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for the administration of affairs as are the causes that this agreeable city may be of eminent service, more from is become, in so short a time, ihe geambition than intereft, either in war neral depostory of Levantine and End or in peace; but they are here of great ropean products. The number of vefadvantage befides, by busying them fels that annually land here, may be selves in commerce. The Tuscan no. computed from the confiderable inbility are not of that idle opinion come of the capitano della Bocca, that trade contaminates noble blood. who for every ship that arrives reThey make not the least hesitation ceives about the value of five shillings. to study it in the compting-house of Hence it is no wonder that great the merchant, and afierwards to carry fortunes are made, and that the posit on in their own names.

The Flo- feffors of millions are very frequently rentines, who have for so many ages met with. Many millions of scudi pait been greatly advanced beyond are in circulation in this town. It is the rest of Tuscany in ingenuity and a pleasure to see how, without interindustry, have herein transcended the million, ships from all parts of the bounds of the common origin of no- world are either unloading or taking bility, by making it a law, that no fresh commodities on board, how full family can be admitted among the the enormous magazines are of goods nobility, who cannot bring proof that from the Levant, the Indies, and all they have heretofore been enrolled parts of Europe, how busy the brokers in the guildregister of the filkmenor are, and what vast sums of

money are, clothiers. This particular trait is of by the exchange of this place, carried itself fufficient to give a perfect in. into circulation over the whole fura fight into their character. How face of the earth. happy would it be for the useless no. Count Carli is surprised, and lays bility of oppresied nations, if they it to the blame of the Tuscans, that had but the courage to introduce fo of the great number of millionaries advartageous a maxim !

at Leghorn, there is not more than The only instance whereby the no. two or three of them of their own bility of Tuscany has hitherto given people, and that all the rest are foa considerable wound to the public reigners. Had he reflected, that this weal, is the right of primogeniture, is likewise the case in many other and the fidei-commisses. In a country famous marts of trade of much greater which can only attain to its utmost countries; how short the period of degree of prosperity by means of com. time is, fince Leghorn has been vimerce, the goods and capitals fhould fited by all trading nations, and how neither be unalienably annexed to small the original capital of a Tuscan certain families, nor limited to a cer- millionary must be ; he would rather tain number of heirs. This evil ioo have had reason to wonder how even the wise regent, by a law enacted but one Tuscan should in so short a some months ago, las happily abo- time have acquired such great wealth. lished at least for the future, and thus The majority of the foreign mercomplied wiih the wishes of all true chants are come hither with large patriots,

capitals, either as heads or branches Leghorn is a mart conitructed on of fubftantial mercantile houfes in the most retined principles of which Provence, in England, in Portugal, the spirit of commerce is capable, and other countries. It feldom inand proyided with a large and secure deed appears to a foreigner, when he harbour. The advantageous situation has seen fuch enormous riches at Legand extraordinary freedom enjoyed horn, and with this great idea in his here by all the 'náticns of the world, mind, travels through the impoveTilhed towns of Volterra, Arezzo, is about 112 miles distant, it will Cortona, and Siena. Nothing is more have been ten times thoroughly natural, than for him to blame the searched on the road, and have paid Aluggishness of the inhabitants of these forty-four toll duties, which together cities in not profiting by their vici- amount to the sum of 31 lires (if the vity to this productive golden mine. bale be reckoned at 260 lires, at 12 But he might perhaps be miftaken. per cent.) To this must be added the The evil lies by no means in the in. pay of the transport, and the delays activity of the inhabitants, but in the of the toll-gatherers, the liberties ancient conftitution of the country, they take, the tricks they put in which it was ever the aim of Duke pra&ice to extort bribes, before they Leopold to abolish by degrees. will give the necessary documents

rilhed ries as

Tuscany, as every one knows, was and passes, and a number of other formerly, as it were, a foreit of repub. grievances. We must also take into lics, who were incessantly at war, and the account, that the clothier is obhad nothing more in view than her liged to pay just as many dues on one could

get

the ascendant over the sending the stuffs or cloths wrought other. Each distinct republic or city, from this bale of wool, for sale to nay every village almost, conducted Leghorn ; by this means the price itself by its own laws and tatutes, amounts to so much, that, from the which in regard to politics were as competition of other cheaper woolcontrary as poslible to the incerelts of lens, no purchaser is to be found. their neighbouring rivals. Hence Thus the affair stands in all the cities arose innumerable burdens and taxes, and towns in Tuscany; and therewhich were laid on persons and com- fore it is no wonder that they reap modities pafling through the narrow but little or no fruits from the viciconfines of these free. Itates. After nity of Leghora. these petty states had fallen under The grand Duke Leopold, who the dominion of the Florentines, it thoroughly and without prejudice became necessary to the general wel- examined into all matters with the fare, to treat the conquered territo. eye of a philosopher, and as soon as

members of the aggregate he was convinced of the truth, resobody, and by the abolition of the an. lutely encountered and conquered cient statutes and customs, to open every difficulty, broke most of the the 'way for the due circulation of bonds which ignominiously confined commerce through the various chan- the hands of his subjects, and even in nels from one end of it to the other. fome measure remedied this complaint But this did not succeed, and it has by the abolition of pernicious statutes. been at a stand for two centuries and The communicacion between one a half. Thus the cities still remained town and another is no longer obengaged in a kind of war among structed or retarded by any grievous themselves, and obstacles were thrown impediment; every Tuscan carries in the way of the communication of the fruit of his labour, subject to commerce almolt at every top. Thus small duties, to market at Leghorn, for example, before a cloihier of Cor, and maoifest proofs of the rapid tona receives a bale of wool of 500 growth of arts and agriculture are pounds weight from Leghorn, which every where seen.

ORIGINAL

ORIGINAL LETTER FROM LORD HARDWICKE TO JAMES MARQUIS OF ANXAN

DALE *.

MY LORD,

6th April, 1736. The study of the Roman Civil Law To see a young Nobleman inquir. is what every true friend of your

ing after the properest methods Lordship would most earnestly with for his own education, cannot but you to pursue--as the groundwork give one a moft sensible pleasure, in of the law of most countries, and in an age when the far greater part leave cases where their municipal laws have that care entirely to others; or, per- made no special provision, it is their haps, do their utmost to obstruct the rule of judging : believe me, the befruits of it themselves: on the con. nefits you will derive from a superior trary, such an inquiry fhews a lauda- knowledge of this science are not to ble solicitude to assist the endeavours be described within the compass of of parents, and to improve upon the a letter; and as your Lordship may inftru&tion of tutors, of which I doubt possibly one day have a seat in Parnot but your Lordship is supplied liament, your country will by this with the best. This would make it means find you the much better qua

the highest impertinence in me to say lified for their fervice, as well as your ..one word to you on this topic, if own. I shall be in danger of going

your commands did not arm me with farther out of my depth, if I attempt a justification.

to say much about

your

exercises. The important business of your e- They require judgment in choosing, ducation seems chiefly to confift in and many of them are highly conduthree things-your studies, your ex. cive to strengthening the constitution, ercises, and your travels. In your and forming a graceful behaviour : it ftudies, your first employment will of seems to be a fault of the present age, course be the learning of languages, to neglect the manly and warlike ancient and modern. Without a exercises, and to prefer those which competent kill in the former, you are soft and effeminate ; the former will want the inexpressible pleasure are certainly a necessary part of the and advantage that can only be drawn education of a man of quality, not from those immortal patterns of ner. to be laid alide as soon as learned, but vous beautiful writing, and virtuous to be made a habit for life. Hence action, which Greece and Rome have you will be rendered more apt for left us; and without the latter, a man military fatigue and discipline, if ever of quality must find himself frequently the cause of your Prince and Country at a loss becomingly to act many shall require you to endure it. And parts, both in public and private life, one cannot help observing, that it to which his birth and rank do natu. would be much for the honour of the rally call him.' As you proceed far. Nobility, as well as the security of ther, permit me to recommend Ma. this kingdom, if more, even of those thematics to your particular favour ; who do not think fit to make War it is of infinite service in variety of their trade, would however qualify affairs, but there is one general use of themselves to perform that honourit, which I remember my Lord Bacon able service. [mewhere mentions-ihat it tends To these I presume travelling will above all things to fix the attention succeed, not only from the reason of of youth ; for in demonitration, if a the thing, but the fashion of the man's mind wander never so liccle, he times, and it were much to be wished muit begin again.

that being in the fashion was not for Ed. Mag. Jan. 1800. H

the Who succeeded his father in 1724, and died unmarried at Naples in 1745.

the most part the sole aim 'of it. It is of travellers be considered, the drain undoubtedly in itself a noble part of of cash hereby occafioned is an appainstruction, as it affords an opportu. rent detriment to this kingdom, and nity of becoming acquainted with the the mischief to particular families is Conftitutions and Intereits of Foreign irretrievable, by acquiring a habit of Countries, the Courts of their Princes, expence which their eftate cannot the genius, trade, and general pur. poffibly bear, and which will ever be suits of the people. But as things followed by a certain train of confeare now managed, what is often fub- ,quences, dangerous to the public as stituted in the room of these moft ufe. well as private welfare. In former ful inquiries !--Nothing but the in- times the people of Britain who 'trafection of their vices and luxury, their velled were observed to return home arts of dressing themselves and their with their affections the more strongly victuals, and the acquisition of false engaged towards the well-tempered vitiated tafte in both. To intimate Conftitution and liberty of their own one or two of the many causes of this country, from having observed the unhappy abuse, may ferve juft to miseries resulting from arbitrary Gopoint out the way to avoid it :-One vernments abroad.-- This was a happy fundamental error is travelling too effect, and moft defirable to be concarly; the mind of a young man tinued: but by an unlucky reverse it wants to be fitted and prepared for fometimes happens in these days, this kind of cultivation; and, until it that being taught to like the fais properly opened by study and learn- fhions and manners of foreign couning, he will want light to see and ob- tries, they are led to have no averfion ferve, as well as koowledge to apply, to their political institutions, and their 'the facts and occurrences met with methods of exercising civil power. in foreign countries : without this The protestant religion being ef. foundation, a boy may be carried to tablished here is one great security fee one of these idle thews called of our civil liberty. That occular de. moving pictures, or the French Court monftration of the gross superstitions in wax-work, with almost as great and absurdities of religion abroad, advantage, and with much more in- which travelling furni/hes, was for

merly thought to fix the mind in a Another fatal error is excessive ex. more firin attachment to our primi. pence, to which this part of what is tive fimplicity and abhorrence of the called education is suffered to be car. latter. It were much to be wished ried. It is not 'uneommon to see a that this obfervation would constant. young Gentleman fpend more by the ty hold ; but I fear the case is now year in such a tour, than the income sometimes otherwife, with this furof his estate will in prudence afford ther ill consequence, that many of him the means of doing when settled our young men, by a long interrupwith a family at home! And to what tion of the exercise of their own repurpose ? Not to enable him to learn ligion, become absolutely iodifferent the more ; for it turns him out of the to all. paths of application and attention In what I have said, I defire to be into those of pleasure and riot : not understood not to advise your

Lord. to enable him to associate with the hip against travelling; my view is belt company of foreigners, but the far otherwise :-it is only to lay bemost luxurious and extravagant of fore you what appeared to me, inhis own countrymen, or with such formed as I am, to be the modern strangers as will refort to him only abuses of it; that, by avoiding thofe, for his money If the great number you may be in a condition to make

ule

nocence.

1

use of that which is truly useful in bleman of your quality and hopes the itself.

mure capable of performing that serForgive me, my dear Lord, this vice to his King, his country, and tedious letter, drawn from me by his family, which they may juftly exyour own request, and proceeding pe&t from him; and that I am, with from the sincereft defire of your laft- the utmoft truth, ing profperity. Be áffured that I Your Lordfhip's should think it a very happy circum- most faithful and stance in my life, if any advice of

obedient humble Servant, mine could be in the least degree as

Hardwicke. fiftant towards rendering a young No.

BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS PUBLISHED IN LONDON IN DECEMBER 1799.

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Agriculture Arts and Sciences.

Biography. ture of the West Riding of York.

cluding his Campaigns with the Mahshire; surveyed by M-ffis. Rennie,

rattas, Rajahs, W. Hastings, Esq. Lord Brown, and Shireff, 1793. With Ob- Cornwallis, Lord Mornington, &c.; Servations on the Means of its Im.

cruel Treatment, of English Prisoners, provement, and additional Informa

Plunders, Intrigues, and secret Correl. tion fince received ; drawn up for the pondence with France, as laid before Confideration of the Board of Agri- the House of Commons; a full Account culture and Internal Improvement, of the Capture of Seringapatam ; By Robert Brown, Farmer at Markie, Description of Eastern Countries hinear Haddington, Scotland. Svo. 65. therto unknown; curious entertaining Nicol, Sewell.

Anecdotes; and a preliminary Sketch On the Conftruction of Kitchen Fire of the Life and Character of Hyder

Places, and Kitchen Utensils; toge- Aly Cawn. By an Officer in the East ther with Remarks and Observations

India Servict. 8vo. 35. Weft and relating to the various Processes of

Hughes. Cookery, and Proposals for improving Select Eulogies of Members of the that moft useful Art. With Places.

Freneh Academy: with Notes. By Being Efray X. Part I. By Benja- the late M. D'Alembert. Translated inin Count Rumford. 8vo. 25. 6d. from the French. With a Preface Cadell and Davies.

and additional Notes. By J. Aikin, A Translation of the Table of chemical M.D. 2 vols. Izmo.

103. Cadell Nomenclature, prepared by De Mor. and Davies. veau, Lavoisier, Berthollet, and De Fourcroy; with Explanations, Addi

Hiftory. tions, and Alteratione. With feven Remarks on some Passages in Mr Brytheet folio Tables, &c. By George ant's Publications respecting the War Pearson, M. D. 4to. 148. Johnson. of Troy. By che Editor of « The ñ . Anatomy.

Voyage of Hanno," 8vo.

25. 6d.

Cadell and Davies. The Anatomy of the Gravid Uterus, Cortes ; or, the Discovery of Mexico ; So with practical Inferences relative to being a Continuation of the Discovery

Pregnancy and Labour. By John of Mexico. Tranflated from the Burns, Surgeon at Glasgow. 4to. 58. German of J. H. Campe. Iamo. 38.60. Murdoch, Glafgow; Longman and

Johnson. Rees, London.

Secret Anecdotes of the Revolution of Aftronomy.

the 18ih Fructidor (September 4th, An Aftronomical Instrument called the 1797,) and new Memoirs of the Per

Afrarium; exhibiting at one View fons de ported to Guiana, written by all the Stars which are visible at any themselves; containing Letters from Time of the Year in Great Britain General Murinais, Mes. Barthelemy, or Ireland, with a Delineation of the Troncon-du-Coudray, Laffond-LadeConftellations. On Royal Card Pa- bat, De la Rue, &c. &c. ` A Narra. per, coloured. 98. Arch.

tion of the Events that took place at H

Guiana

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