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THE ISSUES OF THE PRESS

IN PENNSYLVANIA.

1685.

ATKINS. (S.) Kalendarium Pennsilvaniense, / or, | America's Messinger. Being an | Almanack | For the Year of Grace, 1686.

| Wherein is contained both the English & Forreign | Account, the Motions of the Planets through the Signs, with | the Luminaries, Conjunctions, Aspects, Eclipses; the rising, / southing and setting of the Moon, with the time when she | passeth by, or is with the most eminent fixed Stars: Sun rising and setting, and the time of High-Water at the City of Phi- | ladelphia, &c. With

1 Chronologies, and many other Notes, Rules, / and Tables, very fitting for every man to know & have; all / which is accomodated to the Longitude of the Province of Pennsilvania, and Latitude

1 of 40 Degr. north, with a Table | of Houses for the same, which may indifferently serve News | England, New York, East & West Jersey, Maryland, and most | parts of Virginia. | By Samuel Atkins. | Student in the Mathamaticks and Astrology. | And the

1 Stars in their Courses fought against Sesera, Judg. 5. 29. | Printed and Sold by William Bradford, sold also by | the Author and H. Murrey in Philadelphia, and | Philip Richards in New York; 1685. | 12mo. pp. (40).

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H. S. P.

It consists of twenty unpaged leaves. The reverse of the title which, in the copy at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, measures 6 by 3 7-8 inches, the type occupying 5 7-16 by 2 7-8 inches, and half of the succeeding page is filled by Atkins' address “To the Reader,” which is followed by Bradford's: “To the Readers” which is given below. The fourth page contains “The Explanation of this ensuing Ephemeris.” The fifth, “Chronology” and a list of Some experienced Medicines, sold by William Bradford at Philadelphia.” The sixth, “Common Notes for this Year 1686,” the Fairs at Philadelphia, &c. The seventh “A Table of the

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Kings of England,”' &c. The eighth, “A Table of the Moons coming to the South, the first six months of this Year.” The ninth, the same for “The last six months of this Year.” The tenth and eleventh, “The Eleventh Month (January) hath 31 days." The other months, or Moneths as it is most frequently spelt, fill two pages each and end on the thirty-second and third with “The Tenth Moneth (December) hath 31 days." “A Table of Houses for the Latitude of 40 Degrees North " fills from the thirty-fourth to the thirty-ninth, and the last page contains “The Names and Characters of the 12 Signs, 7 Planets, 5 Aspects,” &c., and a paragraph of errata. The calendar is devoid of the usual “sayings,” guesses at the weather, and Saints' days and Holidays, not even the 5th of November being distinguished. The astronomical signs and tidal calculations are “displayed” so as to fill the two pages alotted to each month. It was well printed, and the mixture of “Roman" and “Italic" was no doubt due to the cause assigned by Bradford in excuse for the “Irregularities."

The author seems to have been wandering through the Middle colonies, and although his promise of another almanac for the ensuing year indicates an intention to remain in Philadelphia, he probably left the neighborhood soon after the appearance of his “first Fruits.” No trace of him appears in the wills, administrations or deeds on record here. In fact, beyond the Kalendarium and the record of his appearing in answer to a summons from the Provincial Council for being so forgetful of the “plain" language of the people around him as to speak of “Lord Penn," nothing is known of him. Atkins gives an account of the motives which led to, and his manner of compiling the work in his address.

"TO THE READER.

“I thought good to insirt this short Epistle, that you miglit understand the cause why I thus ventured to publish this Ephemeris or Almanac, which was truly thus; I having journied in and through several places, not only in this Province, but likewise in Maryland, and else where, and the People generally complaining, that they scarcely knew how the Time passed, nor that they hardly knew the day of Rest, or Lords Day, when it was, for want of a Diary, or Day Book, which we call an Almanack. And on the other side having in my Travels met with Ingenious Persons, that have been Lovers of the Mathematical Arts, some of which have wanted an Ephemeris to make some Practice thereon : I say, hearing this general complaint from such abundance of Inhabitants, which are here. I was really troubled and did design, according to that small knowledge that I had, to pleasure these my Country men with that which they wanted, although it be not compleated in that Method, which I did intend it should be. Nevertheless I have reduced the Sun and Moons places, according to their mean Motions, to this Meridian, which is five hours West from the City of London: For the other Planets, I have taken them by whole Degrees, from the Ephemerides of that Ingenious and Sollid Artist, Mr. John Gadbury, from whence the Fundamental is derived: The Lunar Aspects I have reduced to the hour that they happen here, as before. As to the Moon's rising and setting, I have used the Method of Mr. Vincent Wing, formerly in his Almanack, that is, the Moons rising from Full to New, and her setting from New to Full, according to her true place in the Ecliptick : for what signifies it to shew you the time of her rising and setting in the day time when you cannot see

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it. In her Southing, I have something respected her Latitude, and accordingly I have framed a Tide-Table to that Experience that I have made of it here. As to the Moons passing by the fixed Stars, &c. I have generally shewn it at that time when they may be best discerned. Besides the Table of Houses, Table of Kings, &c. I had thoughts to have incerted a figure of the Moons Eclips, a small Draught of the form of this City, and a Table to find the hour of the day by the Shadow of a Staff; but we having not Tools to carve them in that form that I would have them, nor time to calculate the other, I pass it for this year, and not only promise it in the next, but likewise several other more particular Notes and Observations, which shall not only be useful to this Province, but likewise to the neighbouring Provinces on both sides. In the meantime, except this my Mite, being my first Fruits, and you will encourage me, according to my Ability, to serve you in what I may, or can, whilst I am

Philadelphia, the 3d of the 10th Moneth (December) Anno 1685.

SAMUEL ATKINS.”

Bradford's inaugural of “the great Art and Mystery of Printing into this part of America,” has been once, but by no means exactly, reprinted. It is here given in facsimile.

The Printer to the Readers.

HErelj understand that after great Charge and Troublt,

1 bave brought that great Art and Mystery of Pricing into this part of America beireving it may be of great fervino so you in several respeits, hoping to find Encouragement, nok only in this Almanack, but theselje I shall enter upon for the use and service of the Inbabitants of these Fafts. Some irregularitzes, there be in this Diary, vokich I de fire got to pass by this year; for being lately come bitber, my Matereals werc Mis placed, and out of order, whereupon I was forced to use Figures & Letters of various sizes, but understanding the mani of something of this nature, and being importuned thereto, 1 ventured 10 make publick this, desiring you to accept thereof, and by the next, (as I find encouragement) Shari endeavour to haverbinas complear. And for the ease of Clarks, Scriuniers, Bl. I propose to print llenk Bills, Bonds, Letters of Aricurney. Indentures, Warrants, oc, and mbat elle fejent is felf, wkercind fall be ready to serve you; an! remain your Friends

Philadelphia, the 28th W. Bradford.

Joth Month, 1683

The first issue of the press was not destined to go forth unchallenged. One of the Almanacs fell into the hands of William Markham, the Secretary of the Provincial Council, and at their next meeting he reported, “to Council, that in the Chronologie of the Almanack sett forth by Samll Atkins of Philadelphia and by William Bradford of the same Place, there was these words “the beginning of Government by ye Lord Penn!' The Council sent for Samll Atkins, and ordered him to blott out ye words Lord Penn ; & likewise for Will Bradford, ye Printer, and gave Charge not to print anything but what shall have lycence from ye Council." (Colonial Records I. 165.) Markham must have obtained an “advance copy,” as in those now known the offensive words are not only blotted out by stamping over them a "well-inked three-em quad,'' but the errata on the last page unlike the usual manner of noting an error does not repeat the words to be corrected and only says, among other things, “In the Chronology read the beginning of the Government here by William Penn, Proprietor and Governor 6 years.”

But two copies are known to exist. One of these formerly belonged to Mr. Brinley, of Hartford, Conn., at whose sale it realized the sum of $555.00. The other was sold at the dispersion of Dr. King's (of Newport, R. I.) Library for $520.00, and is now in the collection of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Fragments of two copies are also known, one of which belongs to the Society just mentioned and the other to Mr. S. Gratz.

BUDD. (T.) Good Order Established in | Pennsilvania & New

1 Jersey | in | America, Being a true Account of the Country; | With its Produce and Commodities there made. And the great

1 Improvements that may be made by means of Publick Storehouses for Hemp, Flax, and Linnen-Cloth; also, the Advantages

1 of a Publick- | School, the Profits of a Publick-Bank, and the Proba- | bility of its arising, if those directious here laid down are | followed. With the advantages of publick Granaries. | Likewise, several other things needful to be understood by those that are or do intend to be concerned in planting in | the said Countries. | All which is laid down very plain, in this small Treatise; it being easie to be understood by any ordinary Capacity. To which the Reader is referred for his further satisfaction. | By Thomas Budd. | [Philadelphia:] Printell [by W. Bradfordl] in the Year 1685. | Sq. 8vo. pp. 40.

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H. S. P.

Mr. F. D. Stone, Librarian of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, was the first to call in question the heretofore accepted statement, that this work was printed in London. I give his reasons in his own words : “In addition to the similarity there is between the type of Good Order and that of publications which are known to be from Bradford's Press, sheets of the former, used as waste, are in a copy of Keith’s Pretended Antidote Proved Poysen, printed by Bradford in

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