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WILLIAM REYNOLDS FOR PREPARING
Mr. WILLIAM REYNOLDS, of Ketley, in the county of Salop, for a method of preparing iron for its converfion into fteel.
Tais method fimply confifts in mixing the black oxyd of manganefe along with the materials from which the cast iron is obrained, or with the cast iron in the process of its converfion into steel.
It is not ealy exactly to explain the operation of the manganefe here, perhaps it may be by fully oxygenating and thereby feparating the crude iron from the remaining quantity of fulphur and of phofphuret of iron, with which it is alloyed after the first fason, to procure the regulus.
digriies of the order of the garter; the ace of clubs bears the insignia of the order of the thistle; the ace of hearts thofe of St. Patrick; and the ace of diamonds thofe of the Bath. The court cards of each fuit have, beside the ornaments of stars, garters, ba dges, &c. agreeably to the respective orders.
Taking advantage of a rigorous feafon, which had produced a ceffation of hoftilities on the frontiers, he marched large bodies of troops under Brune and Hedouville, two able and experienced leaders, against the infurgent departments of the Weft, and has flaughtered, fubdued, difperfed, or reduced to unconditional fubmiffion, the MONTHLY MAG. No. 56.
MR. LESTER FOR AN ENGINE TO CUT CHAFF.
WILLIAM LESTER of Cotton End, near Northampton, for a new-invented pendulum engine for cutting hay or straw into chaff.
This engine is fo conftructed that, by the fimple operation of throwing the pendulum backwards and forwards, the ftraw is cut into any length required. The pendulum at one vibration feeds twice,' preffes twice, and carries the knife twice through the cut. Sixty of these vibrations may be made in one minute through a trufs of ftraw eighteen inches wide, and from two to three inches thick. The knife is femicircular, with an alternate rotatory motion on its own centre, with its edge moving between two bars of steel, which prevents the ftraw from yielding to the knife.
STATE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS,
If worked by two people, it will ut between forty and fifty quarters a day; and it is not eafily put out of order.
numerous and warlike bands of armed peafantry, who threatened France on one hand with a civil war, while they continued, on the other, to render fome of her moft fertile provinces a burden, rather than an advantage.
In fine, feveral of the chiefs, fuch as Gorges and Frotté, have been obliged to furrender; the inhabitants of both fides of the Loire have laid down their arms; and as their priests are now restored to them, and their leaders have loft their confidence, there is no great likelihood that they will become speedily formidable.
In the mean time, Maffena has taken the command of the army of Italy, and obtained fome flight advantages: but the'e confift merely of the temporary poffeffion of open towns, or an accidental fuperiority in respect to foraging parties; for the main bodies are at prefent endeavouring to recruit A a
their exhaufted ftrength, while the different courts are "founding the dreadful note of preparation."
In respect to the present state of Egypt, confiderable doubt and uncertainty till prevails. If we were to give credit to let ters, faid to be intercepted, published in this country, the French there are reduced by difeafe, difafter, and death, to a molt deplorable condition! but, it we are to believe more recent and authentic accounts, circulated in Paris, the whole of Kleber's army is new clothed, while the greater part of the forces in Upper Egypt has been mounted on dromedaries-in fhort, we are affured, that they are in a moft excellent condition,-fit for fresh toils, capable of new victories!
On the other hand, if we turn our eyes to the
COURT OF VIENNA,
We fhall behold Auftria truly formidable, in confequence of the undeviating policy of her councils, and the recent fuccefs of her arms. Subfidized to fight her own battles, fhe has, uniformly taken advantage of circumstances, and at length acquired the dominion of nearly all Italy. Tied down by no rules of action, except thofe connected with her own immediate interefts, he has difplayed but little zeal for the refloration of the Kings of Naples and Sardinia. Wholly difengaged from the folly of the crufade for the restoration of the race of Bourbon, her political principles can never fetter her private views; and the may treat now, as fhe did before at Campo Formio and Leoben, for a fepa. rate peace, without confidering herself as faithlefs to her allies, with whom he never appears to have made a common cause. In fine, fuch has been the peculiar good fortune of the Emperor Francis, and to extraordinary the condu& both of his friends and his enemies, that, were he to ceafe hoftilities before the rate of another campaign be tried, there is but little doubt that he would not only be amply indemnified for the los of the Netherlands, but also for the expences of the war.
It appears, however, that
prince has generoufly, but unfuccessfully, infifted on the restoration of the Italian States, and the reintegration of the French monarchy.
THE EMPEROR OE RUSSIA
Is difgufted with his imperial ally, and has actually iffued orders for the return of his troops. This circumftance, which is likely to give a new complexion to the war, has been differently accounted for: it having been maintained, on one hand, that the Czar had haughtily demanded the difmiflion of all the Auftrian generals lately employed in Switzerland; while it has been afferted, on the other, that this
It must be allowed, that thefe are the principles on which Paul Petrowitz feems to have engaged in the contest; for howver advantageous in a pecuniary point of view his fubfidies from this country may appear, yet it cannot be doubted, that they afford no adequate compenfation for the transportation of his bett troops to a diftant fcene of warfare, and the loss of veteran legions, in a conteft in which he is lefs interested, perhaps, than any other potentate in Europe.
It is now evident, that a continuation of the war has been refolved upon by our cabinet, although it be difficult to conceive on what principles a 1 iniftry that attempted to treat with the laft government of France, can refufe to negociate with the prefent. Such a determination has accordingly staggered fome of the warmeft fupporters of the war; and although but little difference has enfued, in refpect to the votes of parliament, this must be allowed to have confiderably influenced its debates; it alfo appears, in fome measure, to have reftored the vigour, and filled the ranks of a truant Oppofition.
The effects produced on the public mind have been fill more confpicuous; and the livery of London, on the 19th of February, not only agreed to petition the Houfe of Commons on this fubject, but actually inftructed their representatives to vote in favour of peace.
When his Majesty's message was taken into confideration in the House of Peers, Lord Grenville, in a fpeech of three hours, took an ample review of public affairs: he infifted, that thote who had hitherto acted with him ought still to continue of the fame opinion, as nothing had occurred to in duce a change of fentiments; on the other hand, he could not hope to conciliate the approbation of fuch as had always oppofec the profecution of the prefent war.
He then adverted to the conduct of the French government. The rules of that nation perievered, he said, in the fame principles which had produced the revolus tion: there were fufficient to overturn every fyftem of regular government, and ought to have been changed previously to the commencement of a negociation; but the fecond note of the French government endeavoured to justify its former conduct, and to throw the odium of the war upon
this country, when even the man who wrote the justification knew the contrary to be the fact. He added, that the treaty of Pavia was a glaring forgery; and that the convention of Pilnitz had been officially oppofed by our minifters.
Lord Grenville then denied that the late profeffions in behalf of peace were ferious: and affirmed that France had been at war with every power in Europe except Sweden and Denmark. Spain he confidered as in perfect fubordination to the Gallic yoke; and the tyrannical fubje&tion of Holland was, according to him, notorious.
His Lordship concluded, by obferving, that whenever the rulers of France fhould abandon their prefent principles, and become able to preferve the relations of peace and amity, they might fafely be treated with; but, in the mean time, he hoped, that the house would fully unite in an humble addrefs to his Majefty on the prefent occafion.
The Duke of Bedford, in an able and energetic fpeech, attempted to point out a variety of mifrepre'entations on the part of his Majefty's Minifter for the foreign department: he then obferved, that he had always been defirous of making an accommodation for the benefit of his native country, whenever an opportunity, like that which lately occurred, had prefented itfelf; but as he found, that all attempts of this kind were now unavailing, he had formed the refolution of retiring totally from public affairs, and refting fatisfied with the practice of benevolence within his own confined diftrict. He then moved a long amendment to the addrefs, which was oppofed by the Earl of Carlifle, while Lord Romney declared, that as he did not approve of the measures of Minifters, he would not vote on the subject.
Lord Borringdon and Lord Holland fupported the amendment, and the latter of thefe noblemen afterwards entered the following proteft on the journals.
Die Martis 28th Jan. 1800. The original motion being put, that an humble addrefs be prefented to his Majefty, &c.
The fame was carried in the affirmative.
French government; a language which, in my opinion, can only tend to widen the breach between the two countries, to exafperate the enemy, and prolong the calamities of war. HOLLAND. When the fame fubject was canvaffed in the House of Commons (February the 3d), Mr. Dundas, in language fimilar to that made ufe of by Lord Grenville, declaimed against the French government.
He afferted that Bonaparte's offers of pacification were not to be attended to; and, as a proof of this, he adverted to his conduct in respect to Venice, which he had facrificed to Auftria; his aggreffion in regard to Egypt; his duplicity to the Ottoman Porte, &c. &c. He also infifted that he had violated the public faith with feveral nations.
Because the addrefs adopted by the houfe directly approves of the rejection of an overture for peace, when that invaluable bleffing might very probably be attained with honour and fecurity, by opening a negociation with the French Republic, and indirectly approves of the language in which the rejection of the offer was conveyed to the
Mr. Whitbread, in reply, was aftonished that the right honourable gentleman fhould accafe France of having been at war with every country in Europe except two, when it was recollected, that his Majefty's Minifters had invoked the force, and called down the vengeance, of all the neighbouring nations.
He then befought the attention of the houfe to the conduct of the British Government, with respect to Hamburg; he defired to know, if Minifters forgot the violation of the rights of nations by Lord Harvey at Florence? Did they recollect the threat of bombarding the City of Genoa?
He fully infifted on the propriety of treating with Bonaparte, and attacked the conduct of Adminiftration in reviling the perfon of the French Conful, and countenancing an intercepted correfpondence from Egypt.
Mr. Pitt, in a long and brilliant speech, remarked that it was impoffible to feparate the prefent queftion either from the antecedent crimes and exceffes of the French revolution, or the horrors of the war. He then entered into a hiftory of the fucceffive negociations with France, both at Paris and at Lifle. The rupture of thefe was followed by aggreffions in Italy, in confequence of which, Sardinia, Modena, Genoa, Venice, Rome, and Naples, had been over run, plundered, and deceived; amufed with treaties, or distracted by perfidy. In short, the victories, the armistices, the marches, the treaties of Bonaparte were nothing but a series of acts of oppreffion, of plunder, of perfidy, of tyranny, of injuftice, of every vice and every wickednes which could corrupt a people and fubvert a government. He concluded, by declaring his opinion of the danger and impolicy of treating with France at the prefent mo
ment, more especially as he confidered the Conful's impatience as a confeffion of his weakness. He added, that his ufurpation might yet be completely overthrown by the united and continued efforts of Great Britain and her Allies, if it did not fall a victim to thofe internal attacks which the power of a ftranger and a defpot had to dread.
Mr. Fox, whofe expected appearance, after fo long an abfence, had crowded the galleries and all the avenues leading to the houfe of Commons, began by obferving, that although we were now at a new era of the war, yet we were led back to the very commencement of it, for its motive. After leven long years of calamitous hoftilities, there was nothing before the house but a repetition of the fame fanciful calculations relpecting financial refources, and the fprings of human action, by which they have been fo often deceived. He was free to avow that in his judgment we were the aggreffors, in refpect to the prefent conteft; the fame was alto clear in regard to Auftria and Pruffia. The late French king had no doubt perished cruelly; there was however a moral certainty that he had acted in concert with Auftria: and in respect to the declaration of Pilnitz, if any two pow. ers on the Continent had figned fuch a paper with a view to our internal government, we fhould moft certainly have confidered it as a violent aggreffion. France, as Mr. Fox was willing to allow, had dif gufted all Europe; but many of the inftances quoted, were incorrect. Sardinia, when attacked, was actually one of the belligerent powers, and fubfidifed by this country. What had been faid of her, in refpect to Switzerland, might be applied to the allied powers in regard to Poland. But it might be asked, who first endangered the liberty of Switzerland, by endeavouring to force her from her neutrality? Who, but Great Britain? His noble relation, Lord R. Fitzgerald, was the perfon charged to fay, that her neutrality was regarded as criminal. Our conduct was precifely fimilar, both in respect to Tufcany and Genoa; and this war had in fact been remarkably productive of the infolence of the greater towards the fmaller states.
He then proceeded to notice our former negociations with France, and afferted, that every objection to treating at prefent, went equally again't the negociations of 1796, and 1797. The minister now, for the first time, had given an honeft account of these transactions; for he had frated that he was apprehenfive of danger from the fuccefs of a treaty, and that he was led to negociate, only in confequence of the une
quivocal voice of the people: but he could not believe him fincere in the first negociation,when he was apprehenfive of danger, and was dictated to by a voice to which he was fo unaccustomed to liften!
The premier had laid, that he did not wif to prefs the Bourbon family on the people of France; but he has only pointed out that path to peace, without mentioning any other: he has not even afked for their contre-projet, nor does it appear that he will liften to it, if offered. Was the conteft to be continued through every change of circumftances, until either a Bourbon was placed upon the throne, or a Bonaparte was enabled to tread on our necks? He then begged leave to make a folemn appeal to the house, and to afk, whether, if the Minifter had acted on the declaration of 1797, and entered into a negociation, they would not have been ready to vote an addrefs of thanks? He concluded by hoping that the Administration would at length take fome pity on the condition of man, and not continue the war for a mere theory. The house then divided. Ayes 265. Noes 64-Majority for the address 201.
Since our laft, a debate has taken place in both houses of parliament, relative to the late unfortunate expedition to Holland, Mr. Sheridan, on the roth. of February, made a motion in the House of Commons, for a committee of inquiry on this fubject, but it was negatived by a majority of 171. -A fresh fufpenfionof the Habeas Corpus Act, has recently taken place, notwithftanding fo ftrong a mealure does not feem to be in the leaft juftified by the prefent quiet ftate of the nation; but, wonderful as it may feem, this was actually urged as a motive. The prefent high price of corn, added to the apprehenfion of a scarcity, are fubjects which have arouzed and occupied the attention of Parliament. In confequence of this, a bill for the regulation of bakers has just obtained the 10yal affent; it must be allowed however, that a real want of bread-corn can never be alleviated to a great degree by any other mode than that of an increased importation.-Earl Stanhope, who lately refumed his feat in the houfe of peers, has earnestly invoked its attention to the increafing accumulation of our public debt. He was at the fame time pleafed to attribute the prefent fcarcity to the war, and to augur a numerous train of evils in cafe of its continuation. On this occafion, he alluded to the fyftem of education lately introduced into his dominions, by the King of Pruffia; and, after defcanting on the abufe of the term Jacobinism, allerted, that he fhould always be proud to be rank. ed with fuch men as Jacobin Chatham, Jaco.
Jacobin Dunning, and Jacobin Saville. While the minds of the people of this country have been occupied with the mo mentous queftion of peace, or war, the parliament of Ireland has been agitated relpecting the projected union with Great Britain. The affirmative fide of the queftion has hitherto been carried triumphantly, but fome doubts may be still entertained as to the final refult, when it is recol
ALPHABETICAL LIST of BANKRUPTCIES and DIVIDENDS announced between the 20th of January and the 20th of February, extracted from the London Gazettes..
(Tee Solicitors' Names are between Parentheses)
ALLEN. Reben, High Wycombe, carrier. (Tillbury,
, T. Great Tay, gardener. (Simpfon, Artillery-lane) Brewer, W. Eriftol, tea-dealer. (Allen and Exley, Furni
Barber, W. Chowley, muflin-manufacturer. (Edge, Temple)
By, W. Hepworth, feed-merchant. (Egerton, Gray's-inn)
By, T. Birmingharn, factor. (Lewes, Ravenhurst)
Cars, J. Blackrod, muflia-manufacturer. (Threlfhall, Life beton)
Cater, J. Wild-court, printer. (Berridge, Wood-freet) Cartin, W. Noble-street, warehouseman. Adams and Cockr, Old Jewry) •
C, M. Liverpool, merchant. (Lace, Liverpool)
J. Ringwood, clothier. (Williams, Cattle-treet, Era)
CJ. Liverpool, flopman. (Wilfon, Union-street, Southwark)
Cark, Pancras-lane, taylor. (Barber, Thanet Place) North Tawton, maltfter. (Hands, Mark-lane) Cer, M. Bedford-ftreet, woollen-draper. (Williams, Sin Colleke Gardens)
Day T. and R. Gilbert, Bread-freet, ribbon-weavers. Mrs. Shaye, Tudor,freet)
Det. Croix, N. Homerton, coal-merchant.
Daan. Treadneedle treet)
1, T. Fore-freet, Limehouse, victualler. (Mawley, Jak uy-row)
5. Leonard-freet, ftationer. (Hudfon, WinkTorch-building)
F, Liverpool, merchant." (Elfmere, Liverpool)
C, J. Chifwell-ftreet, ftable-keeper. (J. and S. Pullen,
C, V. Pater-natter Row, printer. (Davies, Lothbury)
8.Pancrat-la, warehoufeman. (Lloyd, Thavies-inn) 45. Oxford-street, haberdasher. (Smith and Tilion, 2 Paul's Church-yard)
St-Breet) way, J. Rayton, fuftian-manufacturer. (Ellis, Cur
2. Coppull, cotton-manufacturer. (Hodgson, Chan
lected that this measure is opposed by a moft formidable minority; that the greater part of the county members have declared themselves inimical to it, that the capital appears to be unanimously against it, and that a fcheme which would distran chife the whole Irish legislature has been hitherto carried by a majority of less than fifty.
York, grocer. (Allen & Exley, Furnival's-inn) , L. Mantell-frect, jeweller (Howard, Jewry-treet) Just J. Laguor Forge, irun-mafter. (R. Griffiths, Lin
Je, D. Charles-Ar. Southwark, needlemaker. (Speck, So, Southwark)
KJ. Kirkdale, inerchaut. (Battye, Chancery-lane) Liverpool, merchant (Lace, Liverpool) - Maneder, dichoaft keeper Ellis, Curátor-ft-)
Long, J. Portfea, mariner. (Willett and Annerley, Finsbury-fquare)
Gainsford, Malden, Effex. Ireland, Staple's-inn) Le Lievre, A. Finch-lane, merchant. (Smith and Lawfon, Great St. Helen's)
Lowe, H. Liverpool, hardwareman. (Blackftock, Temple) M'Liwham, J. Fure-tr. builder (Hall, Buckkrsbury) Martin, S. and W. Holland, Mancheiter, cotton-manufac turers. (Duckworth and Chippendal, Manchener) Merrick, J. & S. Hawkins, Mark-lane, merchants. (Mefirs. Willis, Warnford-court)
Mills, T. Moorecroft Wood, cloth-manufacturer. (Foulkes,
Maitland, R. Bishopfgate-ftr. merchant. (Wilfon, Temple)
Nichotion, M. Howden, grocer. (Spofforth, jun. and
Owen, W. Haymarket, fhoemaker. (Bourn and Curtoen,
Pourtales, A. P. and A. G. Broad-tr. build. merchants. (Nicholls and Nettleship, Queen-street, Cheapfiae) Fotter, G. Charing-cr. haberdasher. (Walton, Grocer's-hall) Prickett, R. Lancaster, merch int.
Pendrid, J. Willingborough, hoc-maker. (Hodfon, Willing borough)
Patience, J. T. Bishopfgate-street, carpenter. (Collins and Reynolds, Spital-fquare)
Platt, J. Jun. & H. B. Platt, Wigan, linen-manufacturers. (Baldwin, Wigan)
Pye, J. Liverpool, merchant. (Thompson, Jun. Liverpool) Pierce. J. Chippenham, grocer. (Broome and Pinneger, Gray's-inn)
Roberts, W. St. Clement's, Cornwall, fhop keeper. (Warren, Truro)
Raynes, M. Finsbury fquare, merchant. (Williams, Sion College Gardens)
Rofs, A. Minories, merchant. (Loxley, Cheapfide) Richardfon, R. Corporation-row, merchant, (Sinart, Norfcik-street)
Swearman, W. Britol, linen-draper. (Lewis, Gray's-inn) St. Croix, N. Homerton, coal-merchant. (Dann and Dunn, Threadneedle-ftreet)
Shallcrofs, W. Fleet-fr. hatter. (Batchelor, Clement's-inn) Smith, G. Lovel's-co. wine n.erchant. (Wadefon, Hardy, and Barlow, Austin-friars)
Simpin, W. T. and G. Townsend, Leicester, hofers. (Heyrick, Leicester,
Slaughter, A. Norwich, cotton-manufacturer. (Johnston, Queen's-fduare)
Turner, T. Greville-fr. ironmonger. (Taylor, Holborn-co.) Taylor, J. Maiden-lane, weaver. (Mawley, Jealous-row) Turner, G. Wittingham, cotton-mauufacturer. (Strati fant, Prefton)
Tetley, J. Leeds, brandy-merchant. (Dyneley, Bell, and Dynelty, Gray's-inn)
Thompfon, C. Manchefter, liquor-merchant. (Wright and Bovel, Lincoln's-inn)
White, T. Pactan, miller. (Gregfon and Smart, Angel-co) Weathertone, J. Catherine's-lane, baker. (Ledwich,
Wifon, W. Nine-Elms, leatherfeller. (Toulmin and Dixon, Walbrook)
Wood, W. Finsbury-fquare, merchant. (Williams, Sion College gardens)
Wood, L. Dolton, cotton-manufacturer. (Meddowcroft, Gray's-ion)
Whitaker, W. Preston, fuftian-manufacturer. (Windle, Bartlet's-buildings)
Watkins, T. Perthyre Mill, miller. (Lyon and Collier, Reaford-row)
Yates, W. Little Guildford-freet, hat manufacturer. (Fairbank, Ely-place
Yeung, J. Sculcoates, apothecary. (Egerton, Gray's inn)