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EDINBURGH MAGAZINE,

OR

LITERARY MISCELLANY,

FOR FEBRUARY 1800.

With a View of MelvILLE-CASTLE, the Seat of the Right Hon. Henry

Dundas,

87

CONTENTS:
Page

Page Register of the Weather for Feb. 81 reign Afairs in France, and High Water at Leith for March, ib. from Gen. Buonaparte : with Account of Experimentson Whin the Answers returned to them

Atoné, by Sir James Hall, Bart. 83 by the Right Hon. Lord Gren. Hints of Instruction to any who ville, his Majesty's Principal may adopt the Route over

Secretary of State for Foreign Land from India, thro' Coun. Affairs,

118 tries in Afia, and thro' Bul. Memoirs of Richard Brinsley garia, &c.

Sheridan, Elg.

128 Description of the View, 88 The Prince of Geelaun and the On the Study of Natural Philoso.

King Mouse ; a Persian Tale, 133 phy, Natural Hiftory, and Ma.

POETRY. thematics; in Letters from a Father to his Soñ,

89 Introduction to the Tale of the Essay on Landscape Gardening, 92 Dark Ladie; by s. 1. ColeOn English Verse, 94 ridge,

141 The Probable History of King Ode for the New Year, by H. 7. Arthur,

Pye, Esq.

142 Anecdotes of Mirabeau and la

The Hermit Boy, · Fayette,

IOI The Affectionate Heart, by you On the Spirit of Chivalry in Eu- feph Cottle,

144 rope,

104 On'the Ancient and Modern Use of Ghosts,

108 Proceedings of Parliament, 145 New Constitution of France,

Interelling Intelligence from the -Of the Legislative Power 113

London Gazettes,

147 Of the Government,

114
Affairs in Scotland,

158 - Of the Tribunal,

115

Trial of Griffith Williams for MurOf the Responsibility of the der, before the High Court of Public Functionaries, 116 Jufticiary,

ib -General Dispofitions, ib. Births,

ib, Letters from the Minister for Fo- Marriages and Deaths,

159 L

State ti ya 9

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143

MONTHLY REGISTER.

O

State of the BAROMETER, in inches and decimals,

and of Farenheit's THERMOMETER in the open air, taken in the morning before fun-rise, and at noon; and the quantity of rain-water fallen, in inches and decimals, from Feb. 1. to 25. 1800 in the vicinity of Edinburgh.

1

6 50

Weather.

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8 25

8 33

M

N.

36

36

Su. 9. M, 10.

35

I 44 2 34

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32 36

4 12

High Water at LEITE

for MARCH 800. (From the Town and Country Almanack.)

Morn. Even. Days. H. M. H. M. St. 1.

6 6 16 27 Su. 2.

7 13 M. 3. 7 37

8 T.

4. W, 56 919

9 48 Th. 6. 10 14 10 40 Fr. 7. 11

8

Il 34 Sa. 8.

4 o 30

o 55 I 20 T. 11.

2 10 I 2. 2 56

3 24 Th. 13. 3 47 Fr. 14. 4 37

5 3 5 30

6 с Su. 16. 629 7 1 M.' 17. 731

8 2 T: 18. 8 32

9 3 W. 19. 9 32

I I Th.20. 10 28 Fr. 21. IL 23 11 49 Sa. 22.

O 13

1 I 19 I 41 T. 25.. 2

4 W. 26. 2 45

3 7 3 39 3 59 Fr. 28. 4. 16

4 37 Sa. 29. 4 58

5 19 Su. 30. 545

6

7 31.

6

29

35

1800. Barom. Thermom. Rain. Feb.

In. Pts. I 29.315 32 36 | 0.351 2 29.295

41 0.04 3 29.311

36 43 4 29.85

44 30.078 32 4 30.115

38 7 30.1 30 37 8

30.III 9 30.01 30 34 10 30.

39 30.02

34

38 12 29.955

37 13 29.815 30 39 14

29.955 34 40 15 29.921

33 | 35 0.04 16

29.751 33 37 17 29.681 37 38

0.431 18 29.6

35 43 19 29.551 42 47 2,0

35 39 29:31

38

44 22 29.3

47 38

42 24 29.455 37 1:37 0.04 25 29.6

37 0.03

Sa. 15

Rain # $! Showers Clear Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Cloudy Clear Ditto Cloudy Clear. Showers Cloudy Rain Clear Clear Cloudy Ditto Ditto Ditto Sleet Ditto

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THE

EDINBURGH MAGAZINE,

OR

LITERARY MISCELLANY,

FOR FEBRUARY 1800.

ACCOUNT OF EXPERIMENTS ON WHINSTONE. BY SIR JAMES HALL, BART.

F. R. S. & F. A. S. EDIN.

[From the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.] THE experiments described in this kingdom, which he has thus reconcil

paper were suggelted to me ma- ed to his system. oy years ago, when employed in ftu- One neceffary consequence of the dying the Geological System of the position of these bodies, seems, howlate Dr Hutton, by the following ever, to have been overlooked by Dr plausible objection, to which it seems Hutton himself: I mean, that, after liable.

their fusion, they mult have cooled Granite, porphyry, and basaltes, very slowly; and it appeared to me are supposed by Dr Hutton to have probable, on that account, that, durflowed in a state of perfect fusion in- ing their congelation, a crystallization to their present position; but their had taken place, with more or less internal structure, being universally regularity, producing the stony and rough and itony, appears to contra- crystallized structure, common to all dict this hypothesis ; for the result unstratified subftances, from the large of the fufion of earthly substances, grained granite,'to the fine grained hitherto observed in our experiments, and almost homogeneous basalt. This either is glass, or possesses, in some conjecture derived additional proba. degree, the vitreous character. bility from an accident fimilar to

This objection, however, lofes much those formerly observed by Mr Keir, of its force, when we attend to the which had just happened at Leith : peculiar cironntances under which, a large glafs-house pot, filled with according to this theory, the action green bottle glass in fusion, having of heat was exerted. These subltan. couled Nowly, its contents had lost ces, when in fulivn, and long after every character of glass, and had their congelation, are supposed to completely affumed the stony Atruc. have occupied a subterraneous pofi- 'ture. rion far below ishat was then the fur: These views made part of a paper face of the earth; and Dr Hutton which I bad the honour of laying behas ascribed to the modification of fore the Society in 1790 ; and about heat, occasioned by the pressure of the same time I determined to subthe superincumbent mass, many im. mit my opinions to the test of expe. portant phenomena of the mineralriment. I communicated this inten.

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tion to all my friends, and in parti. to our experiments. It is thus that cular to Dr Hutton; from him, how the astronomer, by observing the ef. ever, I received but little encourage- fects of gravitation on a little pendument. He was impressed with the lum, is enabled to estimate the influ. idea, that the heat to which the mi. ence of that principle on the heaven. neral kingdom has been exposed was ly bodies, and thus to extend the of such intenfity, as to lie far beyond range of accurate science to the exthe reach of our imitation, and that trenie limits of the solar system. the operations of nature were perform- Encouraged by this reasoning, I ed on so great a scale, compared to began my projected series of experithat of our experiments, that no in. ments in the course of the same year ference could properly be drawn from (1790,) with very promising appear. the one to the other. He has fince ances of success. I found that I expressed the same sentiments in one could command the result which had of his late publications, (Theory of occurred accidentally at the glassthe Earth, vol. 1. p. 251.) where he house; for, by means of Now cool: censures those who “judge of the ing, I converted bottle glass, after

great operations of the mineral fusion, into a ttony subflance, which • kingdom, from having kindled a again, by the application of strong « fire, and looked into the bottom of heat, and subsequent rapid cooling, I little crucible."

restored to the Itate of perfect glass. *. But, notwithstanding my venera. This operation I performed repeattion for Dr Hutton, I could pot help edly with the fame fpecimen, so as differing from him on this occasion: to ascertain that the character of the For, granting that these substances, result was ftony or vitreove, accord. when in fusion, were acted upon by ing to the mode of its cooling. á heat of ever so great intensity, it is Some peculiar circumstances inter. certain, nevertheless, that many of rupted the prosecution of these exthemi must have congealed in moder periments till luft winter, (1793) ate temperatures, fince many are eafi. when I determined to resume thein. ly fusible in our furnaces ; for it is Deliberating on the substance most impoffible that a substance should con- proper to submit to experiment on geal at a higher point than that at this occasion, I was decided by the which it may afterwards be melted. advice of Dr Hope, * well known by If, then, these phenomena depend his discovery of the Earth of Stron. upon the circumstances of congela- tites, to give the preference to whintion, the imitation of the natural

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stone. ċess is an object which may be pur. The term wbinstone, as used in sued with a rational expectation of most parts of Scotland, denotes a nufuccess; and, could we succeed in a merous class of stones, diftinguished few examples on a small scale, and in other countries by the names of with easily fufible substances, we should basaltes, trap, wacken, grünftein and be entitled to extend the theory, by porphyry. As they aie, in my oanalogy, to such as, by their bulk, pinion, mere varieties of the same or by the refractory nature of their class, I conceive that they ought to composition, could not be subjected be connected by some common name,

and * In the course of last winter, when I first thought of resuming my experiments, I proposed to this gentleman, that, in imitation of a practice, common in the Academy of Sciences of Paris, we should perform them in company. To this proposal he cheerfully agreed ; but, before any experiments had been begun, he found himself so much occupied by professional duties, that he could not beftow upon the subjeet the time which it neceffarily required; and we give up the idea of working in, company.

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and have made use of this, already, when breathed on. It frequently confamiliar to us, and which seems liable tains (mall specks of pyrites.

no objection, since it is not On the 17th of January 1798, I confined to any particular fpe- introduced a black lead crucible, cies. *.

filled with fragments of this ftone, The following experiments were into the great reverberating furnace performed with various kinds of whin at Mr Barker's iron foundry. In stone, and have likewise been extend. about a quarter of an hour, I found ed to lava. To investigate the rela. that the substance had entered into tion between these two classes of sub- fusion, and was agitated by a ftrong Aances, fecms, in the present Itate of ebullition. I removed the crucible, gevlogy, an object of confiderable im. and allowed it to cool rapidly. The portance; for they resemble each o- result was a biack glass, with a tolerther in so many respects, that we are ably clean fracture, interrupted how. naturally led to afcribe the formation ever by fome specks.

. of both to the same cause, and to be- In lubíquent experiments, I enlieve that whinttone, as well as lava, deavoured, by slow cooling after fuhas been exposed to the action of heat. fion, to prevent, the whinitone from In the course of the paper, I fall becoming vitreous, and to compel it mention several accidental, results, to resume its original character by which, if confidered separately, might crystallization. In this I so far suc. seem unworthy of potice, but which, ceeded as to obtain a substance, which by affording the means of compari- was not glass, though it did not posfon between the two classes, are of sess the properties of whinstone. The great service in the general investiga- production of this intermediate subtion.

ftance, which much resembled the The whinstone first employed was liyer of an aniinal, is accompanied taken from a quarry* near the Dean, with some curious particulars, which on the Water. of Leith, in the neigh- I shall couinerate and explain in bourhood of Edinburgh. This stone another part of this paper.

On is an aggregate of black and green- fome' occafions, 100, I obtained a viish-black hornblend, intimately mixed treous mass, in which were a multiwith a pale reddish-brown matter, tude of little spheres;, having a dull which has some resemblance to fell. or earthly frature. , par, but is far more fusible. Both At lalt, on the 27th January, I substances are imperfectly and con- succeeded completely in the object I fusedly cryftallized in minute grains, had in view. A crucible, containing The hornblend' is in the greatest pro- a quantity of whiottone, melted in portion; and its fracture appears to the manner above described, bring be itriated, though in fome parts fo. reinoved from the reverberatory, and liated; that of the reddih-brown conveyed rapidly to a large open fire, matter is foliated. The fiacture of was immediately furrounded with the stone en masse is uneven, and it burning coals, and the fire, after being abounds in finall faceties, which have maintained several hours, was allowed fome degree of luftre. It

may

be to go out. The crucible, when cold, scratched, though with difficulty, by was broken, and was found to cona knife, and gives an earthy (meil tain a subltance, differing in all re

fpecta * In characterising the particular specimens, I have adopted, with scarely any variation, descriptions drawn up by Dr Kennedy, whose name I thall, have occafion frequently to mention in the course of this paper. In the employment of terms, we bave profited by the advice of Mr Deriabin, a gentleman weil versed in the base guage of the Wernerian School.

f Called Bell's Mills Quarry.

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