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of the Lord.
If masters, they rendered to their servants that which was just and equal; and if servants, they obeyed their masters not with eye service as men pleasers, but in singleness of heart, fearing God. On every first day of the week they were visibly separated from the world, and continued stedfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship; in breaking of bread and in prayers. This separation was supported during the week by a denial of all ungodliness, and worldly lusts, living soberly, righteously, and godly in the world. Whilst ready to every good work in society, they had no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reproved them. Although gen
tle towards all men, they could not bear them, who were evil; but hated even the garment spotted by the flesh. As they testified to the world, that their works were evil, they were also careful to watch over one another in love, lest any root of bitterness, springing up among themselves, should trouble them, and thereby many be defiled. Knowing that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump, they did not connive at each other's sins, but put away evil from among them, either by admonition, rebuke, or exclusion, as the nature of the offence and the commandments of their Master required.
To be continued.
ALEXIPHARMIC contains additional observations on the obscurity of the opinion, which the ancients entertained, and which some of the moderns still entertain, of the operation of supposed antidotes to poison.
Alkali contains some new information relating to the essential properties of that order of salts.
Alleghany Mountains and Riyer have received very material additions; yet we think those articles far less full than they ought to have been. We question the propriety of calling the Mountains of New Hampshire, Vermont, and Massachusetts, Alleghany Mountains. They
I. PART 11.
have not heretofore been considered as extending north of the Hudson.
Under the article Allium some useful directions are added in the American Edition, on the mode of cultivating onions in the United States.
Additions have been made to the following articles in this number besides those we have already mentioned : Albugo, Alcohol, Alembroth Salt, Alfred in Biography, Alhuys, Alibi, Alien, Alliteration, Allusion, Alluvion, Alnwick, Aloes, Alvah, Alveoli, and Alum.
The following articles are new: Aleino Mont, Aleonchol, Alderburgh, Alderton-point, Al
fred in Geography, Allah-Shur, Alley, Almsbury, Alpudch, Alstead, Alslon-Moor, Altdorf, Alten, Altun-Kuppree, Altun-Obo, Alvidras, Alupka, and Aly-ghur.
Among the plates we observe a better delineation of the paths of comets, than we have ever before seen. The orbits and inclinations of seventy two of these irregular bodies are described.
Few books, printed in any country, are more free from typographical errors, than this part of the first volume, and the mechanical execution in general will be acknowledged by every man to be excellent.
VOL. II. PART I.
On the subject of Amber, the reader will find, in the American edition, some new conjectures from M. Patrin on the formation of this curious substance, with an account of a mode of making artificial amber possessing all the properties of the true, by Professor Hermbetoedt of Berlin.
After the life and character of St. Ambrose, the American edit ors subjoin the following paragraph.
"Of a man who acted so frequently and so vigorously against the Arians as St. Ambrose did, it would
hardly be reasonable to expect that an Arian biographer should speak more justly than he has done in this article. A little more allowance how ever ought, we think, to be made for Ambrose than he has here received; '
especially in the summary of his char. acter given toward the close of the article."
Amendment in law has received some small additions.
As the article America must be interesting to the readers of
the Panoplist, we shall give a more particular review than we have thought proper to bestow on any preceding article. making our observations, we shall pursue the course followed by the writers, however defective in method, as this is the only natural way in which a review can be conducted.
We are first presented with a refutation of the opinion that either the Phenicians in ancient, or the Chinese in modern times, have visited America, and with a supposition that the Icelanders and Norwegians may have frequented the shores of Greenland before the time of Columbus.
The next thing worthy of notice is a suggestion of the inferiority of the Americans to the inhabitants of the Eastern continent, which is conveyed in the declaration," that they are less industrious and less inventive than the people of the old world, and that they seem to live in a state of eternal infancy."
The American editors very properly insert a paragraph exposing the futility of such general, unexplained abuse. Nothing more immediately excites disgust, than to see a man, who would be thought a philosopher, deciding upon the powers and faculties of those, who inhabit a whole hemisphere, not only without information, but most evidently without reflection. Perhaps on no subject whatever has a greater proportion of puerile reasoning, and despicable conjecture, been thrown upon the world, than is to be found in the multiplied attempts to prove the Americans inferior, in every point of view, to the inhabitants
of the Eastern continent. of the writers appear almost absolutely incapable of comparing and judging. One would think, however, they might at least call to mind what they are taught in the Geographies of their own continent. But it seems they are so occupied in commiserating our unhappy inferiority in these "goings down of the sun," that they have no time for any thing else. As a proof of both these assertions take this frequent instance. They argue from the inactivity and indisposition to labour, observable among the natives of America, that they are inferior to the natives of the old world. Now it appears to us, if their recollection had not left them, they would remember having read of unstable Tartars, sluggish Turks, feeble Hindoos, debased Hottentots, and many other nations both inactive and indisposed to labour, among the favoured inhabitants of their own continent. If they were capable of comparing and judging, they would at once see, that education and habit are the great agents in forming men for action, and in developing and bringing into operation the human powers of body or mind. They triumph in the assertion that the Americans cannot endure the hardy labour which is submitted to cheerfully, by the more robust European.
It is no
more than fair, that we should tell them of some things which we can do, and which would yet afford some employment for their more perfect faculties. What, think ye, would a Northumberland labourer say, to a proposal from a Mohawk to follow him for three days, in a steady trot, without eating, and with
scanty sleep, and that on the bare ground, and in the open air? Even an English fox-hunter, much as he loves the game and the forest, would relish but ill a week's chase, if he were obliged to rest at night in a smoky wig, wam, or upon hemlock bushes spread upon the snow, and to satisfy his hunger with tightening his belt, or at best with a few ounces of fresh dried fish, or a greasy hunch of bear's meat. He would, methinks, after a short trial, be willing to give up the claim of superiority, if he could but get back to his bread, his beef, his beer, and his feather bed. If, by the bye, these writers wish for information on the subject of American labour and industry, there are divers farmers and forest fellers, in Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, who can tell them stories, which will convince common understandings, that there are some men on this continent, who are not so extremely feeble, as the miserable theories of these sophists might lead them to suppose. But to compare one man with another who is in circumstances entirely different, and who is under the influence of a thousand powerful causes to which the first is a stranger, seems to us the very depth of folly; and of course all the conclusions of the writers alluded to, are no more deserving of respect than the vagaries of a delirium. Let us try their mode of reasoning by confining and applying it to persons in different circumstances on the Eastern continent.
Let us, for example, undertake to prove that the people of England are inferior to those of Italy. According to the reasoning a
dopted with respect to America, we may allege, that the cocknies of London cannot possibly be possessed of natural powers equal to those exhibited by the ancient Romans. They may cut a tolerable figure, to be sure, in their counting-houses, or at a city feast, but as for labour or fatigue they are totally unwilling and unable to bear it. A single muster in the city train-bands overcomes them; what then would they do if they were compelled to traverse a continent, amidst forests, morasses, and mountains, in forced marches, encased in mail, and with sixty pounds burden of armour and baggage? Is it not plain, they must immediately sink under such enormous toils? By such contemptible sophistry any thing can be proved, however absurd and contradictory to common sense it may be. In this way you might convict even Bonaparte of imbecility, for we imagine he would hardly be able to march, like Septimius Severus, on foot at the head of his legions, and to sleep at night on the bare ground, accoutred as in the day, surrounded by his cuirassers on their arms. Indeed, it would be rather hard to impute it to the natural inferiority of a delicate matron in a European metropolis, that she is not able to rake hay, or reap at the same time that she nurses a child, like the wife of a Russian, or a Scotch peasant. But enough of this. It would seem plain to man who has a particle of understanding, that you cannot institute a comparison between the powers of men who are, as to all the operative causes in the formation of a character, entirely different from each other.
Next comes the story that native Americans have no beards; and this is refuted by the American editors by stating the perfectly well known manner in which their beards are eradicated.
The story of Patagonian giants is rejected as entirely fabulous; but from various information subjoined by the American editors, it seems there is the most satisfactory reason to believe that there is, near the southern extremity of our continent, a race of uncommonly tall men.
That our readers may not think we speak too contemptuously of the manner in which this article is treated, a few selections shall be made, and succeeded by remarks. After speaking of various natural causes, such as great forests, lakes, colder climate, &c. &c. the writer goes on to say;
"Now, these several causes operating conjointly must have had
an influence on the constitution of
the indigenous people, so as to produce some alteration in their faculties: accordingly, it is only to
want of penetration that can ascribe the little progress they had made in metallurgy, &c."
How does it follow, that these causes must have had an influence to produce some alteration in the faculties of these people? For ought that is here, or any where said, the faculties of the people on the eastern continent are by nature equal. They are placed by nature, (for God is studiously excluded from any influence, or interest in the matter) on the same level, elevated, to be sure, not a little above the depressed, indigenous people of this western world. Now let these arrogant pretenders to
science mention or describe a single climate in their favoured portion of the globe, (except perhaps the sandy deserts of the torrid zone, which surely cannot afford much cause of boasting) and we will agree to point them to some part of our continent possessed of all the same advantages, and free from as many evils as theirs. Is it too cold for the enlargement and progress of the human mind in latitude 40 here? One would think, then, that in the 52d degree in Europe, their perpetual damps would be scarcely less noxious. Is it too warm? We should conclude, then, that the perpetual summer of Hindostan would wither and scorch every germ of intellectual growth.
To be continued.
Lectures on Jewish Antiquities delivered at Harvard University in Cambridge, A. D. 1802 and 1803. By David Tappan D. D. Late Hollis Professor of Divinity in that Seminary. THESE Lectures give a luminous view of the most prominent and interesting peculiarities of the Jewish government and religion. They begin with exhibiting the origin and progress of civil government in general, and proceed to develope and explain the special government of the Jews, which was designed and calculated to preserve among them the true religion in connexion with their temporal freedom and prosperity.
The unity, perfection, providence and moral government of God are taught and inculcated as the basis of their national gov
ernment, as well as of their religion.
Their civil government, which was appointed and framed by God himself, was originally a free and equal republic. It consisted of three, or, perhaps it may be said, of four branches; the congregation of the people, who, on some great occasions, assembled personally or by representation; the council of elders deputed from the several tribes to act as an advisory body; and the judge or chief magistrate, who was the supreme executive in civil matters, and often acted as the commander in chief of the military forces. Besides these was the Oracle, which, in doubtful and important cases, was consulted by the high priest at the request, and in the presence of the magistrate, and from which answers were vocally given in the hearing of all who attended the consultation. The powers of these several branches, and the nature and design of the oracle, our author has happily explained.
He observes a great similarity in that government to the present government of the American States, in which there is a house of representatives, a chamber of senators, and a supreme executive with an advisory council.
"The most free and equal governments of ancient and modern times, some form or other, to check popular have wisely introduced a senate in rashness, precipitation and intrigue, and by their temperate wisdom and influence to guide, mature and control the public opinion and conduct. The inestimable value of this branch,
both in the individual and United States, was early anticipated and has been constantly felt by our enlight ened citizens.”