Imatges de pÓgina


possible to read Don Quixotte, or the imagery, artificially engrafted upon tħe comedies of Moliere, without feeling that subject. Many others of his pictures are their essence is the most exquisite humour fancy pieces of the caricature and groever exhibited ?

tesque kind. Such are, the virtuoso's But although humour, as a general qua. will; and most of the proceedings of the lity, is so widely diffused, it exists under court of honour, in the Tatler : the citimany particular species and modifications, zen's and the lady's journal ; and the wi. and wears a very different face in different dows' club, in the Spectator : the rebel authors. Among English writers no one officer's journal, in the Freeholder ; and the has more delervedly obtained reputation scenes among the servants, in the play of for his humourous delineations than Ad- The Drummer. In others, he bas receded dison, whose manner in these perforın till further from topics of real life, and ances is thought peculiar to himself. To has sported in scenes of pure invention. inquire into the nature of this peculiarity, Examples of this are given in the transmay afford some amusive and not unuseful migrations of a monkey the diffections of speculation.

a beau's head and a coquette's heart, the Di., Johnson has, I think, taken too mountain of miseries, and that delightful confined a view of the range of Addison's tale, the antediluvian loves of Shalum and humour in thus describing it. “ His hu- Hilpa. Thus it would seem that Addison

mour is so happily diffused as to give the rejected no promising source of the ludi

grace of novelty to domestic scenes and crous, whether suggested by reading, ob“ daily occurrences. He never outsteps servation, or fancy. It may, however, be “the modesty of nature, nor rajses merri- admitted, that his humour is most valua

mentor wonder by the violation of truth. bly employed where, besides the purpose “ His figures neither divert by distortion, of exciting a smile, his intent has been to “ nor amuse by aggravation. 'He copies satirize some prevalent folly or violation of “ Jife with so much fidelity, that he can the proprieties of life. This bas very, « hardly be said to invent ; yet his ex- frequently been his object, and no writer o hibitions have an air so much original, ever more happily combined good-natured “ that it is difficult to suppose them not pleasantry with effectual ridicule. The “ merely the product of the imagination." fly fimplicity of his frokes, inflicted with a In this account there is truth, but not all seeming unconsciousness of intention, the truth. It may apply to “ the domestic while it renders them more exquisite to atscenes and daily occurrences” represented tentive and sagacious readers, has perhaps by this author; but much of his humour often occasioned them to pass unnoticedi ; is also employed upon subjects of fancy so that I believe Addison generally is reand invention, in which the Judicrous is garded as less of a satirist than he really is.ftudiously fought after ; and in not a few That he could employ keen ridicule upon instances he manifestly draws with the occasion, sufficiently appears from his propencil of a caricaturist, and effects his pur- feffed party-writings; and although in pofe by a happy exaggeration.

the Spectator he has the merit of excluding It lias frequently been his practice to all direct topics of party, yet I think it seize fomeftory or historical narration, and, may easily be discerned that he had by no adopting only the leading circumstance, to means iot sight of a general purpose of found on it a fiction of his own, of an en- favouring that publie cause to which he tirely ludicrous nature ; and in this species was devoted. In particular, the personof humour he is, I think, peculiarly ori- age of Sir Roger de Coverley, appears to ginal. Of this kind may be mentioned his be employed by him as a covert for improvement of Sir John Mandeville's throwing ridicule upon that class of softory of the freezing of words in the frigid ciety which he has more openly satirized zone; and his account of the Taliacotian in his country-gentleman in the Free, manufactory of noses ; both in the Tatler í holder. I do not mean that he has used his register of the lover's leap; description it folely for this purpose, for he has alla of Torcy's academy for politicians ; dream made it the vehicle of much pleasing maof women carrying out their valuables from rality ; but be has kept this end in cona besieged town ; and trial of chastity by ftant view. a breed of dogs; all in the Spectator. An acırte judge of moral propriety ob. These admirable pieces of humour cannot served to me some time ago, that the chajustly be said to please by their adherence to racter of Sir Roger, as exhibited in differnature and truth ; on the contrary, they ent parts of the Spectator, was by no means owe their merit to a kind of agreeable ex. confiftent. In the second number, written travagance, and to a creation of ludicrous probably by Steel, he is described as a inan

of fingularities, but proceeding from a the church of England had already begun puticular vein of good-sense : - and though to take effect, because a rigid disenter, tond of retirement, and careless of appear- who had dined at his house on Christmasances, fince he was crossed in love ; it is day, had been observed to eat heartily of said that in his youth he had been a fine plum-porridge, is too palpable a stroke of gentleman, who fapped with Lord Ro- raillery on the narrow conceptions of the chester and Sir George Etheredge, had high party to be mistaken. The whole fought a duel, and kicked a bully in a description of Sir Roger's behaviour at the coffee-house. It is certain that many of representation of the Distressed Mother, is the fubfequent displays of his character, in admirably humourous; but the figure the which he is represented as ignorant of the knight makes in it is not at all more recommon forms of life, rustic, uninformed, fpečtable in point of taste or knowledge, and credulous, very ill accord with this than that of Partridge in Tom Jones on a fupposed town education. Steel himself similar occasion. But it is in the visit to has been guilty of some of these deviations the tombs in Westminster Abbey, that from the original draught ; but Addison Addison has most unmercifully jested on feems not at all to have regarded it, and the good man's fimplicity. Sir Roger, it to have painted after a conception of his seems, was prepared for this spectacle by own, to which lie has faithfully adhered. a course of historical reading in the summer, His Sir Roger, though somewhat of an which was to enable him to bring quota. humourist in his manner, is effentially a tions from Baker's Chronicle in his politibenevolent, chearful, hearty country gené cal debates with Sir Andrew Freeport. tleman, of very Nender abilities and con. He accordingly deals out his knowledge fined education, warmly attached to church very liberally as he passes through the heand king, and imbued with all the politie roes of this profound historian. The cal opinions of what was called the coun- thew-man, however, informs him of many try party. Though he is made an object circumstances which he had not met with ef affection from the goodness of his heart, in Baker ; and this profusion of anecdotes and the hilarity of his temper, yet his makes him appear fo extraordinary a perweaknesles and prejudices scarcely allow fon to Sir Roger, that he not only kindly place for esteem ; nor do we meet with any shakes him by the hand at parting, but in of that whimsical complication of sense and vites him to his lodgings in Norfolk street, folly which Steel's papers exhibit, and in order « to talk over these matters with which he accounts for on the supposition of him more at leisure.". The trait is pleaa fort of mental infirmity, left by his fantly ludicrous, but somewhat outreé, as amorous disappointment.

applied to a person at all removed from the I fhall point out some of the particulars lowest vulgar. which seem designed by Addison to lower If the picture of Sir Roger be compared him down to the standard of capacity with that of the country squire in the Freewhich he chose to allot to the abstract cha- holder, it will be found that they differ ra&ter of the country gentleman. His be- chiefly in the milder temper and more behaviour at church may pass as the oddity bevolent disposition of the knight, and of an humourilt

, though it also plainly de- scarcely at all in point of information and notes the ruftication of a sequeltered life ; understanding. Both have the same natibut his half belief of witchcraft in the case onal and party prejudices, and exhibit an of Moll White, is undoubtedly a satirical equal inferiority to the more cultured inftroke on country superstition.' Sir Roger habitant of the town. As the papers in Seriously advises the old woman not to which Sir Roger appears have ever been have communication with the devil, or among the most popular in the Spectator, I hurt her neighbours' cattle; and it is ob. cannot but think they have done much in ferved, " that he would frequently have fixing on the public mind the abstract idea bound her over to the county feffions, had of a country gentleman, and attaching to not his chaplain, with much ado, per- it that fore of contempt with which, whefuaded him to the contrary.” At the ar- ther justly or otherwise, it has usually been fizes he gets up and makes a speech ; but, treated ; and I should no more hesitate to the Spectator says, “ it was foʻlittle to the term Addison a satirist in this piece of purpose, that he will not trouble his readers. pleasantry, than the author of the celea with an account of it.” In the adventure brated “ Lettres Provinciales," who has with the gipsies, the knight suffers them to perhaps excelled every writer in the retell him his fortune, and appears more than fined delicacy of his ridicule. half inclined to put faith in their predic. Stoke Newington,

J. Aikin. sons. His notion that the Act for securing Jan. 6, 1800,


A %


titude for maintaining and extending the would naturally, be inferred, that the counindependence of his country against the Sa- ry of Arthur, and the country of Charle. sacens of the south, and the Germans of mayne, gave birth to these compositions. . the east: and among the pendragons of But it may be doubted, whether the roBritain, Arthur won the like celebrity mances concerning Charlemayne do in against the Piks of the north, and the Sax. fact relate to this Emperor. They ascribe ons of the east. A survey of romantic li- to him a father named Pepin, who has terature will evince that these two herces four fons; exploits in the forest of Arand their companions were principally ex- denne; wars against the Saxons ; the retolled,

pulsion of the Saracens, in consequence of The romances of chivalry may be ar a victory at Poitiers; the institution of an ranged in four main claffes. s. Those order of knighthood ; the deposition of the which relate to Amalis of Gaul and his Duke of Aquitain; an embassy from the fellows. These were all written originally Pope ; and the gift of the sacred territory in prose, are nearly cotemporary with the to the see of Rome. All these circumintroduction of printing, and are therefore stances are historically* true of Charles comparatively modern. 2. Those which Martel. The names are the more likely relate to Arthur* and the Knights of the to have been confounded through the meRound Table, or to Charlemayne and his dium of an Armorican dialect, as meur peers. These were mostly published in fignifies great, le mayne ; and marra, a prose during the first century of printing, mattock, martel, in that language, so that but pre-existed in metre, and were recited Charlemar would be the Britannian name in that form by the minstrels of the middle of both. Passing on to the third and fourth ages. 3. Those which ascribe to religious claffes ; the Lives of the Saints, the Troyworthies the manners of chivalry; as the book, the Story of Alexander, and thie Seven Champions of Christendom, the Gelta Romanorum, are obvioully modificaLives of the Saints, and the Vision of tions of the later remnants of Latin cul. Pierce Plowman. Such romances mostly ture : they can, by no plan of inference, occur, both, in prose, in metre, and in be referred to an Arabic or a Scandinavian Monkish Latin, from which language the origin. They must, either be deduced various vernacular metrical versions seem from the Italian literature of the middle to have been made for the convenience of ages ; or from the vestiges of ancient li. the pilgrim's memory. 4. Those which 'terature, which in Armorica and Britain ascribe the manners of chivalry to the he. survived the separation of these countries roes of clasical antiquity; rehearsing the from the Roman Empire. But they do fiege of Troy, or the exploits of Theseus pot derive from Italy, because that country and of Alexander, with the moral costume has no native legends in which the manners of knighthood. These mostly occur in of chivalry are ascribed to the champions vernacular metre, and in Monkish' Latin of religion ; and because William of Briverse,

tany, Walter Chatillon, and others, preFrom the modern imitations of the pro- ceded Guido Colonna and the Italian fer romances of chivalry, no conclusion romancers in the chivalrization of ancient can be drawn relative to the patrial soil of epopæas. It remains probable, therefore, the originals. From the second class, it that even these stories received first in

Armorica their chevaleresque garb. * Tressan, indeed, says, (Discours pré

IV. Rime derives from Armorican liminaire, p. 15.) “ Tous les anciens Ro- language. The speech of Armorica and mans de la Table-ronde, tir des anciennes & fabuleuses chroniques de of Britain, during the fifth, fixth, seventh, Melcbin et de Telezin, furent écrits en Latin and eighth centuries, which include the par Rufticien de Puise." But the paffage period of their connexion and independence, implies that the Latin versions were either must have resembled closely that of the from the Norman-French, or from the fill older Welch bards. The patois of Briprior romances of the Bretons. This Telezin tany, Cornwall, and Wales are kindred is probably the same with the Tyrlilio of the dialectst of the Cimbric tongue, differing Welsh. Chaucer says very truly. (v. 11021) radically from the Gaelic or Irish, and

Thise olde gentil Bretons in hir dayes from the Gothic or Saxon idioms of their Of diverse aventures maden layes

western and eastern neighbours, but agreeRimeyed in bir firste Breton tongue,

Which layes with infiruments they'ronge. ing minutely with the few remaining mo. and he no doubt transcribed this tradition from Came Norman-French poem which he was

* Velly's Histoire de France, vol. I. refashioning.

+ Lhuyd's Archaeologia.


nurnents of the old Armorican and Britis ; croaching guardians, and the conquered so that from what is known of the Well, equal against infült, were the topics of his one may reason concerning the Armori oath. An order-spirit, an exclusive care can. Now rime* is effential to Welth for the interests of gentlemen, diftinguilhes poetry. Their oldest versifiers, t Talief the practice of the initiated. The personha, Aneurin, and Cian, employ this mea- al rights of women of the lower classes lure. The heroic elegies of Llywarch ares were invaded without fcruple; while those composed in rime. In each of the po. of ladies were respected with superstitious ems of Hywel the son of Owain Gwynez politeness. Such features seem rather the the same rime is repeated throughout the reliques of a receding, than the tokens of whole compoŲtion. In all the Gothic di- a growing, civilization. The whole ritual alects rime is a novation : but in Welsh of chivalry, the military exercises, the it is coxval with recorded poetry. It is tournaments, the fortified palaces, its very the more probable, that out of this Jan. religiosity, imply an advancement in fociguage rime passed into all the other Eu- ety, to which the Scandinavians could not ropean tongues, as the firf Latin rimes have attained. The sacred reverence for en record are thosell of St. Augustin rela- ladies cannot have proceeded from the tire to the Pelagian heresy, which origi- Mahometan Moors. 'Armorica alone was sated with Morgan, a monk of Bangor, adapted by its political circumstances, its and was rife both in Britain and Armoa Christianity, and its long participation of rica. The peculiarity of the form of at- Roman culture, to become the nurse of tack is a legitimate ground for inferring, such peculiarities. Some ceremonies of that rime had been recurred to for its knighthood bear a strong resemblance to diffusion, and was confequently in popular those bardic institutions which were comufe. St. Patrick, an Armoriean, intro mon precisely to the Belgic provinces of docede* rime into Ireland.

Gaul and Britain; and which retain uncil V. Chivalry, though of obscurer origin, now among the Wellh a great influence. is also probably Armorican. Its history The Ovyds,* like the knights, passed has been less evolved than its inditutions through preliminary grades, were admitted by the labors of St. Palaye. It resembles, by dubbing, were instructed in the use of in the spirit of its operation, a confederacy arms, affected a green livery, sworé obe of country-gentlemen to ward off from each dience to the judge and priest (to the other the dangers and evils of anarchy. Braints and Druid), respected the truce A defensive, not an offensive, spirit characterizes the obligations of a knight. To protect the church against heathens, la.

* See the Differtation on Bardism, prefixed

to the Elegies of Llywarch, p. xxxvi. &c. dies against ravilhers, orphans against en

+ The Braints answer to the Chevaliers de

loi, and the Ovyds to the Chevaliers d'opée, of 6 The first kind of stanzas was the the ancient French jurisprudence. Loirei, in triplet; and the first kind of rime was iden- his Dialogue des Avocats, remarks, p. 468 : tical riane.” Institutes of the bards, as quoted “ Pendant long temps une bonne partie des in the Life of Llywarch, p. xix.

gens lais du parlement étoient appellés cbevar † Evans de Bardis, p. 67. Pinkerton liers,” Boutillier, in his Somime Rurale, says, (Loquiry into the History of Scotland, 11.9

· 97)

“Or sachez que le fait d'avocacerie sont les pluss rime as a proof that these poems are of anciens faiseurs de loix, l est tenu et compté the thirteenth century: in the lives of Saint pour chevalerie ; & pour ce sont ils appellez en Columban and Saint Faron, that is in the droit escrit Chevaliers de Loix et peuvent et fixth century, Latin rimes occur.

doivent porter d'or comme font les chevaliers." Heroic Elegies of Llywarch, by. W. chain, and breaking off one or more rings to

We find the Weith nobles wearing a gold Osen, 1792.

reward their followers for prowess in battle, or Monthly Magazine, III. 95, 186, 257, their mindrels for excellence in song : we 335,419.

also find the vaers, maers, or municipal maI Quisquis norit evangelium, recognoscat gistrates, with a gold chain: pofiibly it was a cum timore ;

badge common to both orders of chivalry, the Videt reticulum ecclefiam, videt hoc fæcu makers and the executors of the law. It is lom mare,

highly desirable that those Welch antiquaGenus autem mixtum piscis juftus est cum ries who are at present fo laudably employed peccatore;

in the translation and publication of their ma. Sæculi finis eft littus, tunc et tempus sepa- nuscript monuments, would bestow a prefer. rare. &c.

ence of care on such as tend most to evolve ** Ullerü Antiq. Ecclef. c. 17, p. 457.

the early form of an institution la influen.


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For the Monthly Magazine.

I. All the European nations take their

romances of chivalry from the French. The ENQUIRER, No. XIX.

The Italians have no * vernacular poetry WHERE IS THE PATRIA OF ROMANCE, prior to the fourteenth century: the earliest

OF RIME, AND OF CHIVALRY? of their writers in t verse or I prose,
An gwîranath ew an gwella

abound with imitations from the ProvenEn pob tra trea po pella.

zal: Ariosto derives from Turpin, and The truth is best in every thing, near or far. Tasso from Bechada, the subject of his ARMORICAN PROVERBS. poem. The Spaniards enumerate, among

their earliest | poets, those invited out of HE

use of rime, and the institution of John the First of Arragon. According ehivalry, are of uncertain locality ; so that

to Cervantes, they have no older book of the pedigree is ftill to seek of circum- chivalry to exhibit than Amadis of Gaul, ftances which have given to the manners which is apparently a trantlation from the of our heroic ages, and to the compositions then manuscript french original : at any of our popular poets, their most peculiar rate its circulation cannot be traced before tinge. Different theories have indeed been the invention of printing, and it is conseoffered of their probable origin : two quently pofterior, by many centuries, to the fystems especially, which may be charac- first French romances. The English porterised as the Arabic and the Gothic, have fess few compofitions of this fort, which attracted the toils of microscopic erudition, and divide the votes of literary fpecu- man originals : and this is the case of the

are not avowedly translated from Norlators.

three ** oldeft, the Gelte of King Horne, That scheme of opinion which aims at the Sangrale, and the Lives of the Saints. deducing romance, rime, and knighthood, The German romancers again, as Adelung from the Arabs, originates probably with and tt Eichhorn have proved, borrow Velalquez, who, in a history of the poetry from the French their first essays : Ulrich of Spain, naturally ascribes to the Moorish of Zezam, who flourished 'in 1190, conquest many peculiarities of Spanish culture. Warburton (Final note to Love's

* Petrarch, indeed, mentions in his TriLabour lott) and Warton (First Disserta

umph of Love tion prefixed to the History of English Po

i Siciliani etry) favour more or lets this hypothesis, Che fur' già priniwhich makes Spain the birth-place of mo But there seem to be Provenzal poets migrated dern civilization, and fucceflively, thie to Sicily. fchcol mistress of the Provenzal and Ita + See especially La Crusca Provenzale of lian), of the Norman and English poets. Ant. Bastero, Rome 1724, According to these writers, the Douazdeh I Brunetto Latini, the master of Dante, Rokh, ortwelve champions of Kai Khofrou, « il quale, siccome testimonia G. Villani,' fu. would be the archetypes of the peers of cominciatore, e maestro in digrosfare i FiorenCharlemayne; the moriscos, of our ballads ;

tini, e farli scorti in hen parlare ed in saper and the fiestas de las canas, of our tourna giudicare, piuttosto che adoperare il patrio fuo

linguaggio nella grand'opera del Tesoro, volle

anzi scriverla in lingua Romanza, o ProvenMallet, by his Introduction to the History of Denmark, suggested the trains of zale, come quella che era in quel tempo teidea which led probably Pinkerton (Dif- ana.'

nuta per più gentile, e più nobile del' Itali

" Vicende della Letteratura, p. 75. sertation on the Scythians or Goths, § “Gregorius, cognomento Bechada, de p. 135), and certainly Percy (on the an Caitro de Turribus, profeffione miles, subticient Metrical Romances), to ascribe a liflimi ingenii vir, aliquantulum imbutus Scandinavian crigin to the talesandrites of literis, horum gefta præliorum (the taking of chivalry. According to these writers, the Jerusalem by Godfrey) inaternâ, ut ita model of romance must be fought in the dixerim, linguâ rhythmo vulgari, ut populus History of Charles and Grzmer, the first pleniter intelligerei, ingens volumen decenter lings of rime in Egil tbe Skald, and the ru

composuit." Labbe Bivlioth. nov. II. p. 296.

This Bechada of Tours was aliiited by Gaudinents of knighthood in the Edda.

bert, a Norman.' Various considerations, however, favour

Dillon's Origin of Spanish Poetry, p. 54. the suspicion that neither Moorish Spain,

Percy's Reliques, Ill. p. xxi. nor Gothic Scandinavia, gave this very de ** Warton's History of English Poetry, cisive impulse to the character of early mo- I. 13, 38, and 134 ; and Tyrwhitt's Essays on dern civilization; but Armorica rather, and Chaucer, III. 68, and 164. the connecied provinces of Britain.

Geschichte der Cultur, p. 224.



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