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The Gleaner... No. XV.

3 paffion. In some persons it seems to His menaces amazingly facilitated have been a hereditary disease, a spe. their convertion, and another band of cies of furious melancholy, which ge. miffionaries failed to Iceland. On nerally seized them in the evening. their arrival violent debates ensued in The following description of a Ber- the assemblies of the people, during serker occurs in another Saga. • Ke. which a volcano, or earthfire, as it

till, from his childhood, was tract. is termed, burst forth in' Olfus; and, “! able and taciturn, displaying but in order to avert the impending del" little curiosity ; but twice in the truction, the Pagans prepared to sa" month he was seized with a fit, crifice two men for every province. “ when his skin shuddered, his teeth Hiallt and Giflur, the chiefs of the

gnashed, and his body was violent. Christians, likewise assembled their “ ly agitated. This shivering he people, as if to a facrifice, and thus “ described as resembling the diffusion addressed them : "'The heathens of66 of some cold fubftance between his “ fer as victims to their gods the most os skin and his fieth. This cold was 6 wicked men, whom they precipi* succeeded by violent fury, which tate from Iteep rocks; but let us 6 wrecked itself indiscriminately on “ select the most virtuous men as " whatever object occurred, whether “vietims to Jesus Christ, that they " animate or inanimate." The fu.

may

live ftill more virtuously, and pernatural strength which these mad “ more unblameably." Thorgeir men displayed, the warriors of the advised the Icelanders to compromise north fomeiimes attempted to acquire their disputeö, and preserve internal by eating the flesh of bears, the hearts tranquillity. Being chosen arbitraof wild beasts killed in hunting, and tor of their differences, he enacted, by drinking warm human blood. " That the Icelanders should all be The Berserkers derived" their name baptized, and worship one God; from their customary mode of fight. “ that the ancient cultom of expofing without armour, or in their bare "ing infants, and eating horse Aesh, Shirts, as the term literally fignifies. " Thould continue as formerly ; and Trusting to the fupernatural influence that facrifices to the ancient gods of the fpirits which they worshipped, " should not be performed publicly, they were the most zealous opponents “ under penalty of punishment." of Christianity in Iceland, where it After this regulation, the practice of madę considerable progress. The sacrifice foon fell into desuetude. Pagans often reviled Christ, and the The Pagans complained of being deChristians sometimes retorted their ceived in this convention, but submitinvectives, till at last Hiallt the lon ted to baptism, on condition that the of Skegg was banished for blasphem- rite should be performed in a warm ing the goddess Freya. He built a bath. Thus was Iceland finally conbarge, and failed to Norway, where verted about the year 1000; and he informed Olaf of the success of this moje of conversion easily achis million. As the Icelanders ap- counts for the number of Gothic supeared to king Olaf unreasonably te- perititions retained by the common nacious of their ancient opinions, he people of that country to a very late caused all the Pagans who had vifited period.

]. his court to be apprehended, and (The Critique on Kotzebuè continaed threatened with severe punishments.

in our next.)

DESCRIPTION OF THE VIEW.

BARNBOUGLE Caftle, the feat beautifully fituate on the southern of the Earl of Roseberry, is shore of the Frith of Forth, at the

dilance

distance of somewhat more than jects which mark the busy, crowded three miles north-west from Edin. intercourse of men, catching the eye; burgh.

while, on the liquid expanse, Ships The house is handsome and com- of all forms and bulks, are contimodious. The park is beautiful, nually seen to pass and repass, ridand confiderably extensive. The ad- ing at anchor, or tosling before the ... jacent grounds are skilfully laid out, wind.

and ornamented. But it is from its Barnbougle.Caftle, with its do. situation in a sort of nook upon the mains, were the ancient property of Frith, that this house derives its a branch of the illustrious Norman principal advantages of aspect and family of Mowbray. In the begin. prospect. From certain points of ning of the sixteenth century, they view, its appearance is strikingly pic- were acquired by Hamilton, Earl of turesque. Nothing in landscape can Haddingtoe. Soon after the rettobe nobler, or more interesting, than ration of Charles the Second, Primthe gradual opening of the Frith, rose first Earl of Roseberry, who atinto the unlimited expanse of the tained to nobility through the graOcean; as it is seen from Barnbougle. dation of Juridical services and hoHouse; the shores winding beauti- nours, purchased thefe poffeffions. fully on either side ; presenting, here They have been inherited by his fabroken, scarry cliffs,—there green mily. The present pofessor is Neil, and cultured banks; there towns, third in succession of the Earls of groves of mafts, and those varied ob- Roseberry:

CAUSES OF OUR PRESENT DISTRESS FOR PROVISIONS.

By William Brooke, F. S. A. WHEN the nation, about thirty It may, therefore, be afferted as

years ago, began to turn its the general sense of the nation, that serious attention to agriculture, as a our distress, for want of greater plenty science of the first importance, a very in the articles of wheat and other wrong bias took place in the mind of grain, butcher's meat, poultry, &c. the public; whether by the contriv- arises from various causes, the prinance of artful individuals, or by acci. cipal of which are, dent, I shall not pretend to determine. Monopoly of farms; The mistake was, that it would be The immense number of horses more for the advantage of the nation, kept in this kingdom ; that the small farms and cottages The neglect in breeding cows, should be thrown into large farms; horned cattle, hogs, asses, and goats; and

upon this illulive idea, that the The almost disuse of fish, and care. large farmer, by the means of his lessness of our fisheries ; superior capital, would work the The present method of supporting land which he occupied to greater the clergy; advantage than the imall farmer. Too extenfive hop-grounds ;

Unfortunately, experience, that Neglect of orcharding, &c. never failing touchstone to truth, hath I will boldly affert, that the feconvinced us how much we were in condary cause of many of the mil.

As the present period is chiefs we have experienced of misery not the moment to indulge in specula- and almost famine, has been from an

soning, it will be right to come animal, which, although a noble anio the essential points at once. mal, and of value in himself, has

the wrong

ive rea

proved to this country uncommonly for argument fake we will allow that pernicious ; I mean the horse, not in the produce of 250,000 acres sown himself, had he been bred in mode. with oats is eaten by the people, and ration ; but from the extravagant 150,000 acres used for fattening numbers now in the land, and the twine. It appears clear, if this statedoubly extravagant manner in which ment is correct, that as much land they are kept.

at least is sown for the support of In the first place, the high price of horses as is for the people: a very horses of late years, has encouraged melancholy reflection, when the poor the monopolizers of many of our have fo feverely suffered. superior lands to occupy them in In times of peace let any person breeding and rearing these animals, look over the bills of entry of Lonwhich, in the early stage of life, can don only, and he cannot but notice be looked after without much trouble. the many hundred thousand quarters

It appears by the minister's re- of oats imported from Holland and port, there are near one million and Flanders, and be sensibly struck with an half of horses in this kingdom; the heavy expenee horses are to this those who know the great expense of country. keeping one only of these beate in I shall be asked, on the other hand, good order, on grass, hay, and grain, how is the ploughing, the drawing, will surely agree with me, that five and all kinds of team work, to be human beings could live in great performed without horses ? I answer, plenty on the produce of the fame By oxen, bulls, or mules. The prequantity of land needful to support ference is due to the firit animal, on one horse. It is therefore evident, account of his increasing size; and the horses in England devour not also for the value and quality of his only a very large proportion of the carcafe. grain raised in it, but also occupy the That the ox or bull is capable of beft paltures in the kingdom ; pas- performing all the business of heavy tures which ought to be employed draft, not only as well as the horse, for the support of much more useful but even better, is proved beyond animals.

contradiction by the use of them in As every possible proof on so Flanders, Germany, Spain, Turkey, weighty a subject ought to be brought and all the Eaft, where they plough, forward to support bare affertion, &c. with no other animals; they are

“ I shall adjoin the actual state of also generally employed in the norththe contant tillage-land in England, ern ftates of America, and even in as taken from an account published some few places in England. In the by authority. It consists of ten mil. five New England ftates, all farming lions and one half of acres (Wales business, such as ploughing, harrowexcluded,) of which there are only ing, weeding among corn, &c. ; also yearly in wheat 2,100,000 acres : all the waggons, carts, sledges, dragthere consequently remain 8,400,000 ging timber of the largest fize, clearacres employed in railing barley, ing land, &c. all is done by oxen; oats, rye, beans, peas, &c. or fallow: and they not only execute the work admitting that 3,400,000 are sown I have specified, but go very long with barley and rye, there yet re journies of many hundred miles, in main

5,000,000 unaccounted for ; as short a time as can commonly be and it is but fair to affirm that done by horses: as one striking in2,500,000 acres are sown with oars, stance, a gentleman with whom I beans, and peas, the remaining two was well acquainted, removed his famillions and a half being fallow; and mily from the eastern part of Massa

chusetts

chusetts to Kentucky, a distance of or even the eighth of an inch, but upwards of one thousand miles, which enforce the law with the utmost rijourney he performed in forty-three gour. From the size of some salmon days, with only two yoke of large brought to London and openly sold, oxen, that drew the weight of two it is evident the acts are grossly etons, the waggon included. I men- vaded, and therefore every fihmonger tion this circumstance, to contradict who bought a salmon under a certain as much as poflible the mistaken pre- weight should be liable to a heavy judice which prevails in this country, fine, and the fisherman a severe pu. that oxen cannot travel; and if they nishment; for the cupidity and obcould, it is said they are tediously stinacy of the fisherman not only ma. llow : whereas it is a well known terially injures the country, but his fact, that oxen will without difficulty, own 'permanent interest ; for he and with heavier loads ihan an equal might, with a little patience, get number of horses can draw, travel ten times the weight he now does. two miles and one half in the hour ; When the present price of two fhil. a pace quite as quick as our heavy lings per pound is now paid in Lonstage waggons usually go ; and be don for salmon, and not likely to be fides, this labour is executed with plentiful and cheap again, without requiring little more than half the parliamentary interference, no doub food neceffary for horses. But if a it will shortly be attended to with creature with a quicker ttep is want- zeal and complete effect. ed, the breed of the buffalo might be But is it not a shame to the interintroduced ; this beast will go fix or nal regulation of the metropolis of feven miles per hour, and the meat is the empire, that Paris, distant one very good. The ox and bull have hundred and forty miles from the also this great advantage over the sea, and no tide navigation, should horse, that they eat their food much be, not only more plentifully supplied fafter, and are sooner refreshed. with sea-filh, than London, but

It is a well-known fact, that all commonly at half the price? As to fish of transit, such as the salmon, re. fresh-water fish, there is no compariturn yearly to the same river they son in the supply of the two cities, were spawned in ; and it is generally Paris having constantly abondance, allowed the increase of size of this and London next to none.

There is fish, when it returns from the sea, is also a glaring absurdity and misma'thirteen inches and upwards ; indeed nagement to be noticed at Billingfmany actual experiments have proved gate, where we observe constantly in he fact. If, therefore, at one or time of peace a number of Dutch boats, two periods of the year the river loaded with turbot, plaice, flounders, tilheries were forbid altogether, or at eels, &c. ; but what increases the inolt allowed to be fithed two days surprise is, the Dutch fishermen buy in the week, we should have all our the lamprey fish, the best bait for salmon rivers in less than five years the turbot, in our own rivers. Surefull of that delicious animal. And ly this matter merits the attention of the river Severn alone, which breeds the lord mayor and aldermen, that the very belt quality, and is now al. fome effective plan may be adopted most empty, would produce not only to supply London ourselves, without fufficient for the towns on its banks, being obliged to pay a tribute in but amply supply the London market. cash of 60,000l and upwards yearly, It would be well also to enlarge the to our more indutrious neighbou:'s mes of the nets by an act of Parlia- and rivals, and for what may be said ment, if only one quarter of an inchi, to belong to us.

1

ACCOUNT 9 ACCOUNT OF THE QUADELIM AND LABDESSEBA ARABS-CHARACTER OP

BRISSON

From a Historical and Philofophical Skech of the Discoveries and Settlements of the

Europeans in Northern and Western Africa, &c. M. De Brisson, after having made The Arabs, into whose hands he had

- leveral voyages to Africa, was fallen, had only come down to the wrecked a little to the north of Cape sea coast to gather wild grain, three Blanc, and fell into the hands of the days before the shipwreck; and, to Labdeffeba Arabs. After escaping preserve their booty, they immethe shvals, his companions and he al diately retreated to the inierior part cended the rocks on the thore, froin of the desert A guide preceded the the summits of which they saw the horde, tv place at intervals small pycountry expand in an immense plain, ramids of stone, to direct their course, covered with white sand, over which at a distance from every

hoftile-tribe. were thinly scattered a few creeping After pafling fome very high mounplants resembling branches of coral. rains, wholly cuvered with small The feed of these plants was similar greyish pebbles, as sharp as Ajnts. in form to that of mustard, but ex they deloended into a sandy plain tremely finall

. The Arabs, who overspread with thorns and thistles. collect it to form an edible paste, When Briffon was unable to walk, term it avezoud. The ciftunt hills, on account of the bleeding of his feet, covered with wild fern, presented the he was mounted on a camel, the appearance

of an exti olive foreit bristly hair and hard trot of which Proceeding towards some camels foon excoriated him so much, that which they observed, they were dif. the blood run copiously down ito covered by some children tending the Banks. By thr. wing beared ftones goats, anii the alarm was foon (pread into a wooden veffel, filled with barley toihe tents of the Arabs, who quickly meal, diluted with water procured on advanced to meet them with fright the sea-shore, preserved in a goatful ihrieks and gesticulations. Terror skin, and mixed with pitch to preseized the companions of M. de Bril- vent putrefa&ion, the Arabs prepared son as the Arabs advanced, and the a kind of foup, which they kneaded polished tteel of their weapons re. with their hands, and ate anchewed. fected the sun beams; they dispersed They roasted a goat in heated sand, themselves in confusion; and were ate its fat raw, and, after having dequickly overpowered, fripped, and voured the flesh, gnawed the bones, plundered. Briffon and eleven others and scraped them with their nails, surrendered themselves to the Talbe, threw them to B ilt in and his comor priest, who was unarmed, and were panions, deliring them to eat quickly, conducted to a wretched hut, covered and load the camels, that the journey with moss, at the dillance of a league might not be impeded Proceeding from the shore. Here, during the ealt ward, they crossed a vatt plain, absence of Sidi Mahomet, the prielt, covered with {mall stones, white as who was of the tribe of Labdefleba, snow, round and flat as a lentil, where they were attacked and maltreated not a fingle plant was produced. The by a party of the Ouadelims, and, earth beneath their feet resounded during the buille wbieh enfued, Bris. dull and hollow, and the small stones son had almost lost his life. Instead pricked them like sparks of fire, The of compasionating his forlorn litua reflection of the rays of the sun from tion, the women threw fand into his the sand was scorching; the atmore eyes, as they said to dry his eye-lids.phere was loaded with a red. vapour, Ed, Mag. Jan. 180o.

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