rich : “and cer.

guise, or fashion, but that a knave “ tainly,” says he, "the great lords “ will follow his example ;' and,

are to blame, if I dare say so much, speaking in commendation of John of to permit their dependants to imi- Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, he in-, tate them in their dress. In form- forms us, that “his garments were

er time, persons of rank were known “not too wide, and yet they became " by their apparel; but, at present,“ him wondrously well." “ Now,


difficult to distinguish the “ would to God!" continues he, “ nobleman from one of low degree.”

this waste of cloth and pride were He then confiders the “ foule waste “ exiled from us for ever ; for, now. “ of cloth” attendant upon these lux- we have little need of brooms in urious fashions, and assures us, that " the land to sweep away the filth no less than a yard of broad cloth was " from the street, hecause the sideexpended for one man's tippet. Re-“sleeves of pennyless grooms will turning to his former argument, that gather it up, if it should be either noblemen ought not to encourage “ wet or dry.” He then addresses their servants in the usage of such ex. himself, by apostrophe, to his countravagant dresses, he says, If the try, and advises a reformation of all “ master should stumble as he walks, these abuses : his satirical conclusion, “ how can his servant afford him any however, I hope, is inapplicable to “ aslistance, while both his hands any time but his own. “ 1f,” says he, “ bave fyll employment in holding up" a man of abilities, meanly clad, " the long sleeves with which his arms “ fhould seek access to the presence " are encumbered * ?" He then adds, “ of a nobleman, he would be denied that “the taylors must foon shape “ on the account of his clothing ; " their garments in the open field; “but, on the contrary, a man wlio, “ for want of room to cut them in " by flattery and the meaneft servi“ their own houses; because that man “lity, can procure himself the moft “ is beft respected who bears upon his “ fashionable apparel, he thall be res back, at

one time, the greatest “ ceived with great honour." “ quantity of cloth and of fur.”

From the following observation the Trunk Breeches, or Slops-the Varreader may, perchance, suspect the re

dingale. formist of loving his belly more than The next remarkable innovation

(at They are thus described by another author: Maxime togatorum cum profunilis et latis manicis, vocatis vulgariter pokys, ad madum bagpipe formatis : wearing gowns with deep wide Deeves, commonly called pokys, shaped like a bagpipe, and worn indifferently both by lervants and masters. They are also rightly denominated devil's receptacles, recertacula dæmoniorum recié dici; for, whatever could be stolen, was popped into them. Some were so long and wide that they reached to the feet, others to the knees, and were full of flics. As the forvants were bringing up portage and fauces, or any other liquors, ihose flecves would go into them, and have the first tafie. And all they could' procure was spent to clothe their uncurable carcases with those pokys or fieeves, while thë reit of their habit was short, Vita Ric. II. p. 372.

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