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In 1753, the King of Portugal Rix dollars. conjecture from Ulloa's Voyage to America, farmed out the tobacco-trade

vol. i. p. 139.-“ It is not probable," for about

2,500,000 says he, “ that the Europeans learned the The revenue of the King of

so use of tobacco from America; for, as Spain from tobacco, amount

" it is very ancient in the Eastern coun. 7,330,933

“ tries, it is natural to suppole, that the In 1759, the duties on tobacco in Denmark, brought in

“ knowledge of it came to Europe from

40,000 In 1770, the Empress Maria

“ those regions, by means of the interTheresa received from du

" course carried on with them by the ties, &c, on tobacco

806,000

" commercial states on the Mediterranean In 1773, the duties on tobacco

« fea. - No where, not even in those in the Two Sicilies, amount

" parts of America where the tobacco. ed to

446,000 plant grows wild, is the use of it, and In 1780, the King of France

" that only for imoking, either general received from tobacco a rc

or very frequent." venue of 29 millions of livres,

CHARLES GRAHAM that is, about

7,250,000 Total annual revenue of these fix kingdoms from duties, &c.

For the Monthly Magazine. on tobacco

18,372,933

A SHORT ACCOUNT OF GILSLAND, AND

ITS MINERAL WATERS. By T. GAR:

NETT, M. D. Professor of Natural A sum greater than the revenues of the Philosophy and Chemistry in ihe ROYAL kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, INSTITUTION Of Great Britain. together on an average amount to.

G'LSLAND is a watering-place in Cum.

berland, which has been long resorted To me it appears probable," (re

to by invalids and others froin Scotland and marks Profeffor BECKMANN) “that even

the northern counties of England. It is " before the discovery of the fourth quarter

situated about two miles north of the road • of the globe, a sort of tobacco was Imoked leading from Carlisle to Newcastle, and is " in Asia".—This conjecture being men- about eighteen miles diltant from the fortioned to the celebrated traveller M. Pallas,

mer place. There are only two houses for he gave the following answer: “ That in the accommodation of the company, wirich “ Asia, and especially in China, the use

are large, and upon the plan of thole at " of tobacco for smoking is more ancient, Harrowgate. As living is here renark " than the discovery of the New World, ably cheap, and the tables very well fur. “ I too scarcely entertain a doubt. Among

nished, this place is reforted to by many “ the Chinese, and among the Mongol

befides invalids. “ tribes who had the most intercourse

The morning, when fine, is generally “ with them, the custom of imoking is {pent in walking and riding; the dinner hour " so general, fo frequent, and become lo

is three; and after tea the company go to " indispeniable a luxury; the tobacco the ball-room to dance, which amutement

purse affixed to their beli, to necessary continues till nine, the hour of supper. an article of dress; the form of the

The mixture of company from different " pipes, from which ihe Dutch seem to parts of Great Britain and Ireland, allaji to have taken the model of theirs, so

Tociated together like one family, whole “ original; and, latly, the preparation great object is to spend the time agreeably, of the yellow leaves, which are merely is extremely fascinating. This promif" rubbed to pieces and then pue into the cuous aliociation leads, as might be ex“ pipe, fo peculiar; that

pected, to that more intimate acquaintpoffibly derive all this from America ance between the fexes, which produces

of Europe ; especially as India, courtship: in fact, Gilland is more celt" where the habit of smoking tobacco is brated as a match-making place, than any “ not lo general, intervenes between Per- watering place in Britain, and the cele “ fia and China. May we not expect to

hrated temple of Hymen, Gretna-Green, “ find traces of this cultom, in the first being only eighteen miles diftanr, is fre. "account of the Voyages of the Portu- quentiy resorted to by the fond couples, “ guese and Dutch to China?”-To in. where the veteran descendant of Vulcan vestigate this subject, I have indeed the rivets the fetters which he keeps ready inclination, but, at prelent at least, not forged for the purpolę sufficient leiture; and must, therefore,

* The certificates of the marriage are often kave it to others.-However, I can now

kept ready ligned, with blanks left for the auduce che important confiimation of my names of the partics.

The

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The names of the two houses are, the Earl of Carline, which is a place of great Shaws, or Shaw-house, which some think antiquity, but very perfect : a visit to it is corrupted from Spaw-house, and the gives a better idea of what these ancient Orchard house ; which are nearly a mile fortresses have been, than most places I citant from each other, and both plea. have seen. Many of the galleries and Gantly fituated on the banks of the Irthing; fubterraneous passages, as well as fome a very romantic river. The Shaws is in- very large halls, are quite entire; and it deed del ghtfully situated on a steep bank is said that the ingenious author of the of the river, and commands a very exten Romance of the Forest sketched some of five prospect to the south. Immediately her most striking pictures of such scenery beyond the house, you descend by a fteep from this castle. The greatest curiofity, gravel wlk to the river, where you find in my opinion, is the library of William yourself in the midlt of a finely wooded am Earl of Carlisle, whose character is well phitheatre, of stratified rocks, which forms · known, and whose memory is handed down as :ublime a piece of scenery as can almost among the common people by the appelbeimagined. On both sides of the river are lation of belt Willie. Here are contained feveral beautiful walks, with benches his printed books and manuscripts in velplaced at proper points of view.

lum bindings; many of the manuscripts Out of the lowest ftratum of the rock are very curious, and some beautifully ilwhich composes this amphitheatre, and luminated. Here are likewise his chair with consists of indurated aluminous this and reading.desk, both of very clumsy tus, about fix feet in thickness, issues the workmanthip, and a curious screen, on mineral water, through a leaden pipe not which is engrossed an account of the inan inch in diameter, in a stream as clear dulgencies fold by the Pope and his reas crystal, at the rate of about two gal tailers. All seems to be exactly in the Ins and a half per minute. Its smell is ftate in which it was left by the noble ocdr-gly fulphurous, like the waters of cupier of the apartment. About a mile Harrowgate and Moffat ; stronger than the from Naward Castle, is the Abbey of Lalater, but less powerful than the former. nercost, part of which serves the purpose Tois imell may often be diftinctly per- of a parish-church, but the greater part is chired at the distance of forty or fifty yards. in ruins, which are very fine. An account Abse this itratum of indurated thistus is of this abbey and Naward Castle may one about three feet thick of shale, or sul- be found in Nicholson's History of Cumpforet of alumine, in a soft crumbling berland. fate; and above that, about twelve feet of As the properties of the Gilland waters arrillaceous histus; above that again, are but little known, no analysis of them Icarly the same thickness of very fost Male; having been published that I know of; tois is covered with argillaceous sandstone, during a short residence at this place, in the er grit, in several diftinct strata, which ex month of September last, I made fome ex. tend at least twenty feet in depth, and over- periments on them, of which the followa lang the mineral spring. The top of this ing were the principal results. petcipice is finely clothed with wood. Experiment 1. Characters written on

There are several objects within a mo paper with acetile of lead, were foon ren. derate distance, which are frequently vi- dered visible by being immersed in the wa1:ed by the company : among these may ter, or even rúspended over it: the colour be mentioned a very fine cascade, about was at first brown, and afterwards black. two miles above the Shaws, where the Ir 2. A solution of acetite of lead in dife thing, whose banks are very rugged and tilled water, being dropped into the water, romantic, precipitates itself from a great produced a very copious brown precipitate, bigat, forming a fall scarcely inferior to which afterwards changed to black. Some of the celebrated falls of the Clyde, 3. Nitrate of silver produced a lightcly the accompanying scenery is not so fine. . brown precipitate, which afterwards

At a short distance from Ģiisland, on changed to black.
tie opposite side of the river, the Roman 4. Muriate of barytes produced no effect.
wall between the Soloway Firth and the 5. No change was produced by acid of
extern coaft near Newcastle may be dif- sugar.
tinetly traced, and stones with inicriptions 6. Tinelure of galls produced no altera.
are sometimes found.' Several of the fta- tion.
1:02s are very conspicuous, particularly one 7. After the water had been boiled for
near Glenweylt, near which are the ruins about ten minutes, acetite of lead and ni-
of an cld fortress called Castle Thelwal. trate of Glver produced a white precipitate,

At the distance of about fix miles from but muriate of barytes and acid of sugar
Golland, is Naward Castle, a feat of the

no effect.
MONTHLY MAG, NO, 55.

F

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From those experiments it is evident fome base; and, on evaporating a wine, that this water is impregnated with sul- gallon of the water, I found it contained pburated hydrogen gas, that it neither con two grains and a half of iron, and about tains fulphuric acid, lime, nor iron; but three of common salt or muriate of foda. that it, probably, contains some muriate, A wine-gallon of the Gilland chalybeate as would appear from the effects produced water appears therefore to contain by the nitrate of silver : accordingly, on Ofiron evaporating Nowly a wine-gallon of this Muriate of foda

17 1 cubic

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grains

3 S water, I found four grains of faline mat Carbonic acid gas, about

14 1 cubic ter, which vas chiefly muriate of soda, or. Azotic gas

5 S inches. common salt.

So that it very much resembles the chalyTwenty-five cubic inches of gaseous beates at Moffat and Harrowgate, and inAuids were expelled from a wine-gallon of deed the greater number of chalybeate wa. the water, of which seventeen were sul

ters, which generaliy contain from two to phurated hydrogen gas, four azotic gas, 'three grains of iron, suspended by carand four carbonic acid gas. The analysis bonic acid. of a gallon of this water will therefore While I was at Gilland, some water stand thus

was brouglit to me, taken up from a Muriate of foda, or common salt 4 grains spring about four miles diftant, which was Sulphurated hydrogen gas

transparent, but of the colour of brandy. Azotic gas

Jinches

. It had a trong ferruginous, ftyptic rafte, Carbonic acid gas

much stronger than ink. So that it resembles the fulphureous water Tincture of galls produced a precipitate, of Moffat, of which I have given an ac which very much resembled Prussian blue, count in the ninth number of the Medical but a little darker. Muriate of barytes and Physical Journal. When the gases caused a copious precipitate. Acid of are expelled by boiling for few minutes, sugar and nitrate of silver produced no the water washes very well, and makes ex. change; acetite of lead caused a thick white cellent tea.

sediment. From these experiments, and Though this is the water which is re the evaporation of some of the water, ie forted to and chiefly draiik at Gilland, appears a saturated solution of sulphate of there is a fine chalybeate near the Shaws, iron and sulpłate of alumine. It is much which deserves more attention than has hi. too strong and unpleasant for internal use, therto been paid to it. It is situated on but it has been employed externally to the common, at the distance of not more than wash old ulcers with very great effect! two hundred yards from the house, in a bog The sulphureous water, which is the only gy or moffy soil; the road to it is very bad, one much resorted to, is chiefly used in but might easily be made better. The water what are called bilious and nervous comsparkles a little when poured out of one plaints, and, in Niort, in all dyspeptic cases. glass into another, has a strong inky tate, It is drank in doses of from half a pint to and deposits a copious yellow sediment. two or three quarts in a morning, and ge

The following experiments were made nerally acis very powerfully as a diuretic, with this water.

but often produces coltiveness, which ought 1. Tinelure of galls produced a beauti- to be carefully obviated, otherwise a difaful dark purple colour.

greeable giddiness comes on. 2. Muriate of barytes caused 110 change. The most important properties of this - 3. Acid of sugar produced no effect. water, resulting from its application as a 4. Acetile of lead caused a white cloud. warm bath in herpetic eruptions, chronic 5. Nitrate of silver the same.

rheunatilms, and several other diseases, as When boiled, it deposited a yellow fe- is done at Harrowgate and Moffat, are here aliment, and tincture of galls then pro- entirely neglected, there being no conveduced no effect.: but açetite of lead and niencies for bathing. I endeavoured to nitrate of silver caused the same changes as persuade Mr. Coultherd, who keeps the before.

Shaws, to get a bathing.tub, and provide From these experiments it is evident that proper accommodations for warm bathing, this water contains iron held in folution which he promised to do. The chalybeate by'a volatile acid, which is undoubtedly water deferves much more attention than the carbonic, of which it contains about has been hitherto paid to it, and would thirteen or fourteen cubic inches, with probably be much more useful in nervous about five or fix cubic inches of azotic gas, and dyipeptic complaints than the fulphura for the experiment was not made with water.

Tho. GARNETT. great nicety. It appears likewise that it Royal Institution, Abemarie. Street, contains the muriatic acid combined with

Jan, 151800.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Solomon Emmanuel, p. 91; the fame SIR,

person as Solomon Emanuel, p. 124. thanks to your correspond John King of communications of some additional in. probably the same person recorded as ftances of great longevity, I beg leave to Thomas King of Noke, Oxfordshire, eblerve, that I was well aware the list fent p: 115. you did not comprehend all the accounts Robert Ogleby, p. 110, seems to have of the kind that are recorded ; it might been the Robert Oglebie noticed p. 67. tafily have been enlarged, but it appeared Mr. Price and his wife, of Ledbury, Curaciently extensive to Mhew, that instances Herts, after being recorded, p. 101, as of this nature have been much more nu. having died within a few months of each merous than is generally lupposed. other, in 1767, are inserted again, p. 120,

Mr. James Easton's publication on as two years older and having both died * Human Longevity,” though far from a in 1770. complete collection of accounts of this Mrs. Carman of Fethard, in Ireland, kind, is said to contain the names of 1712 inserted twice, p. 120, and p. 134. persons who lived to the age of one hun Margaret M'Kay of Ribigil, near Thir. dred years and upwards. There are, so, p. 125, and Margaret Mackey of Ribiho sever, in this volume, inaccuracies which gill, in Scotland; p. 131, the same person. hould not have appeared in a compilation Mr. Cordelon, p. 128, and James Cor. of which the principal part is little more delen, p. 141, seem to have been the same tha a mere catalogue. The following person. were observed on a very flight perusal Shelagh M'Alester of Londonderry p. of it:

140, inserted again, p. 147, John Newell, Esq. page 59, is recorded Mary Pritchard, p. 188, and Jane again as John Michaelstone, p. 75: it Pritchard, p. 195, probably the same perfoould be J. Newel of Michaelstown. fon. Catherine Brebner, inserted twice, p. 63 Mrs. M'Carthy, p. 210, and Margaret

M'Carthy, p. 230, probably the lame Mr. Hill of Banbury, inserted iwice, person.

J.J.G. p. 67 and 75.

Jan. 8. 1800.

and 65.

ANECDOTES OF EMINENT PERSONS. MEMOIRS OF THE LATE DUC DE the favoured seat of freedom. The Duke, BIRON.

being, at that period, less affluent than

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phy there never has yet a

about fiveandyears ago establishmore romantic or anziable character than ed his residence in this country. that which was exhibited by this unfortu

He chose his abode in St. Alban's street, Date nobleman. Born to the pollession of Pall-mal! ; where he very speedily adopted illuftrious rank, and educated in the most both private manners and public opi. pəlushed court of Europe; the idol of its nions completely English. He conse. women, the example for its men; it is not quently enlarged the scale of his acquaint. fingular that bis mind should have been ance, and became so popular, that his fo. Arongly tinctured with a talte for chivalry. ciety was courted, not only in the most il

Early in life the Duc de Biron conceived lustrious, but in the most enlightened cir. a marked predilection in favour of the Eng

cles. lith nation; every subordinate sensation,

This nobleman then bore the title of originating in feif-love, or springing from Duke de Lauzun. His person was manthe contračted fource of national prejudice, ly and prepoñelling; his countenance was beneath the dignity and ingenuouf- pleasing and benignant; his conversation Dels of his mind. He was an observer of na. lively, interesting, and well informed ; ture; he traced the progress of her influence and his temper lo irresistibly fascinating, on the human heart, and he discovered, that he seldom was known to lose the af. that its expansion is always proportionate fections of those with whom he had once to the liberty it possesses of exercising its lived on terms of sociability. poblest energies. France was then in a

Lauzun was an admirer of literature and kate of degrading subjection; England was the fine arts; he wrote with elegance and

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feeling

feeling on subjects wherein the heart was diftinguished favourite of the unfortunate his monitor; and with classical propriety, MARIE ANTOINETTE. But let it not when matters of worldly import formed be supposed that the kindness shewn to. the cenour of his letters. If he evinced a wards this amiable nobleman originated fault, or rather a defect of nature, it was in any motive but a liberal defire to pathat of a portion of vanity which sometimes tronize and to promote superior qualificacontributed to diffuse a shade over the tions; Lauzun was a soldier, as well as an brighter features of his character. But accomplished gentleman; he was no less his exceflive senQbility, united to a fervid enterprizing than polished; no lets enimagination, probably led him beyond the lightened than liberal. ANTOINETTE, boundaries of judgment, and awakened in amidst all the errors that, perhaps, mahis mind a spirit little less vivid than that lice has ascribed to her, knew how to dir. of the most romantic heroes of antiquity. criminate with judgment, while she re

During his relidence in England he be- warded with munificence. came enamoured of a lady, at that time During the early periods of the Ame. One of the most beautiful in the courtly cir- ricân war, Lauzun was prevailed upon cle. Unfortunately he was married. Lau. by family influence to form a matrimo. zun, with a spirit of gallantry refined by nial alliance. Interest was the unsteady an enthusiastic tense of honour, worshipped basis on which a soul repleie with all the the object of his idolatry in filent regret. fenfibilities of refinement was compelled But love is lynx-eyed; and the accom. to build its fabric of domestic happineis. plished victor fanctioned a pure and sacred His relatives urged the union as both ho. intercourse of foul, which by tuins ame- nourable and lucrative; and Lauzun beliorated and embittered the destiny of her ing, at that time, le's opulent than high adorer.

born; more pliant than provident of his : Few men are capable of entertaining, own felicity; repeatedly folicited by his and still fewer women of inspiring, a pai- uncle, whole influence was boundless, and fion which reason and refinement have whom he loved with the affection of a son, power to divest of its grosser propensities. he at lait confented. Even at this interBut Lauzun was not commonly organized; esting and important epocha of human exhe was an enthusiast of every thing eiti- iftence, Lauzun was too brilliantly en. mable in the softer fex, and an example of lightened to admit the very shadow of deall that was dignified in his own.' Every ception. The day previous to his marthing that we read of in romance falls riage, he candidly avowed the real itato Mort of the ardour wnich acivated his of his heart; and confefied without remind, when it once became influenced by a ferve, that the bonds of horor, the chain beloved object.

of family connection, and the policy of After many months had passed away in convenience, not the softer fetters of af. this Platonic attachment, fome untoward fection, would unite them. circumstances produced a sudden separa- Superior minds will condemn the plea rion; circumstances no less agonizing to ofiuch an union; and refined natures will Lauzun's heart, than unexpected in the shudder at tuch a fordid facrifice: hut fashionable circles. The conscquence was, marriages of this kind were perpetually' the lady's immediately quitting the metro. folemnized in France; and very frequently polis, and fixing her retirement in the such contracts were ratified by parents, wilds of a filter kingdom.

even before the contracted parties were Lauzun's despair was undiscribable! personally known to each other. This He experienced all the milcries of that was not one of the lealt violations of ligloomy vacuum which succeeds the interest berty which operated powerfully in proof a warm and generous påltion. He re- moring, and at length in accomplishing, signed himself for a time to the excess of the French revolution. melancholy, and, after vainly endeavouring The Duchese was remarkably deficient to fhake off the spell which seemed to falten in personal graces; though nature had beon his faculties, devoted to regrets the stowed on her the powers of receiving a most poignant, to sensations the most af. considerable degree of mental cultivation. Midling, he again repaired to his native The avowed indifference which fubfifted country. There he continued to reside between them naturally produced a lan under the immediate protection of his ve- gour of mind, which was wholly inimical nerable uncle, then Duc de Biron, whose io domeitic happiness ; mutual negleć. fortune and title he alterwards inherited. foon gave birth to mutual disgust; and,

Lauzun was the darling of society, the after a few months had tediously clapsed in ornament of the French Court; and the a series of constrained civilities, they parted

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