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there were at that time in the family twenty-four persons to be boarded, there was scarcely a debt owing to any butcher; for the family, during a considerable time, had only enjoyed the taste of butcher's meat, when an occasional donation at the school furnished them with the means of purchasing a small quantity. The family had subsisted chiefly on bread and milk; and to the honour of a baker in the neighbourhood, to whom there was a considerable debt owing, it must be mentioned, that when a degree of surprise was manifested, at having given so large a credit, he replied, the good which Mr. Lancaster has done to the poor of this neighbourhood is such, that as long as I have a loaf left, I will give the half of it, to enable him to continue such beneficial exertions.'Report, pp. 24, 25.

There were many persons no less generous and benevolent than this baker, and, happily for the community, the attention of a few of them was attracted toward Mr. Lancaster's affairs. Of these, the most distinguished is Mr. Joseph Fox, who, deeply convinced of the merit of the new system, re. solved, at great hazard to himself, to preserve its promoter from threatened ruin. To ward off immediate danger, he gave bills to the amount of 36001. which he punctually paid, and together with Mr. Jackson, M. P Mr. William Allen, Mr. Corston, Mr. Sturge, and Mr. Fostet, undertook the manage'ment of Mr. Lancaster's pecuniary concerns. The large sum advanced by Mr. Fos, was partly repaid. In order to provide for the current expences, these generous mei, by soliciting their friends, obtained 40001. by way of loan, for the support of the institution; and in addition to the time and labour which they have employed, to an incredible degree, in promoting the good work, they have advanced, at different times and in various proportions, nearly 60001.

Mr. Lancaster had already given instruction to thousands of poor children, trained young men capable of conducting similar institutions to that of the Borough-road, and established several in different districts. It was impossible that so much good should be done without alarming the ignorant and bigoted classes of society. Some were enemies of the education of the poor altogether. Others thought Mr. Lancaster carried bis project too far, and imagined that no sinall mischief would ensue from teaching them to cypher: and others were sure that, being a Quaker, his exertions must be dangerous to the established religion. Mrs. Trimmer, a lady who had deserved well of the public by writing little books for children, first gavethe alarm. She prophecied many evils to society, and to religion, especially that by law established, as the consequence of encouraging Mr. Lancaster's schemes. Though she was heard but with little attention, Mr. Archdeacon Daubeny caught the sound. He exhibited Mr. Lancaster as the tool of Deists, and his plan as deism under the imposing guise of philanthropy, making a covert approach to the fortress of Christianity. The clamour, however, of this noisy person, made little impression. Mr. Lancaster published a confession of bis faith sufficiently ample and satisfactory. Though it was industriously and maliciously reported, that the King had withdrawn his subscription, he yet, it evidently appeared, steadily continued his patronage. From a man, therefore, whose faith in the Christian doctrines was so unquestionable, it was pretty generally thought, religion had nothing to fear and much to expect: nor could a plan, which his Majesty, after mature deliberation, had encouraged by his cordial approbation and firm support, be fraught with much danger to the national church. The education of the poor appeared, therefore, to be a great and desirable good, which Mr. Lancaster's inventions powerfully tended to promote.

The clamours and invectives and calumnies of Mr. Lancas. ter's enemies having failed of their desired effect, a new expedient was devised; and since the poor, it was plain, must be taught, a person was to be found, who might incorporate the national creed with his system of instruction. To the laborisus and successful instructor of the poor, whose progress, as he did not train them in the principles either of Churchmen or Dissenters, could not fail, it was concluded, to be destructive of our religious polity, a rival must be set up and encouraged. For this purpose, several circumstances strongly recoil mended Dr. Bell. He was the cordial friend of the Church. Part of the new system, at least, was of bis invention. Something had been done, in 1798, to model, upon bis plan, the charity-school of St. Botolph, Aldgate, and in the following year, the Kendal schools of industry were established on the same plan. He had, indeed, for eight years after the publication of his painphlet, lived in retirement, leaving his doctrines silently to make their way among the wise and benevolent. But, in 1806, he complied with an invitation from the trustees of the parochial school, Whitechapel, to assist them in reducing his theory to practice in that charity, wbich in two months was fit to be exhibited as a sample of the Madras system. He gave his time and labour gratis, and the worthy trustees took the opportunity to express their bigh and grateful sense of the inestimable service he has rendered to mankind, and particularly his benevolent and indefatigable attention to the organizing of this institution. The charity schools of Lambeth and Mary-le-bone, and also the Royal Military Asylum at Chelsea, were re-modelled according to Dr. Bell's directions. This excellent person, therefore, seemed very fit to take the business of education out of Mr. Lan caster's hands; and, accordingly, those who had heretofore declaimed against Mr. Lancaster, began to try their laudatory powers upon Dr. Bell.

Meanwhile, Mr. Lancaster's pecuniary affairs being entirely managed by the benevolent individuals already mentioned, he was left at liberty to pursue measures for diffusing the benefits of his system,-which he did with redoubled zeal and alacrity. In the three years, ending 1809, he made twelve journies, in all 3,062 iniles-delivered seventy-four lectures-and established forty-five schools, at which 11,300 children received instruction. From this account it will be concluded that it is very easy to multiply Lancasterian schools, and that there must be a great facility in providing instructors. This, indeed, appears to be so striking a feature in the new system, that our readers will be much pleased in reading the following passage, which sets its resources for indefinite multiplication in a most advantageous and affecting liglat.

• A great number of persons have been instructed in the system at the Royal Free School. By many of these its benefits have been diffused over the nation. From this centre, instruction to the poor has lowed through the empire, and continues to do so with more advantage than ever.

• During a severe illness, which in 1809, confined me to my bed some weeks at Bristol, the master of that school, who had been educated from an early age in my own, attended me in all my painful illness, with the most Glial affection. A boy only thirteen years of age, kept school for him with 80 great success, that when my recovery enabled me to return to town, being in a feeble state, I required the master to accompany me, and during a week's absence, this lad was sole governor of the school. This boy had obtained his knowledge of reading, writing, and arithmetic, in the Bristol school, in less than eighteen months ; on coming in, he was in one of the lowest classes, and at the end of twelve months he excelled every boy in the school, and had become monitor-general. The committee visited the school in the master's absence, and found this excellent lad, to use a school-boy's expression, “ king of the castle.” This order and excellent conduct did not pass unrewarded. The committee subscribed among themselves a sum of money, to make him a present of a new silver watch, with a suitable inscription. Upon my recovery, I returned to Bristol, and again lectured there; and when speaking on the subject of rewards, I gave the lad his watch in the name of the committee, specifying his conduct. He received his prize with joy amidst the plaudits of eight hundred persons, among whom his father and mother were not the least happy; and who but for the school at Bristol, would have been unable to educate him.

• It not being judged proper at that time to enlarge the family in Southwark, I boarded and clothed him in Bristol for twelve months; after which I received him home to the Borough. In a short time he was placed as master at a school at Southgate, built and supported by my friend, John Walker, Esq. to extend the blessing of education to the poor children in that neighbourhood; my worthy friend speaks in the most pleasing manner of


the ability and good conduct of this amiable and excellent boy. In this statement is the pleasing history of a boy, whose talents would have most likely been buried under the rub ish of ignorance, had not the facilities of this system developed them; this, however, is but one proof of many which might be adduced of the good done by it. An ignorant lad comes to school in 1807, in about two years after he is able to conduct the institution in which he obtained his learning; in three years, after a little instruction in the Borough Road, he proves himself qualified to conduct a large school, to the satisfaction of his immediate patron, and the delight of all that risit it.

• To bring all the instances I might advance, would fill a volume, instead of a brief report. I must not, however, omit one ląd, James George Penney. About the year 1805 this boy attended the school in Southwark ; he was fatherless, and his mother poor. At that time he would often come to school in the morning, and remain there till night without any dinner ; this was soon discovered by his feeling school-fellows, some of whom dried up the tears which hunger occasioned, and supplied his wants by a contribution of bread and meat, which some of them were pleased to call “ a parish dinner :" this circumstance coming to my knowledge, and knowing him to be an excellent boy, I took him into my house; at first he appeared dull from habitual depression. The close of the year before last he was

sent into Shropshire, and spent about six months there, in the house of a I most liberal and excellent clergyman. The first village school that he or

ganized was for 250 children; and such was the progress made by the scholars, that, in one case, the clergyman was applied to by a man to inform him if such inprovement could be made by any thing short of witchcraft, This worthy boy did not leave that part of the nation without organizing schools for near 1000 children, which number is likely to te doubled in the ensuing summer, many persons of influence in that part of the country, having been convinced of the great good to be obtained by the universal diffusion of knowledge among the lower orders of society.

This lad is now settled at Bath, over a school of 300 children ; and my | accounts from Sir Horace Mann, Bart. the President, speak highly of the state of the school and conduct of the master.

• An excellent lad, not fourteen, has just materially aided the organization of the school at Coventry for 400 children. The committee, to express their sense of his services, have voluntarily allowed for his board, &c. at the rate of 60l. per annum : this is not quoted as a precedent, but as a proof of the boy's activity and merits. A boy of seventeen keeps a school at Newbury for 200 children; another at Chichester, about eighteen, will soon have 300. These facts prove, that this system possesses the power of accomplishing considerable good with small means.

· A young man just turned of twen:y, and educated in the Borough Road, conducted a school at Bradley before he was sixteen, and had the thanks of the Duke of Somerset for his excellent conduct and usefulness. After this, he organized schools in Liverpool and several other places with reputation and credit. He some time ago settled in Birmingham with a school of 100 children, which it is hoped will soon be extended to a thousand.

lo 1810 Mr. Lancaster's exertions far exceeded those of any former year. He made seven journies; in all 3,775 miles, de

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livered sixty-seven lectures, and was the instrument of forming fifty schools, for the education of 14,200 children. These lectures, which were delivered in the most populous and enlightened towns and cities in the empire, such as Bath, Bristol, Manchester, Leeds, Edinburgh, Glasgow, &c. both diffused a knowledge of the plan of instruction, and afforded the wealthier clasess of the community an opportunity of displaying their libera lity. Tlie new system, indeed, is no longer confined to England. It has made its way into Scotland, where it has met with the general approbation of all ranks, nobility, clergy, and gentry. It has been received into North America ; and there is a prospect of extending it both into Africa and South America. "We cannot forbear inserting the following passage from the Report of the Finance Committee, because we are sure it must be cheering to every friend of humanity.

• The Lancasterian system of education being calculated for universal adoption, it has been an essential point with Mr. L. and his friends, to extend its benefits to foreign parts; and as education must be considered the parent of all civilization, Africa has engaged a considerable portion of their attention : with this view a young man, a native of Africa, brought to this country by a person who had purchased him in the West Indies, having expressed to a gentleman his fears, that if taken back by his master, he would be again sold and fall into slavery, he was humanely informed by this gentleman of the rights he could exercise in Britain; on which he quitted his master. The case of this youth having been represented to Mr. L. and it appearing that he possessed good abilities, it was 'resolved that he should be admitted into the house, and trained for a school-master, in the hope, that, on a future occasion, he might be useful in this capacity in his native country, and be the means of establishing the Lancasterian system amongst the hitherto oppressed inhabitants of Africa. The talents and perseverance of this youth raised the most sanguine expectations of bis future usefulness. It is therefore with grief the Committee are obliged to report, that all those expectations have vanished with respect to his instrumentality; as after a short illness, he died suddenly, in the month of August, in consequence of the breaking of a large abscess which had formed in his lungs.

• Depressing as this melancholy event has been, the Committee have to mention with much satisfaction, that the systen, is still likely to be extended to Africa, as the missionaries Wilhelm and Klein, who are destined to that part of the globe under the patronage of the Society for Missions to Africa and the East, have received the most ample instruction, by a daily attendance at the Borough Road school for near two months; and there is no doubt but that by their zealous exertions, much good will be done to the children of the natives of Africa, who it is understood are exceedingly de. sirous to be instructed in what they term “the white man's book.”

• The Committee cannot forbear expressing their admiration of the plan of this society, and they trust that, by the formation of schools, a sure foundation will be laid for much progress in the civilization of Africa.

• Beside the instruction of these Missionaries, who seem to be men of considerable intelligence and ability, the Committee have thought it their

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