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couering, a fn all kettle, and fome mounds of stones. The ages of the wooden dishes, with pack saddles for warriors are denoted by the space of their camels. The person who, be: ground which the grave occupies, fides these articies, poffefses a few and the funeral procession is closed horses, camels, theep and goats, is ' by the howls of the females. reckoned wealthy, as there are many

The women never allume the name Arabs who only poffefs Sheep and of their husbands, and never eat with goats. Except fore eyes and the cho tliem at meals. They are faithful to lic, they are subject to few endemic their husbands, and cannot be divordiseales. The first disorder is caused eed except by the decree of the seniby the reflection of light from the ors of the horde. The Arabs difburning sands of the delart, the other' play their opulence by the ornaments proceeds from the verdigrease which of their women, whole cars, ai ms, contaminates all their victuals. í heir and legs, are generally adorned wiih kettles are not inned, and never rings of gold and filver. An Arab wathed, fo that they are quite crusted beauty muit have long teeth fhooting over with verdigrease, the virulence out of her mouth. a body ext:emely of which is probably diminished by thick, and limbs of the longest fize. the quantity of milk they use. When At the birth of a son, every woman, they refinie long in one place, they to teftify her joy, blackens her face sometimes plow the spots which are for 40 days. Atrhe birth of a daugh. moistened by the rain, and sprinkle ter, the only daubs the half of her them with feed in a careless manner. face, during the face of 20 days. A Plentiful crops are often thu3 pro. mother treats her son with the same duced; but, instead of waiting till refpect as her husband, almost as fooa the grain attains maturity, they cut

as he is able to walk ; the prepares it down, and dry it over hoe cinder3. his food, serves him, and cats when Treachery and perfidy are the innate he has finished his repait. in the vices of the Arabs ; affalli nations are education of their young men, the frequent; no man trufts the promise most important acquisitions are dexof another; no man makes a written terity in the use of the poignard, agreement, as the poignard cancels skill in embowelling their enemies ail bonds and obligations. The men with their long nails, and a plausible often relate their exploits to each o- air in conccaling a falsehood. More ther; the embellitking of a story is rude and ferocious than the tribes fucceeded by a charge of falschood, whole territories lie upon the thore and the poignard folves every difficul- of the sea, the Labdesseba and Outy. The ancient rites of hospitality, adelim Arabs are also more confined however, are practised among these and illiberal in their ideas, not only tribes, in their utmost extent. The believing that they are the first naArab, who, in the field, is a rapaci- tion in ihe world, but fancying that ous plunderer, becomes liberal and the fun rises only for them. briffon generous as soon as he enters his relates, that some of them expressed tent. War is only a species of ra. this idea in unequivocal terms.“ Bepine, and the victory is decided at the “ hold," said they, “that luminary. first shock. The Arab is devoid of " which is unknown in thy country. janguinary courage ; he attacks only During the night, thou art rot en. 10 plurder, and never thinks that lightened, as we are, by that beabooty is to be pit in competition "veniy body, which regulates our with his life. When the battle is days and our fasts. His children ended, each party make graves for (tlie Itars,) point out to us the the slain, and caclose the tombs with so lours of prayer. You have nei.

other ruined.

you

es ther trees nor camels, sh-ep, gats, the negroes were condem: ed to day

nor dogs. Are your women simi ery, because they h d the colour of "lar to ours?" " tiotong didit the damned Many of our early naas thousemain in the womb of thy vigators relate, with great complicen“ mither,” said another ti s long,” cy, the moit ab iminable murders, the replied Brisson, as thou died in that most fucking mifiacres, which they of wine." “ Indeed,' said a third, cominitteri, without die leait remor, le counting the fingers and toes of the because their iciffensive victims were Frenchman, " he is made like us, he ignorant of the Christian religion. as differs only in his colour and l.in in'tances of the most atrocious na

guage." “Do you low barley in ture, even u paralleled by the bar

your houses ?" said the Arabs, al- barities of the Muors of B. rbary and Inding to the thirs of the Europeans. the Sahara, occur in alın it curyre. " No," said B isson, . We fw in laciun of African as well as imeri¢s fields almo't in ihe same reafinas can discoveries. he cruelty of the

66 Huw! cried several, women and children might catily pro“ do you inhabit the earth? we be ceed from infantine curiuli y, froin “ lieved that you were born and liv the vanity of exhibiting their cou"ed upon the sea.These trabs, rage, or from an ardent defire of difaccording to the Turkish proverb, playing their affection to their hus. believe that all the world is like their bands or fathers. Is not the method father's houle: unacquain.ed with hy which civilized Euripeans disthe mariners of other nations, and in play th ir pairitilm, and their affecaccultomed to reflect upon the cules tion for their faiends, very fimilar to of national character, every varia that of the irabs? They do not in. tion from their wn customs appears deed, in common cases, treat their not only ridiculous, but monstrous; prisoners with wanton barbariry, but every difference of opinion not only they pour forth the gross :: invectives absurd, bın criminal. i his ignorance against hoitile nations, a d echo the of the Arabs, conjoined with their most [cvirrilous mifrepresentations of local and religious prejudices, enables their character. Such coincidences us to account for the insulting irrat. Now, that the radical principles of iment, which Brision and his ciimpa- the human conflitution are

every nionsrece ved, without having recourse where the same, however they may to inherent depravily of nature. In happen to be moditied by adventitious the 15th century millions of Indians circumstances; that civilized fociety trere maliacreri in America by the is not the caule of evil and vice, fince Spaniards, because they were thought the caprice of the savage inay convert to have the fices of monkeys; and, his itupidity into the muít ferocious ia a folenin concil of ecclefiaftics, and in human pafcon.

1

OUTLINE OF NORTH GUINEA OR NEGRITIA --GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE

COUNTRY AND INHABITANTS-ORIGIN OF THE NAME GUINEA- KINGDOM OF GUALATA OR WALET-AND OF THE SLAVE TRADE.

From the Sanie.

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N intelligent traveller, who tra. lential morhes and sultry fands, where

verfus Egypi or Barbary, will the grey firmament bounds the defart, reaid the degeneracy of the modern and the filence is only broken by the inhabitants in the monuments of past cry of the jackal. At every top he ages, and trace the veriges of foriner fees fertii: Galds ab.indoned to delo. civilization and grandeur amid petti. lacion ; villages deserted and cities

The gum

er.

ruined. He meets the mutilated re- were discovered in the Chebaid and mains of antiquity; the wrecks of Abyffinia, by a nation of a dark comtemples, palaces, and fortifications, plexion and woolly hair. "The pillars, aqueducts, and fepulchres; i hebans," says Diodorus, " Cona

“ , and perceives that the land has de. " lider themselves as the most ancient vourid its inhabiranis! Winding to.. “ people on the earth, and allert, wards tlie welt, along the shore of the sihat with them o-iginated philoSebara, where life and vegetation al- sophy, and the science of the ftars, most cease, where there are no ruins " Their situation, it is true, is infibut the ruins of nature, and where "initely favourable to altronomical only a few itraggling Arabs, like e- " observation, and they have a more vił genii, live in defpite of defolation, “ accurate division of time into he at lalt approaches a

more fertile

“ months and years, than other naregion, and the forests of gum-trees “ tions.” The same opinion le attribecome more numerous

butes to the Ethiopians, " The Etree is a species ot Acacia, evergreen, thiopians concive themselves to be with long rough narrow leaves, full “ of greater antiquiry ibar any other of prickles, and beariug a white flow- "natron ; and it is probable that,

i he principal gum forests lie a “ born under the fun's path, its bout 60 leagues froni Portendic and “ warmth may have ripened them So from Arguin. Here the delart " earlier than other men. They up'terminates in vague and ill-defined “ pose themselves also to be the inboundaries, and the proper territory “ ventors of divine worship, of feloiof the negroes commences, which the “ vals, of folemn affemblies, of lacriArabs term Biled al Soudan or Biled “ fices, and every other religious al Abiad, the land of the Blacks, or “ practice. They afli'm that the

, the Land of Slaves. Along the coast, “ Egyptians are one of their colonies, the foil is of very

nequal qu lity. “ and that the Delta, which was iorFrom Cape Blanco to the river Gam- - merly sea, became land by the conbia, it i sandy, with a large mixture glomeration of the carth of the of broken ihelds, and in many places “higher country, which was washed the sand is covered with a rich black “ down by the Nile. They have, like mould. The most barren tracts are “ the Egyptians, two species of litcovered with buthes and long grass ; "ters, hieroglyphics, and the alphabut over the black mould the

vegeta- “ bet; but, among the Egyptians, tion is lusuriant, and the trees of “the first was known only to the vait dimeniions. From the Gambia " priests, and by them transmiited to Rio Nunez, according to Adam- “ from father to son, whereas both fon, the soil both of the sea.coast and fpecies are common among the Eof the interior districts is of incom “thiopians.” “ The Ethiopians," parable fertility. Whether any of says Lucian, “ were the firit who in. these regions have ever been inhabit. “vented the science of the Itars, and ed by powerful civilized nations, is gave names to the planets ; not ac uncertain : There are vait charms in " random, and without meaning, but the history of ancient nations, which “ descriptive of the qualities whicla elude all our researches: We cannot " they conceived them to possess penetrate the gloom of the remore 66 and it was from them that this are ages. The easly civilization of south “ pafled in an imperfect itate to the Africa is attested by numerous an. “ Egyptians.” But whatever opinion cient authorities; and soms authors, we adopt concerning the carly civiwith Bruce and Volney, believe that lization of the ancient Egyptians and the elements of ihe arts and sciences Ethiopians, it will be easily allowed

that

a

that neither tradition, history, nor rated irresistibly in discouraging tie ancient monuments, seem to show that importation of raw materials, to that the inhabitants of Nigritia have ever valuable commodities have often been exiited in a Itare of high refinement. left to rot on the coast. “ If every Their foil easily fupplies the necesi- man,” said Dr Smcathman, " knew ties of life; and their artificial wants so that his own happiness depended are not so pumerous as to prevent on making others happy, al maagratification. They are unacquainted “ kind would soon be f, It is dif

" with the dexterity and dispacch which ficult, however, to convince an indithe division of labour produces; they vidual, and almoit imp faible to conhave to çonception of the increase of vince any aff»ciation of inen, that power, which arises from the combi- felf interest is best pomoted by genation of solitary efforts into one nerosity. The immense profits which complex operation. Their exertions have been derived from the faveare individual and defultory; for un- trade, in a period very short, when polished tribes dwell on the detail, compared with that which agriculture while refined nations generalize their requires, will always attach those inknowledge. When we consider the dividuals to whom intereit is a stronger imperfection of their tools, and their notive than humanity. The opera. ignorance of machinery; when we tions of agriculture are flow and itdi. also recolle&t that the same individual ous, especially where cuitivation has spins, weaves, sews, hunts, fishes, and never arrived at great ex'ent, the forms his baskets, fishing.tackle and profi's of commerce in raw materials, instruments of agriculture, the neat- as well as manufactures, are gradual, ness of their manufactare in iron, though certain, always requiring pergold, fillagree-work, cotton-matring, severance and industry. To agriculand basket-work, my excite our ad. ture and the trade in raw commodi. miration. They also make salt and ties, the slave-trad pea the same soap, and dye cloths with conlider. relation, as the acquisition of wealth able kill Even the rudest tribes by robbery and rapine, to the acqui. make their own filhing tackle, ca- fion of sealth by honest induttry. Does, and implements.

It is not therefore surprising, that a The staple commodities of Africa, traße so much accommodated to the before the Dutch had entered into indulence, to the impatience, and to competition with the Portugurze, the ferocity of rude tribes, should before the sugar plantations had been have prevaijed over the simple barter elabli'hed, and the European inha of productions raised by length of bitaris of the West Indies had di- time and persevering labour. Ti is not veltetheinfelves of their buccaneer surprising, that atrocious outrages

. ing character,-- were gold, ivory, and incredible barbarities have been wux, guns, oflrich feathers, medici- often committed by traders equally sal and dye woods, which were pur- illiterate and diffolute, when the mar, chased with glass beads, coarse woollen who can colieet around him two cr cloths, brandy, and trinkets of brass three hundred people, acquires all the and iron. But when the sugar plan- power and influence of an African tations in the West Indies had at. chief. These traders, hy intralucing tained maturity, the trade in African a general infecurity and anarchy, and produce gradually declined; even by citablishing a chain of factories chofe denominated wood veffeis, en. along the coait, which mutually coaged, as far as posible, in the pur- operate in accomplishing their plans; chahng of slaves, and the influence of by connecting themfelves with some Eaft and Weit Indian intereft ope. pf the chiefs, and securing their in

Auence

Auence by granting extensive credit, and drink. At night, when the party have obtained a kind of empire over is drunk, he causes them to be fetthe wettern coast of Africa, which tered, and carries them to the trader reaches far into the interior districts to redeem his credit. Free men are of the country. Thele large credits, frequently purchafed by the traders which are incompatible with ordinary from those whom they know have no commerce, and peculiar to the Nave. right to sell them, and every enors trade, are its principal support, and mity is palliated by the individual, legalize all its enormities. By distri- with the stale and filly pretext, that buting their goods among the chiefs, though he should renounce the prac. the traders acquire a right to seize 'tice, it would yet be continued by both the chiefs and their subjects at others. By these methods, the popusome future period, without forfeit lation on the coast has been much ing their character, or violating the diminished, and the intercourse of cuitoms of Africa. If an African towns and districts rendered dangercontract a debt, every person of the ous: the people are rendered more same community is liable to suffer the barbarous than in the interior parts penalty of his failure ; and the slave of the country, where there are many trade, by the country-law denomi. considerable towns that carry on an nated Panyaring, seizes, without dis. extensive trade, and have made great crimination, the wife or child of the progress in civilization. It has been debtor, an inhabitant of the same observed, by those who have attentown, or a stranger that there has ded most accurately to the dispofifought protection. At one time, a tions and manners of the natives of wife is sold by her husband to avoid the coast, that those who reside in the the imminent danger of failure in neighbourhood of the flave factories, credit, and is seen weeping in a slave. are most addicted to drunkenness, fhip for the infant from which the most fufpicious of whites, most crafty,

At another, a free boy is favage, and ferocious, as well as moft sent with a meffage, seized for the selfilh, unreasonable, and encroaching. debt of some inbabitant of the same Thus the slave trade not only debases town, and sold for a slave before he the undertanding, and degrades the can be redeemed. The Africans, moral character of the natives of Afe afraid of living as detached indivi: rica, but urges in its defence those duals, congregate in towns, under the very vicious propensities which it has protection of a chief, whom they call foltered. These absurd afperfions on their father. He is corrupted by pre- national character, which have, in the sents of liquor, and inveigled by the case of Africans, been thrown out trader to receive goods upon credit: with the vileft intentions, have excited the slave-trader makes war upon the the indignation of fenfible natives chief to recover the debt, and his more than all the injuries to which people are killed or sold to the slaves the sable race have been exposed. vessels. A chief, who is indebted to The late John Henry Naimbanna, the traders, fails up a river, and lands son of the king of Sierra Leona, at a town, under the pretext of when in England, exhibited the most friendship. He makes a speech to the jealous sensibility where the honour chiefs and the inhabitants, expatiates of his country was concerned. A on the shameful injustice of former person, who had made a public asserti aders, and declares that he intends iion very degrading to the African to trade fairly with them as friends character, being mentioned bzfore and brothers. He opens a puncheon him, he used some vindi&tive lanof rum, and invites them to fit round guage ; and the Christian duty of forEd. Mag. Jan, 1800.

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was torn.

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