Imatges de pÓgina



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filccess. The exclufion of artificial referred to in the parliamentary de.' credit, a practice fo averfe to the ideas bates. The opinions he delivered conof Europeans, would not shock the cerning the abolition of the Bave. prejudices of Africans, among whom, trade, and the establishment of phithe rights of property are vague and lanthropic colonies, gave rise to the indeterminate; and peculiarity of settlements of Sierra Leona and Boucuftoms, when once introduced, would lama, which may be considered as he the most powerful support of the monuments erected to humanity, by institution. A fyftem, approximating the friends of mankind. During his to equality of property, could have ftay in London, the war between produced in an infant colony none of Russia and Sweden commeoced, and those violent convulsions that have deprived him of all hopes of assistance deprived the French of every poslible in his colonial project from that quaradvantage that could have accrued ter; but, at the same time, a much from the destruction of despotism, more favourable prospect opened in and united the name of liberty with England, Wadftrom's applications to every epithet of horror and detefta. the British miniftry were so effec

tually supported by perfons of the first Charles Berns Waditrom was born respectability, that, in 1789, a vessel at Stockholm in the year 1746. After was ordered to be equipped for an finishing his academical ftudies, he expedition to discover the best fituaentered as engineer into the service tions for colonies on the western coaft of his Swedith Majesty. From his of Africa. This voyage was interknowledge in mechanics and minera. rupted by the contest with Spain conlogy, a part of the works that were cerning Nootka Sound; and after ere&ting, in order to render navigable. Captain Roberts had waited a confithe cataract of Trochaitta, was confiderable time for orders, he was ordered ded to his care, in 1709 and 1768. to fail on a secret expedition. In In 1769, he was employed in con- 1789 he published a finall tract, comduding the working of the copper- piled from his journals, entitled, mines at Arvidaberg. He was after. «« Obfervations on the Slave-trade, wards engaged in the direction of " in a voyage to the coast of Guinea,'' various establishments, and had fre- containing much interesting informaqueot personal intercourse with the tion concerning his African expediKing of Sweden, before his African tion. From the year 1790, to the expedition. At his return to Europe, commencement of the Republican Arrhenius went directly to Sweden; war, the precarious state of Europeana but Wadftrom, with his friend Sparr. politics prevented him from forming man, went to London, where the any new colonial arrangements, and question of the abolition of the flave: death terminated all his plans before trade had begun to be agitated in the peace of Europe was restored. Parliament. They were summoned But during the interval between his before the British Privy.Council, and death and his return from Africa, he repeatedly examined. Wadstrom, did not renounce his favourite scheme who had obtained permission to re- of colonization Having, while he main in England during this import: refided in Africa, been ftruck with ant discussion, produced the journal the inclination of the Negroes to {pin of daily transactions which he had and weave cotion, and having been kept in Africa, to vouch for the fi- furprised at their perseverance and delity of his report. His evidence fuccess, with the most imperfect ma

considered as highly curious, chinery, he engaged in the cottonuseful, and interesting, and frequently manułacture at Manchester, in order



to acquire fuch a knowledge of the pectations and simplicity of heart, bufineis as might qualify him for in- often made him the dupe of his own ftructing the natives of Africa. In credulity. It is' now the fashion to 1794, he published, in 4to, “ An ef- decry, with every term of virulence, say on colonization, particularly and in one indiscriminate mass, all

applied to the western coast of A those who approve, or have approved “ frica, with time free thoughts on of the French Revolution Yet, “ cultivation and commerce, and brief surely, there were many persons of « descriptions of the colonies already the purest benevolence, of the moft « formed, or attemp:ed.” Of this humane and upright views, persons work, Buonaparte is raid to have whose fouls were fickened by concarried a copy with him, when he de: templating, with vain regret, the mi. parted on his Egyptian expedition. series and wretchednefs which they As the difficulty of communication could not relieve, who beheld its combetween France and England render- mencement with supreme pleasure, ed it almost impossible to procure a its progress, at first, with anxiety and copy, he was presented with the only chagrin, and afterwards with deep remaining one in the possession of deteftation and abhorrence. It is the author, then residing at Paris. equally injurious and unjust, to conThis expedition, which in future found these humane and benevolent times will be cenfured or applauded, 'men, who credulously expected an according to its ultimate success, equality of happines, instead of an ab. which the laws of nations and the furd equality of property, to be produfaith of treaties muft condemn, but ced by the revolutionizing system, which the laws of that aggrandizing with those votaries of anarchy and patriotism, which, in ancient tines, confufion, whose rapacious hands, characterized the Romans, and, in and unfeeling hearts, have marked modern, the Ruffians, muit approve, the paths of Revolution with murder was beheld with triumph by Wad.' and blood. With the former class, strom, who believed that the civiliza- few will scruple to rank the benevotion of Africa, and the liberty of Afia, lent Waditrom, though he seems to depended on its success. He saw the have retained, to the last, his ideas of French in poffeffion of Egypt, but the ultimate consequences of the his days were terininated by a pul. French Revolution, with the same monary consumption, in less than a credulous fimplicity which is said to year after the arrival of Buonaparte have prompted him to seek for the in that country:

New Jerusalem of Swedenborg, amid Those who condemn, with the the unexplored regions of Africa, greatest bitterness, the political opi. His essay on colonization contains an nions of Wadstrom, muft, in their immense collection of materials on hearts, venerate the active benevo. that subject, with a particular refelence of his character. His errors rence to Africa, combined in no ju. were, the diseases of too tender a sen- dicious or luminous order, but confibility, the excessive confidence of taiņing almost every

obftrvation, new too liberal a spirit, the uubounded or old, trite or original, which seemed benevolence of too warm a heart. His to be intimately connected with the heart seemed more enlarged than his fubje&t. Theoretical speculations, underitanding, his feelings were always practical observations, original docuin the right, though his judgment was ments, and citations from authors, often in the wrong. His philanthro- are immethodically produced, and pic schemes were generally romantic, lose much of their value from their and often delufive; his fanguine ex. inartificial arrangement. His ftyle is


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loose, tedious, and full of repetition, Navery, he was purchased by a muhis reflections are often original, but latto trader of Grenada, and brought the relations of his ideas are seldom to England, which was beginning to accurately defined. Yet Waditrom, be agitated by the question concernin contributing to the emancipation ing the abolition of the slave-trade. of the Negroes, was likewise the be. But, as this merely mercantile tipe. nefactor of the Europeans : " for," culation disappointed the projector, as Helen Maria Williams remarks in he was taking measures to convey

"the dignity of human na- the unfortunate African prince back “ture, violated in the person of the to the West Indies, when the design “llave, is avenged by the consequent was discovered by Wadftrom, who

depravity of his master. Even the redeemed him at his own cost. The si softer sex, who seem born to soothe young man was placed in an academy ** with sympathizing tears, the mi. at Mitcham in jurry, to be inftruc“ series of humanity, in those regions, ted in the rudiments of Christianity, " where slavery prevails, display the and such branches of education as he is monstrous contralt of weakness and could comprehend, and was baptiz. -- ferocity, of voluptuous indolence ed, Dec. 25, 1768. He continued "and active cruelty, of a frame en- at Mitcham two years and a half, “ ervated by the refinements of lux. but died of a consumption in Oct. ury,

and heart hardened by fa- 1790, about the age of 19 or 20 “ miliarity with crimes.” This ac- years. count of Wadstrom may be properly He was obedient and docile, closed, with the following instance of though not endowed with extraordihis active benevolence. A son of nary powers, fond of agriculture, and the king of Mesurado had been base- a moderate proficient in reading and ly decoyed from his father by an Eng, writing. Though acquainted with lish vessel, and carried first to Sierra European customs, he retained an inLeona, and afterwards to the Welt vincible propenfity for those simple Indies. Upon being recognized by manners to which he had been achis countrymen and companions in customed in his native country.

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THE second fight, in the Erse, cal. at work about the house, fees him led Taisch, is a mode of seeing bleeding on the ground, comm

monly super-added to that which nature with a landscape of the place where generally beltows. This gift of fa- the accident befalls him. Another culty, which is neither voluntary nor seer, driving home his cattle, or wanconftant, is in general rather trouble. dering in idleness, or mufing in the fome than agrecable to the possessors funshine, is suddenly surprised by the. of it, who are chiefly found among appearance of a bridal ceremony, or the inhabitants of the highlands of funeral proceffion, and counts the Scotland, those of the Western Ifles, mouroers or attendants, of whom, of the lfie of Man, and of Ireland. if he knows them, he relates the It is an impression made either by the names ; if he knows them not, he mind upon the eye, or by the eye can describe the drelles. Things disupon the mind, by which

tant are feen at the instant when they tant or future are perceived, and feen, happen. as if they were present, A inan on

Of things future, Johnson fays that a journey, far from home, falls from he knows no rule pretended to, for his horse ; another, who is; perhaps, determining the time between the Ed. Mag. Jan. 18:00. D


ings dif

fight and the event; but we are in. bours of agriculture ; the mournful formed by Mr Grofc, that in ge dufhing of waves along the friths neral the time of accomplishment and lakes that intersect the country; bears some relation to the time of the partentous noiles which cvery the day in which the impresions change of the wind and


in. are received. Thus vifions fien early creased diminution of the waters is in the morning (which feldom happen) apt to raise in a lonely region, full of will be much sooner accomplithed rocks and caverns; the grotesque than those occurring at noon; and and ghastly appearance of such a those seen at roon will take place in landscape by the light of the moon : a much shorter time than those hapo obj. As like these, diffuse a gloom pening at night: fometimes the ac. over the fancy, which may be comcomplithment of the lat does not patible enough with occasional and fall out within a year or more. social merriment, but cannot fail to

These visions are not confined to tincture the thoughts of a native in Solemn or important évents ; nor is the hour of silence and solitude If it true, as is commonly reported, that these people, not with.fanding their to the second fight nothing is pre. reformation in religion, and more sented but phantoms of evil. The frequent intercourse with ftrangers, future visit of a mountebank, or pip- do itill retain many of their old lu. er; a plentiful draught of fish ; the perstitions, we need not doubt, but arrival of common travellers; or, in former times they must have been ir pollible, still more trifling matters much more endlaved to the horrors than these, are foreseen by the seers. of imagination, when beset with the A gentleman told Dr Johnson, that bugbears of popery aud paganism. when he had once gone far from his Most of their fuperftitions are of a own island, one of his own servants melancholy caft. That of fecond sight, predicted his return, and described by which some are still supposed to ihe livery of his attendant, which be haunted, is confidered by themhe had never worn at home; and felves as a misfortune, on account of which had been, without any pre che many dreadful images it is said vious defign, occasionally given himn. to obtrude upon the fancy. It is

As many men, eminent for science said, that some of the Alpine regions and literature, have admitted the re. do likewise lay claim to i fort of fe. ality of this apparently uselefs gift, cond fight. Nor is it wonderful, that we shall, without interpoting our own persons of a lively imagination, imopinion, give the riflccions of two mured in deep folitude, and surroundof the first characiers of the age upon ed with the flupendous scenery of it, and leave our readers to furm clouds, precipices, and torrents, their own judgment.

should dream, (even wlien they think By Dr Beattie, it is thus account. themselves awake) of those few Itriked for: The Highlards of Scotland ing ideas with which iheir lonely lives are a picturesque, but a melancholy are diversified: of corples, funeral bountry: Long tracts of mountain proceflions, and other lubjects of terous desert, covered with dark heath, ror: or of marriages, and the arand often obscured by misty weather; rival of strangers, and such like matBarrow valleys, thinly inhabited, and ters of more agreeable curiolity. bounded by precipices, resounding Let it be observed also, that the with ihe fall of torrents; a foil fo ancient Highlanders of Scotland had ugged, and a climate to dreary, as hardly any other way of supporting in many parts to admit neither the themselves than by hunting, fishing, anulements of paturege nor the la. or war : professions that are continua



ally exposed to fatal accidents. back. Add but a lively dream to And hence, no doubt, additional hor. this sumber, and (which is the free rors would often haunt their folitude, quent effect of disease) take away

the and a deeper gloom overshadow the consciousness of having been alleep, imagination even of the hardiest na- and a superstitious man may eally tive.

mistake his dream for a waking viA fufficient evidence can hardly fion; which, however, is soon forgotbe found for the reality of the second ten, when no subsequent occurrence fight, or at least of what is common. recalls it to his memory; but which, ly understood by that term. A trea. if it shall be thought to resemble any tise on the subject was publihed in future event, exalts the poor

dreamer the year 1762, in which many tales into a Highland prophet. This con-' were told of persons whom the au. ceit makes bim more recluse and thor believed to have been favoured, more melancholy than ever; and so or haunted, with these illuminations: feeds his disease and multiplies his · but most of the tales were trifling visions: which, if they are not dilliand ridiculous: and the whole work pated by business or society, may betrayed, on the part of the compil- continue to haunt him as long as he er, such extreme credulity, as could lives; and which in their progress nor Hot Mail to prejudice many readers a. through the neighbourhood, receive gainst his system.

fome new tinctures of the marrellous That any of these visionaries are from every mouth that promotes their apt to be swayed in their declarations circulation. As to the prophetical by finister views, we will not say; nature of this second fight, it cannot but this may be said with confidence, be admitted at all. That the Deity that none but ignorant people pre- Mould work a miracle in order to tend to be gifted in this way. And give intimation of the frivolous things in them, it may be nothing more, that these tales are made up of, the perhaps, than short fits of sudden arrival of a stranger, the nailing of fleep or drowsiness, attended with a coffin, or the colour of a suit of lively dreams, and arising from some clothes; and that these intimations bodily disorder, the effect of idleness, should be given for no end, and to low spirits, or a gloomy imagination. those persons only who are idle and I'or it is admitted, even by the most solitary, who speak Gaelic, or who credulous Highlanders, that as krow. live among mountains and deserts, is, ledge and industry are propagated in like nothing in nature, or providence, their country, the second light dis- that we are acquainted wi:h: and appears in proportion: and nobody must therefore, unless it were confirmever laid claim to the faculty who ed by fatisfactory proof, (wbich is was much employed in the intercourse not the case) be rejected as absurd of social life. Nor is it at all extra. and incredible. ordinary, that one should have the These visions, such as they are, appearance of being awake, and may reasonably enough be ascribed Auld even think one's self so, during to a diftempered fancy. And that these fits of doling: that they Mould in them, as well as in our ordinary come on suddenly, and while one is dreams, certain


should, engaged in some busineis. The same on some rare occasions, resemble cer

eing happens to persons much fa- tain events, is to be expected from tigued, or long kept awake, who fre- the laws of chance; and seems to quently fall asleep for a moment, or have in it nothing more marvellous, for a long space, while they are stand. or fupernatural, than that the parrot, , ing, or waiking, or riding on horse- who deals out his scurrilities at ranD 2



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