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giving injuries being suggested to going on without intermillion fo him, he made the following animated about two centuries, it ought not to declaration :

excite our surprise, if the negro If a man rob me of my money, I racter had even acquired a peculiar can forgive him; if a man should degree of malignancy. The emotions shoot at me, or try to ftab me, I can in the breait of the savage derive forgive him ; if a man should sell me degree of wildness and ferocity from and all my family to a Nave ship, so the ruggedness of the objects which, that we should pass all the rest of our surround him; numerous objects af. days in Navery, in the Weft Indies, fect his mind, which do not injure I can forgive him ; but, (added he, his person; and whatever acts upon rising from his seat with much emo- the moral frame, tends to establish a tion), if a man takes away the cha- physical habit. The expresfion of the racter of the people of my country, features is gradually moulded to chaI never can forgive him. If a man racterize the predominant passion, should try to kill me, or should sell and every affection of the corporeal me and my family for llaves, he would fyltem re-acts upon the animating do an injury to as many as he might mind. Should therefore the negro kill or sell; but if any one takes away character have actually degenerated, the character of black people, that this would not constitute an anamol. man injures black people all over the ous, fact in the history of man. world; and, when he has once taken Where the intellectual powers are away their character, there is nothing left uncultivated, the passions acquire which he may not do to black peo- superior energy and violence. The ple ever after. The man will beat understanding is much less cultivated black men, and say, 0, it is only a among the Negroes than among Eu

O black man, why should not l beat ropeans; but their paflions, whether him? That man will make flaves of benevolent or malevolent, are proporblack people; for, when he has taken tionably more violent. No people are away their character, he will say, O, more fenfible of disrespect, contempt, they are only black people, why or injury, and none are more prompt should not I make them ņaves ? That or violent in resenting them. But man will take away all the people of though their tempers are violent, Africa, if he can catch them; and if they are not unmanageable : Though you ask him, But why do you take addicted to hatred and revenge, they away all these people? he will say, are equally susceptible of love, affec, O, they are only black 'people, they tion, and gratitude. In maternal, are not like white people, why should filial, and fraternal affection, they not I take them ? That is the reason must be allowed to surpass Euro. why I cannot forgive the man who

peans ; though the ardour of their pa. takes away

the character of the peo. jernal and conjugal affections bę ple of my country.” The negro cha damped by the practice of polygamy, racter certainly varies with the local which cannot fail to dissipate the peculiarities of education, manners, energies of the most tender passions, and habits; fome nations are more To unprotected strangers their hof, crafty, more ferocious, and unciviliz- pitality is liberal, dilinterested, and ed than others; but they are neither free from oftentation; to white persons incurably stupid, ignorant, norwicked; in whom they have confidence, their nor can they be charged with great partiality is exceflive, extending even er enormities than other nations in to their dress, commodities, and man. the same state of civilization. As the riers. It is true, that in those distrias process of deterioration has been where the Nave trade chiefly prevails,

the

the inhabitants are shy and reserved, indolent in the occupations of plantand alivays carry arms in their hands ; ing or hunting, commonly display to but this is the necessary effect of that greater activity in trade. These fa. insecurity which the practice of kid. vage philosophers are ftrenuous advonapping has introduced. It is true, cates for equality of property, and are that in their intercourse with Euro- convinced that no person has a right peans, both fraud and violence are to enjoy any fuperfluity which is often displayed; but these are the needed by andther. The confequence confequence of the frauds of Euro. of this sublime doctrine is, that if an peans, and their own inaccurate no. industrious man procures a spare shirt, tions of property. As the Europeans a pair of crowsers, or any kind of practise every species of injustice, not utensil, the first person to whom its only with respect to the quantity of poffeffion would be convenient, may trading goods, but also by their adul, demand its resignation with the urteration; as they use every degree of molt propriety. In this case, the pure fraud and violence in trepanning their seffor dare not give a simple refusal ; persons,-the natives, in order to be must talk the palaver, or reply to trade on equal terms, are forced to the reasons which the beggar offers, resort to a similar conduct. Their with others for its detention. When ideas with respect to property are the pleaders on both sides happen to very different from those of Euro. be eloquent, the subjeđ is often worn peans. Occupied chiefly by their na. useless by the políeffor, before the tural wants, they easily part with cause can be terminated. Thus there their fuperfluities to those who may are few motives for perfonal afliduity, want them. In their rude arts there as the rich are only the ftewards of is no division of labour ; in the culti- the poor. In a rude itate, man is vation of their fields, there is not even rather made for feeling than think. an individuality. The inhabitants of ing. To relieve the liftlefsness, occa. every diftri&t carry on their agricul- fioned by the absence of powerful extural operations in concert, and share, ternal impreffions, when the resource in common, the products of their of industry fails, from the deficiency harvest. From this arrangement, the of motives to exertion, he is apt co idea of a common intereit is conti- have recourse to the artific al exhilaDually suggested to the canton or ration which intoxication produces. diftrict; but the idea of exclusive In a state of intoxication, reason and property is at the same time rendered propriety of conduct desert the most more indefinite and vague. The un- refined and civilized men, but the limited exercise of the law of hospi: brutal propensities of the favage are tality renders the poslefiion of pro- aggravated to diabolical frenzy. In perty more useless, as well as more this frantic ftate, the negra chiefs uncertain, as the industrious are forced have often been induced to make to share their superfluities with the bargains moft prejudicial to their inindolent. If a person has been neg. terests, and to issue orders moft fatal ligent in providing the necessaries of to their subje&ts, that in their fober life, he has only to discover where hours they would gladly retract. there is provision, and he must obtain Though on the coast of Africa, a share. If he enter a house during a from Arguin to Adel, numerous comrepast, and give the usual falutation, mercial establishments have been the master must invite him to partake. formed by different nations since iç The laws of hospitality are not ref- was first discovered by the Portugueze, tricted to diet; and begging is not the natives of all those countries have Teckoned disgraceful. Those who are been suffered to remain in their ori. C2

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ginal rude fate. Till lately, the commerce on the manners and morale, Portugueze were the only nation that, on the security and happiness, of the with their subjugation, had atrempt. Africans, has begun to be perceived ed their improvement. The Portu- by the natives their selves; many of gueze did not confine themselves to whom, though occafiona ly engaged trading factories, but formed large in the slave trade, have expreffed their colonies under a regular government joy at the profpect of iis abolition. on the coasts They attempted to in. They not only complain of the frauds ftruct the natives in the cultivation and the inpositions of the whites, but of their foil, and taught them a reli of the general infecurity they have gion which tendeď to foften their introduced. So early as the year manners as well as to reform their 1787, the chief of Almammy not morals. In Loango, Congo, Angola, only prohibited the live-trade in his and Benguila, they have been so se own territories, but ref led to allow dulous in the conversion of the ne- the French to march th: ir slaves from groes, that they are believed to have Gallain through his country, so that made them better Christians than they were obliged to change their themselves. From Benin, Guinea, route. As a Marabout, having in his and Negritia, they were expelled by youth received an education luperior the other European powers, co cpe: to that of other black princes, he rating with the natives, before their readered himself entirely independent establithments had acquired folidity of the whites, ranfomed his subjects They have ftill various factories in when seized by the Moors, and enthese countries; and, at different couraged them to raise cattle, to culplaces of the coa!t, a mongrel race tivate the land, and to practise all are found, who boast their Portu kinds of industry. Falconbridge's gueze extraction, though they have character of the negreses is unqucf- . adopted the manners of the negroes tionably just : “ They feast,” said be, and their modes of life. Io colour " round graves ; and were they to they are hardly distinguishable from “fee their country in flames, they the darkest negroes; a fact which 66 would cry, let it burn, without in. feems to show, that Europeans, adopt. “terrupting their finging, dancing, ing the negro manner of life, would or drinking. They are equally inin time acquire the negroe hue. In “ sensible of grief and neceflity: They

. several of these countries, the Portu- “ fing till they die, and dance into gueze missions, from the want of a

" In spite of this insenteady and persevering support, have sibility, or rather levity of character, experienced a great declination of in- they have learned to estimate the fluence. Their nation, however, has character of the traders. Though the credit of trading in Africa pro- those who are immediately concerned duce to greater extent than any other in the Nave trade say, nation, and of carrying on the Nave- " good for black man to love white trade with as much humanity as it is “man, and not hurt but make trade poflible to unite with fo inhuman a " with him, because white man's ships traffic . Their flave-v. llels are never bring all the good things and Atrong

viffels crowded, and are navigated chiefly " liquors into black nia's country; by black mariners, who fympathize yet the moft dicerning fcruple not to more with the sufferings of their declare, that wherever white countrymen than the whites. Before comes, there comes a sword, a gunthe slaves are shipped, they are cate- powder, and ball. They are desirous chized and receive the rite of baptism. of educating their children in white The pernicious effects of European man's falhion, that he may read book

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and learn to be rogue, so well as white tions, to regard with extreme suspiman; for, say they, if white man not cion the introduction of every species read, he be no better rogue than black of commercial speculation into those

systems of colonization which have Thus it appears that all inter. been founded upon principles of bucourse with the negroes, as it has manity. But surely every method, been carried on upon commercial by which the curiosity of the savage principles, las tended uniformly to may be rouzed, and his industry ex. the debalement of their understand- cited, without calling his malevolent ings, and the degradation of iheir passions into exertion, muit ultimately moral naiures ; every kind of connec tend to the amelioration of his social tion has been fatal, like the touch of state. Agriculture is the principle of the putrid side of the gigantic devil, vitality in a colony, but the producin which the negroes of Anto, on the tion of the raw materials of manuGold Coaft, believe. This circum- facture, or the acquisition of the maftance has induced some of the friends terials of exchange and barter, confiof humunity, who have interested them- tutes its credit, and creates its in. selves in the fate of the African na- Auence as a province or a Dation.

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THE SWEDISH DESIGN OF AN

AGRICULTURAL COLONY IN AFRICA-CHARACTER OF WADSTROM.

From the fame.

FRO

ROM the discovery of West A. of carrying into execution the first

frica by the Portugueze to the agricultural establishment, for inJatter part of the 18th century, the structing the negrues in the cultivafame iniquitous commercial princi- tion of their fertile foil, and teaching ples continued to regulate the inter. them to

avenge
their
wrongs

on the course of white men with their fable abettors of Navery, by rearing a bul. brethren, to degrade the negro, and wark for freedom in the Land of disgrace the European. The immense Slaves. edifice of Navery still continued to The Swedish design of establishing insult the eyes of the sons of freedom; a colony in Africa, which, by its oriand, undeterred by the groans of an- ginal organization, might exclude guish, the clanking of chains, and the every political, financial, and mereanecho of the whip that resound through tile principle, which appeared to be the pile, free men wounded deeply inconsistent with the happiness of the liberties which they boasted, by mankind, though it only terminated assuming the lash of the talkmaster. in exploring a part of that continent, Who first attempted to demolish the originated in the pureat and most difinfernal prison.house, and to raise interested motives. In the year 1779, over its ruins the temple of freedom fome members of a society, formed Who first attempted to viudicate in- for diffuting those principles of civisulted humanity, and to burst the lization which appeared to be best chains which the fanction of ages had calculated for promoting social order rivetied? The Swedish nation may and general happiness, met at Nor. claim the glory of forming the first kioping in Sweden, to confider the specific plan for alleviating the evils colonization and cultivation of waste which the inhuman man-trade has lands in Europe, upon philanthropia occafioned in Africa ; and the Danes cal principles. What scemed imprae. ;

ticable"

ticable in Europe, from the jarring journey to Paris, where, through the interefts and fuctuating politics of representations of Baron Stael voa her powers,—the erection of a com. Holstein, Swedish ambassador, after munity, who might have the privilege fome delay, they procured from the of epacting its own laws, coining of Mareschal de Castries, minister at war its own money, and exempting its and of the colonies, orders to the suimembers from imprifooment for perintendants of all the French facdebt, ---was deemed practicable on tories, as well as their consuls on the the western coast of Africa. To the coast of Barbary, to afford them every execution of this plan, which had a possible assistance at the expence of more extensive object than even the government. They failed from Havre emancipation of the negro race, the de Grace, in Auguft 1787, and armost formidable obftacle appeared to rived at Goree about the end of the be the oppofition which it would ne- rainy season, where they were receffarily receive from the slave-trade ; ceived by the Chevalier de Boufflers a specific plan was however formed, with the utmost politeness. His deand a charter, empowering 40 fami- parture 10.Europe, soon after their lies to settle on the western coast of arrival, rendered abortive their exAfrica, under the protection of Swe- pectations of affittance from the agents den, to organise their own govern of the Senegal Company, who refused ment, to enäet their own laws, and to furnish them with those goods to ettablish a fociety entirely inde: which were absolutely necessary for pendent of Europe, was procured their proposed expedition into the in. from his Swedish Majesty Gusavus 'terior parts of the country. The ge. 111. through the influence of the neral war, which the rapacious and Chamberlain Ulric Nordonk old. The oppreffive monopoly exercised by the only conditions annexed to those pri Senegal Company, whose cupidity vileges were, that the society should even extended to parrots and natural defray the expences of their expedi- curiosities, had provoked the most tion and etablishment, and not in- powerful negro nations to declare fringe the territories poffeffed or against the French, rendered the inclaimed by other European powers. terior entirely inaccessible. These unThe execution of this plan was, for expected and irresistible events obliged some time, retarded by the American Wadstrom and his companions to rewar; but, as it was judged expedient, turn to Europe, with the observations as a preparatory step, to explore Weft they had made on the coast, and the Africa, the Association entered into oral information they had been able engagements with the mercantile to procure concerning the interior house of M. Chauvell' of Havre de regions. Grace, to conduct an expedition of That the Swedish design of agridiscovery at their joint expence. In cultural colonization proved abortive, , this expedition embarked 1Vadstrom, must be regretted by every person of who was an enthusiast with respect to humanity; for, though it originated colonization ; Sparrman and Arrhe- in ideas of extravagant philanthropy, nius, who were enthufiafts in natural depended for its support upon persons fcience ; while the enthusiasm of their of oppolite views, and could never joint employer M. Chauvell, coinci. have realized the sanguine expectaded entirely with the financial views tions of the founders ; yet, when we of his Swedish Majesty, who loved consider the rude fimplicity of the gold much better than any other na. Africans, the romantic nature of the fural production. These adventurers plan was perhaps the very circumleft Sweden in May 1787, on their itance which would have ensured it's

success.

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