Imatges de pÓgina
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ing out to him the measures which, duly considering the difference of circumstances, he was to pursue or to avoid, proved on the contrary the most pernicious of all instructions to him, impressed as he was, from the insurrections that took place on the 5th and 6th of October, 1789, with the idea that his own murder must absolutely be the final catastrophe of the revolution ; his constant anxiety for the honour of his country, made him wish above all things that the name of the French nation should never be stained with the indelible stigma of such an execrable deed, which he thought could be prevented only by a private assassination; and as he had entirely made up his mind about it, his whole attention in Charles's history, was ever fixed on those measures which had, or might have been, construed into acts of treason againt the nation. Thence his unshaken resolution of never employing his armies against any revolutionary commotion, though it was universally acknowledged by all parties, that had the king appeared in arms at the head of a few of his troops, all the revolutionary schemes or conspiracies, and the revolution itself, would instantly have been at an end. Charles's conduct in the English revolution sufficiently evinces that he would never have committed such a fault, nor would he have hesitated, in many favourable occasions that occurred, to dissolve the national assembly, as he had four times dissolved his parliaments; and this measure, secured by the mere appearance of a few troops, would have been no less efficacious for the immediate overthrow of the revolution ; thence it may be inferred, that had he been king of France at that period, the French revolution never would have taken place. On the other hand, if we consider how far Lewis XVI. was from harbouring any jealousy about his prerogative or any idea of enlarging it by encroachments upon the privileges or liber. ties of the people, and how readily he consented to the redress of all grievances on that respect, we might perhaps as fairly conclude from it, that had he been king of England at the time of the revolution, his full and easy compliance to the demands with which it was introduced, would have not left the shadow of a pretence for it.'

Our author in his preface expresses his regret, that inability to sustain the expence of a translation should have compelled him to trust to his own skill in the English language. This apology was altogether unnecessary. His English is remarkably good-indeed, with a few exceptions, idiomatic, and is altogether incomparably better than he could have obiained from the translators usually employed by the trade. He states his intention, if we understand him rightly, of publishing two reductions of this abridgernent; one on a very small scale for the use of schools, and the other in a medium between the two. We hope that he will be enabled to execute this plan, by the sale of the present volumes.

Art. XI. An historical and descriptive Account of the four Species of

Peruvian Sheep, called Carneros de la Tierra ; to which are added, Particulars respecting the Domestication of the two wild Species, and the Experiments hitherto made by the Spaniards to cross the respective Breeds, to improve their Wools, &c. By William Walton, jun. 8vo.

Price 8s. Longman and Co. 1811. CONSIDERING the extreme jealousy with which the Spaniards have

almost invariably viewed every attempt to investigate the internal economy of their American possessions, and the consequent difficulty of obtaining information on subjects connected with it, we ought not, perhaps, to wonder that so little, and that little almost altogether erroneous, has been hitherto known of the “ interesting animals,” whose habits and description are detailed in this memoir. It must, however, bé confessed, that this ignorance has been brought down to rather too recent a dáte, and that in the years 1810 and 1811 naturalists ought to have known better than to confound the Alpaca with the Guanaco, or with the Llamı, and the Llama with the Vicuna. The present publication will put an end to this uncertainty. It contains as much, probably, as is necessary to be known upon the subject, and although not remarkably well written, exhibits a greater share of observation and good sense, than a reader of the Present State of the Spanish Colonies would be prepared to expect.

The Peruvian sheep, called by the Spaniards « Carneros de la Tierra, or country sheep,” are of four distinct kinds; the Llama and Alpaca, which are domesticated and used as bearts of burden, and the Guanaco and Vicuda, which are as yet wild. It is a singular circumstance that, notwithstanding the general equality of the temperature with that of their native mountains; these animals are not to be found native in Quito, Santa Fe, or Caraccas ; and the only reason which the American naturalists have been able to assigo for this fact is, that a particular species of grass, common in the Cordilleras, is supposed not to exist in the regions north of the Line.

The Llama is from four to four and a half, sometimes five feet in height, and about the same in length. His shape slightly resembles that of the fallow deer, but tapers greatly at the loins, so as to produce a very emal waist, that appears to prolong under the two haunches, like that of a greyhound.' He has no horns; his hoof is divided, • and the fore parts are armed with two indurated, black, horny, hooked spurs, resembling the talons of a bird of prey, that serve to support him on the flakes of frozen and slippery snow,' which cover the precipices and declivities of • his native mountains.' • Below the breast, upon the sternum, is a callo. sity, or fake of a horny substance, about six inches long and three wide, as in the camel, but which Pennant, and after him Dr. Shaw, has wrongly called a protuberance. On this he rests,, for when he lies down, as he bends his legs under him, his body falls and is received on this substance, with a sensible noise. The fleece of the Llama is coarse and mixed with hair, but answers perfectly well for blankets, friezes and coarse woollens. The skin is extremely hard, and but litlle used by the tanter. The common price of this useful animal is three dollars, and his ave. rage load 100lbs. In their journies they are preceded by a regularly trained Llama, who is decorated with flags, ribbons and bells, and the Indian driver brings

up
the rear.

Of this race of men the following paioful, but, probably not inaccurate description is given.

*As a conquered being he' (the Indian) bates and detests the Spaniard; mistrusts hini in every act, negociation or intercourse, even when they appear advantageous. He assists and obeys him, because he is his superior; an expression of regard seldom escapes his lips; he is scarcely reduced to servitude, but by fear and rigour ; he is fond of solitude and retirement; abstemious ; superatitious in his exterior worship; reserved, cautious, melancholy; has a peculiar sadness marked on his face, in his voice, and song; a promptitude to deny any thing that is asked of him; a great obliqueness of answer; fond of his children, cruel to his wife ; disrespectful to his aged parents ; capable of remaining in the same posture for hours, without moving or speaking, with a variety of other characteristic traits, but yet fond of his Llama, whom he pats and caresses.'

The Alpaca is somewhat smaller than the Llama, but resembles bim generally in his habits and conformation. He is gentle and attached to his master, and appears to be even a milder and more submissive slave than the Llama. But the chief value of the Alpaca is derived from his • long, lank and flaxy Heece,' which obtains the same price as that of the common sheep, but is much cleaner, and sells for seven or eight rials per arroba (25lbs) or four cents per pound.'

The Guanaco is the largest of the two species of wild Peruviao sheep, yet generally rather smaller than the Alpaca, of course less than the Llama. The colour is commonly • a russet brown or reddish,' but in a few instances white. He is' fierce and swift, and it is ex. tremely difficult to take him alive. Under the government of the Inças, the chace of the Guanaca ond the Vicuna was exclusively a royal pastime. The best bezoars are produced by this animal, which is proDounced by Mr. Walton, the least interesting of the four species of Peruvian sheep,' and its fleece “ the coarsest, the most shaggy, and least valuable,"

The Vicuna is by far the smallest, most delicate, and from the fineness and consequent nature of its wool, the most interesting of the country sheep. Its height seldom exceeds three feet. • The general appearance of the Vicuna,' says Mr, W., is rather ungraceful, compared with the other three species, for it has neither the erect and majestic aspect of the Llama; the soft expressive looks of the Alpaca, nor the spirited and independent carriage of the Guanaco. Its eyes are black, but they are uomeaning; they are rather round than oblong; and the pupils project, which gives the animal a degree of vacant stue.'

This species is extremely timid, and herds together on the snowy tracts of the Peruvian

mountains. It is supposed to intermix occasionally with the Guanaco. The flesh is ' very good eating,' and the skin worth about three or four rials, (27d.)

The remainder of the book is occupied by an investigation of the practicability of domesticating the Alpaca and the Vicuna, and of training ihem to the climate of Europe, and by various details connected with the wool trade, which are scarcely susceptible of abstract. The plates are very respectably executed,

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Art. XII. Poems. By Whiston Bristow. 8vo. pp. 180. J. M. Richard

son. 1812. READERS less fastidious than ourselves, as well as less doubtful

of the moral tendency of amatory lays, will, we dare say, find this assemblage of “ blue eyes," “ dewy lips," and "

“ dewy lips," and “ snowy arms,” very pretty and entertaining.

Art. XIII. An account of the different Charities belonging to the Poor of

the County of Norfolk, abridged from the returns under Gilbert's act, to the House of Commons in 1786 ; and from the Terriers in the office of the Lord Bishop of Norwich. By Zachary Clark. Long

man and Co. 1811. MR.

CLARK a resident at Downham, in Norfolk, and a member

of the Society of Friends, was led to originate this very laborious, difficult, and expensive enquiry, by the apprehension that charities left by benevolent individuals for the use of the poor were often mismanaged and mis-applied.' A brief, but extremely interesting history of his researches is given in the preface, written by Mr. Thomas Clarkson, and from many of the documents quoted in the body of the work, it seems unavoidable to infer, that an indolent acquiescence in prescriptive abuses prevails extensively to the serious injury of the interests of the poor. The public, we think, is deeply indebted to Mr. Clark for hie active philanthropy, and we cordially join in the hope which he ex. presses ;

• That individuals, seeing these terriers in print for their respective parishes, would actually step forward in behalf of the poor, and secure to them their just rights wherein they appeared to have been invaded. He had also another hope, viz. that as he himself had endeavoured to collect in one book che Charities belonging to his own county, others might be induced to make similar collections for those to which they respectively belonged; so that one following the example of another, the rights of the poor might in time be ascertained, and put upon record through the whole kingdom.'

In two instances, Mr. Clark has been enabled by the result of his en. quiries, and by his personal interference, to increase considerably the funds of the parochial poor.

Art. XIV. Early Piety; a Sermon on Proverbs, Chap. iv. verse ix.

Addressed to the Children of Sunday Schools. By a Friend to Youth.

12mo. pp. 21. Price 6d. Hatchard. 1812. THIS is at once an useful and interesting discourse. It is written in

a stile, somewhat too gay, perhaps, for the sobriety of rigid criticism, but well adapted to captivate the imagination of youthful readers, A very extraordinary and impressive anecdote is introduced, (p. 12.) of a wretched drunkard, roused in the very moment of intoxication to a sense of his guilt and danger, by the strong and seasonable admonitions of the writer of this tract.

Art. XV. History of Charles the Great and Orlando's ascribed to

Archbishop Turpin ; translated from the Latin in Spanheim's Lives of ecclesiastical Writers ; together with the most celebrated ancient Spanish Ballads relating to the twelve Peers of France mentioned in Don Quixote ; with Eoglish metrical Versions. By Thomas Rodd. In

two vols. 8vo. pp. 275, 232. Price 11. 18. Rudd. 1812. A Publication consisting of a mass of dull and monstrous fictions, des.

titute of the slightest pretension to historical accuracy is, we must konestly confess, very little to our taste. As for the Editor, he has, it is true, translated a string of Spanish ballads into loose English verse, but has completely evaded every opportunity of giving interest or importance to his collections. A comprehensive historical enquiry, in the form of a preliminary dissertation, might, in the hands of a well informed and elegant writer, have formed a valuable accession to the literature of romance;

a but this seems to have been a task beyond the powers, or at least, the industry of Mr. Rodd. He contents himself with a long extract from Mr. Ellis by way of introduction to Turpin's lying legend, and makes a narration of the battle of Roncesvalles from a Spanish Chronicle answer the purpose of a preface to the ballads. The latter, at least, should have been the subject of some historical discussion; for so completely do the French and Spanish writers differ in their account of it, as to render it extremely doubtful whether any such battle was fought during the reign of Charlemagne ; it is not mentioned in the chronicle of Alphonso the Great, and it appears pretty clear that Mariana more than suspected it to be a mere invention.

In addition to these sins of omission Mr. Rodd has thought it an ex. cellent speculation 10 swell the bulk of his publication by printing the original along with his version. We cannot think that this will answer his purpose. Few people will buy Spanish ballads at so dear a rate. If he wished his book to take he should have followed the example of Mr. Ellis, given a spirited prose sketch, with occasional specimens of each romance, and included the whole in a single volume. Art. XVI. An useful Compendium of many important and curions Branches

of Science and general Knowledge; digested, principally, in plain and instructive Tables, to which are added, some rational Recreations in Numbers, with easy and expeditious Methods of constructing magic Squares, and Specimens of some in the higher Class. By the Rev. Thomas Watson. London. Longman and

Co. 1812. We believe this title-page to be an honest one. The book is both com

pendious and useful. Art. XVII. A new System of Arithmetic, including Specimens of a me

thod by which most Arithmetical Operations may be performed with out a knowledge of the Rule of Three ; and followed by Strictures on the Nature of the Elementary Instruction, contained in English Treatises on that Science. By Thoman Clark, 8vo. pp. xxxiv. 432.

Budd, 1812. So far from agreeing with Mr. Clark, in supposing that readers who

have gained their knowledge in arithmetic through the medium

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