Imatges de pÓgina

dom, should sometimes happen to Ta- ftances have been given with sucht. lute the passenger by his right appel. vidence, as 'ueither Bacon nor Boyle lation.

has been able to refilt ; that sudden To the confidence of these objec- impreffions, which the event has ve. tione, Dr Johnson replies, that by rified, have been felt by more than presamiug to determine what is fit, own or publish them ; that the fe: and what is beneficial, they presup: cond fight of the Hebrides, implies pose more knowledge of the universal only the local frequency of a powers system than man has attained; and which is now no where totally untherefore depend upou principles too known ; and that where we are unacomplicated and extensive for our ble to decide by antecedent reason, comprehenfion; and that there can we must be content to yield to the be no fecurity in the consequence, force of telimony. By pretenfion to when the premises are not understood; second fight, no profit was ever fought that the iecond fight is only wonder. or gained. It is an involuntary af, ful because it is rare; for, confidered fection, in which neither hope nor in itself, it involves no more difficulty fear are known to have any párt. than dreams, or perhaps than the re Those who profess to f.el it do not gular exercise of the cogitative facul- boast of it as a privilege, nor are

confidered by others as advantageousThat a general opinion of com- ly distinguished. They have no rempmunicative impulses, or visionary re- tation to feign, and their hearers have presentations, has prevailed in all ages no motive to encourage the impofand all nations; that particular in




From Bertrand de Moleville's Annals of the French Revolution. IT T only depended on the poffeffion scurely profound metaphysician, push

of an abbey of 12,000 livres (five ed himself into notice in 1787, in the hundred pounds sterling) a year, and Provincial Affembly of Oileans, of a little more attention from the arch- which he was a member, by his conbishop of Sens, to have made the abbe tinualand frequently embarrassing opSieges one of the most zealous fup- position to the old principles, and in porters of the old government. I all the views of governmentThe assert this fact on the testimony of se- archbishop of Sens, then minister, veral persons worthy of the highest being informed of it, asked M. de credit, without any fear of its being L-, one of the principal members contradicted by the abbe Sieyes him- of that department, who the abhe self; and I cite him from among a Sieyes was, of whom he had heard so thousand instances, that the world much. “ He is a man (replied M. may juftly appreciate the zeal, pa- de L--) extremely dangerous in triotism, and principles of those re times like these. You must absolutevolationary demoniacs, who all, mad ly secure hiin, to prevent his doing a men and idiots excepted, had no other great deal of mischief."

s. But by object in declaiming and writing 1o what means secure him?" - Tliere violently against the governinent and is but one ; and that is to chain him the ministers, than to make them pur- down with fetters--not of iron, but chase at a higher price their filence or of gold.”

. " What! do you think The abbe Sieyes, a man he is to be bought ?" "I have no før systems, a subtle arguer, and ob doubt of it; he is not rich ; he loves

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expenfive living, and good cheer, and those people: they are all either madof course money." , How much mult' menor fools" _" The archbishop of he have? Do you think an annuity Sens.”—". The archbishop of Sens is of 6000 livres upon an 'abbey would the greatest madman among them.". be enough?”—" No; his price is _“You' will at least allow that he higher than that”-" Say, twelve, is not a fool, and I will convince then: 6. That will do ; but instead you that he is not mad. )

You are of giving him an annuity, give him much in the wrong to speak of him an abbey of that value. He is of as you do: the proof of his not below extraction, and full of vanity; ing mad is, that he thinks highly of he would be highly flattered with an' you."-"Of nie! He dues not even abbey, and you will be sure of being know my name.”_“You are misbetter served for it." " Let it be so taken : he has heard a great deal of then. Will you undertake the ne.' you; and does not doubt that you gociation?". No, I cannot; but could, if you would, be of very great the abbe de Cezarges, who is known service to the adminiftration; he has to be entirely devoted to you, is in even proposed you to the king, and our Provincial assembly, and nobody to give you an abbey."-An abbey!" is fitter to execute the commission." Yes, an abbey! an abbey too

“Well, then, I will put it into with a revenue of 12,000 livrés; this his hands."

deserves attention.”—“No doubt it The archbishop of Sens in confe- would, if what you fay were true.” quence sent the abbe Cozarges privale _“I can' Thow you all I have said to instructions, together with a letter you, written by the hand of the.mi. which he was to show, as occafion re- nitter himself; and I should not have quired to the abbe Sieyes, and in mentioned it to you, had I not been which the minifter spoke highly of expressly commissioned by him to do the talents and great knowledge of it.'-Oh! that alters the case.'—, the abbe, laying, that he had men- • Well! what answer shall I give ?'tioned him to the king, and that his • I cannot pretend to say that a good majesty, thought of calling him into abbey would not give me a very great the administration, of preferring him pleasure.'-? That's right; and you to an abbey of 12,000 livres income, may depend upon having one; but &c.

may the ministry also depend upon With these credentials the abbe your services ? '_Of course : and if Cezarges went, and paid a friendly they will listen to me they will be visit to the athe Sieyes. “How is guilty of fewer follies.'- Then I it, my dear abbe,” said be to him, may write to the archbishop of Sens, “ that with all the talents you pos. that you accept the abbey, and so sess, you have not the wit to turn forth. • Yes, certainly ; but when them to account in improving your is this to take place ?- Immediatesituation ?' 'l he fide of oppotition in ly after the closing of our provincial our assemblies will only serve to cre- affembly. You mult go to Versailles, ate you powerful enemies, and to where you will fre the archbishop ; shut the door of favour againli you; converse with him upon the subject, whereas, if, instead of perpetually op. and in the next arrangement of the posing and embarrafling the govern- lift you will be appointed.' ment, you were to be of service to it, From that moment, the abbe Sieyes you would certainly be well reward. entirely changed his tone in the afed."" Of service to the govern- fembly, to the great astonishment of ment! Do not mention it to me ; those who were unacquainted with there is nothing to be done with his secret. They continued fitting


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ginal rude late. Tilllately, the commerce on the manners and morals, Portugueze were the only nation that, on the security and happiness, of the with their subjugation, had attempt. Africans, has begun to be perceived ed their improvement. The Portu. by the natives their selves; many of gueze did not confine themselves to whom, though occafionally engaged trading factories, but formed large in the slave trade, have expressed their colonies under a regular government joy at the prospect of its abolition, on the coasts They attempted to in. They not only complain of the frauds struct the natives in the cultivation and the iin positions of the whites, but of their soil, and taught them a reli of the general infecurity they have gion which tended to soften their introduced. So early as the year manners as well as to reform their 1787, the chief of Almammy not morals. In Loango, Congo, Angola, only prohibited the live-trade in his and Benguila, they have been so se own territories, but refused to allow dulous in the conversion of the ne- the French to march their slaves from groes, that they are believed to have Gallam through his country, so that made them better Christians than they were obliged to change their themselves. From Benin, Guinea, route. As a Marabout, having in his and Negritia, they were expelled by youth received an education fuperior the other European powers, co cpe to that of other black princes, he rating with the natives, before their readered himself entirely independent establishments had acquired folidity. of the whites, ranfomed his subjects They have till various factories in when seized by the Moors, and enthese countries; and, at different couraged them to raise cattle, to culplaces of the coa!t, a mongrel race tivate the land, and to practise all

, are found, who boaft their Portu, kinds of industry. Falconbridge's gueze extraction, though they have character of the negrives is unques. adopted the manners of the negroes tionably just : “ They feast,” said he, and their modes of life. Io colour " round graves ; and were they to they are hardly distinguishable from “ see their country in flames, they the darkest negroes; a fact which 66 would cry, let it burn, without in. seems to show, that Europeans, adopt. “terrupting their finging, dancing, ing the negro manner of life, would " or drinking. They are equally inin time acquire the negroe hue. In “ fenfible of grief and neceffity : They

i several of these countries, the Portu- “ fing till they die, and dance into gueze missions, from the want of a

" the grave." In spite of this insenIteady and persevering support, have fibility, or rather levity of character, experienced a great declination of in- they have learned to estimat the fluence. Their nation, however, has character of the traders. Though the credit of trading in Africa pro those who are immediately concerned duce to greater extent than any other in the Dave trade say, nation, and of carrying on the slave- “ good for black man to love white trade with as much humanity as it is man, and not hurt but make trade possible to unite with so inhuman a “ with him, because white man's ships traffic. Their fave-v. ffels are never “ bring all the good things and trong crowded, and are navigated chiefly liquors into black ma's country;' by black mariners, who fympathize yet the most discerning scruple not to more with the sufferings of their declare, that wherever white man countrymen than the whites. Before comes, there comes a sword, a gunthe llaves are shipped, they are cate- powder, and ball. They are desirous chized and receive the rite of baptism. of educating their children in white The pernicious effects of European man's falnion, that he may read book


of li is very

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and learn to be rogue, so well as white tions, to regard with extreme suspiinan; for, say they, if white mao not cion the introduction of every species read, he be no better rogue than black of commercial speculation into those

systems, of colonization which have Thus it appears that all inter. been founded upon principles of bucourse with the negroes, as it has manity. But surely every method, been carried on upon commercial by which the curiosity of the favage principles, has tended uniformly to may be rouzed, and his industry ex. the debalement of their understand- cited, without calling his malevolent ings, and the degradation of their passions into exertion, mult ultimately moral naiures ; every kind of connès tend to the amelioration of his social tion has been fatal, like the touch of Itate. Agriculture is the principle of the putrid lide of the gigantic devil, vitality in a colony, but the producin which the negroes of Anto, on the tion of the raw materials of manuGold Coaft, believe. This circum- facture, or the acquisition of the maftauce has induced some of the friends terials of exchange and barter, conftiof humanity, who have interested them- tutes its credit, and creates its in. felves in the fate the African na- fluence as a province or a bation.



From the fame.

ROM the discovery of West A. of carrying into execution the first

frica by the Portugueze to the agricultural establishment, for inJatter part of the 18th century, the structing the negroes in the cultivafame iniquitous commercial princi- tion of their fertile foil, and teaching ples continued to regulate the inter. them to avenge their wrongs on the course of white men with their fable abettors of Navery, by rearing a bulbrethren, to degrade the negro, and wark for freedom in the Land of disgrace the European. The immense Slaves. edifice of lavery still continued to The Swedish design of establishing insult the eyes of the fons of freedom; a colony in Africa, which, by its oriand, undeterred by the groans of an- ginal organization, might exclude guish, the clanking of chains, and the every political, financial, and mereanecho of the whip that resound through tile principle, which appeared to be the pile, free men wounded deeply inconsistent with the happiness of the liberties which they boasted, by maokind, though it only terminated assuming the lash of the taskmaster. in exploring a part of that continent, Who firft attempted to demolish the originated in the purest and most difinfernal prison-house, and to raise interested motives. In the year 1779, over its ruins the temple of freedom ? fome members of a society, formed Who first attempted to vindicate in- for diffusing those principles of civi. sulted humanity, and to burst the lization which appeared to be best chains which the fanction of ages had calculated for promoting social order rivetted? The Swedish nation may and general happiness, met at Nor. claim the glory of forming the first kioping in Sweden, to confider the specific plan for alleviating the evils colonization and cultivation of waite which the inhuman man-trade has lands in Europe, upon philanthropia occafioned in Africa ; and the Danes cal principles. What scemed imprac.

ticable fuccess.

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ticable in Europe, from the jarring journey to Paris, where, through the interefts and Auctuating politics of representations of Baron Stael von her powers,-the erection of a com. Holstein, Swedish ambassador, after munity, who might have the privilege some delay, they procured from the of evacting its own laws, coining of Mareschal de Caftries, minister at war its own money, and exempting its and of the colonies, orders to the fumembers from imprifonment for perintendants of all the French facdebt,-was deemed practicable on tories, as well as their consuls on the the western coast of Africa. To the coast of Barbary, to afford them every execution of this plan, which had a possible assistance at the expence of more extensive object than even the government. They failed from Havre emancipation of the negro race, the de Grace, in August 1787, and armost formidable obftacle appeared to rived at Goree about the end of the be the oppofition which it would ne. rainy season, where they were réceffarily receive from the slave-tradeceived by the Chevalier de Boufflers a specific plan was however formed, with the utmost politeness. His deand a charter, empowering 40 fami- parture to, Europe, soon after their lies to fettle on the western coast of arrival, rendered abortive their exAfrica, under the protection of Swe- pectations of affistance from the agents den, to organise their own govern- of the Senegal Company, who refused ment, to enact their own laws, and to furnish them with those goods to eltablish a fociety entirely inde. which were absolutely necessary for pendent of Europe, was procured their proposed expedition into the infrom his Swedish Majesty Guftavus 'terior parts of the country. The ge111. through the influence of the neral war, which the rapacious and Chamberlain Ulric Nordonk old. The oppreffive monopoly exercised by the only conditions annexed to those pri. Senegal Company, whose cupidity sileges were, that the society should even extended to parrots and natural defray the expences of their expedi- curiosities, had provoked the most tion and establishment, and not in- powerful negro nations to declare fringe the territories poffeffed or against the French, rendered the inclaimed by other European powers. terior entirely inaccessible. These unThe execution of this plan was, for expected and irresistible eventsobliged some time, retarded by the American Wadstrom and his companions to rewar; but, as it was judged expedient, turn to Europe, with the observations as a preparatory step, to explore Weft they had made on the coast, and the Africa, the Association entered into oral information they had been able engagements with the mercantile to procure concerning the interior houfe of M. Chauvell of Havre de regions. Grace, to conduct an expedition of That the Swedish design of agridiscovery at their joint expence. In cultural colonization proved abortive, this expedition embarked Wadftrom, must be regretted by every person of who was an enthufiaft with respect to humanity; for, though it originated colonization ; Sparrman and Arrhe- in ideas of extravagant philanthropy, nius, who were enthufiafts in natural depended for its support upon persons fcience ; while the enthufiafm of their of oppolite views, and could never joint employer M. Chauvell, coinci. have realized the sanguine expectaded entirely with the financial views tions of the founders ; yet, when we of his Swedish Majesty, whio loved consider the rude fimplicity of the gold much better than any other na. Africans, the romantic nature of the fural production. These adventurers plan was perhaps the very circumleft Sweden in May 1787, on their itance which would have enfured it's

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