Imatges de pÓgina

inunity to inflict the punishment of death This plan of my learned friend, howę. upon its member ; and, if I am not mis- ver, did not succeed at the time it was pro. taken, this punishment is in Aunerica re- posed, and I know not why; I am, how. stricted to murderers of the worst class only. ever, hopeful that it may meet with a more

Meditating upon these subjects a few gracious reception from the public at prenights ago, it occurred to me that the fent, when the invention of substitutes is fault of our laws might perhaps consist in greatly the fashion, and when we have inthe punishinents we infli&t not being pro- genious men who undertake to find substi. perly proportioned to the crimes; or, in iutes for almost every necessary of life, trom other words, that rogues have been fa a militia man to a joint of meat. Now, as more fertile in devising new crimes, than it is notorious that the punishment of fehonest men, or legislators (who ipso facto lons is very expensive to government, and are honest men), have been ingenious in as government, like all other well regu. varying their means of punishment. To lated families, mutt he tensible of the hardenumerate all the crimes for which the law nels of the times, I Hatter myself I am perordaivs punishment, would require a much forming an acceptable service by prolarger proportion of your Magazine than posiing a cheap lubititute for punishyou might be disposed to allow to such a ments. purpose; but all the punishments in ufe It is almost needless to say, that the science may, I believe, be expresied in these few of surgery is very much obstructed by the words, death, banishment, imprisonment, want of opportunities for operations and exzubipping, pillory, and fines. There are fix periments before the student arrives at actual punishments to at least fix hundred species practice upon his patients. It is a very awk. of crimes; and, by the bye, to save my- ward thing, and would be very shocking felt the trouble, I beg leave to refer the if it were known, that a surgeon should be curious reader to Mr. Colquhoun's two able to lay to a patient, “ Sir, I ain come volumes on the London and Marine Po. to cut off your leg; but as this is the first lice, where he will find the genera and spec time I ever performed the operation, you cies of rogues classified in a truly Linnäan mult excuse me, if I don't go through it lystem, and often with Linnæan names. as I could wish." This, Mr. Editor,

Perhaps, therefore, I say, the failure of would surely be very shocking and very our penal laws may proceed from the want unsafe ; whereas, it is obvious, that by of connection between the crime and the the scheme I propose, at least twenty fun punishment. But it is not my intention dents may go through the whole feries of at present to attempt to establish this con- operations in the course of one Old Bailey nećtion : I leave that to wiser heads, and sessions, greatly to their improvement, and proceed to inform you, that, in the course to the furtherance of the law. of my meditations aforesaid, I recollected Another advantage would be, that, as a plan put into my hands tome years ago, the operations of turgery are very numefor « commuting all punishments for ope. rous, they might afford that variety of purations of pharmacy and surgery." The nishment which seems very much wanted worthy gentleman who proposed this in order to proportion punishments to scheme had principally in his eye the fre- crimes ; and the antipathy of the lower quency of executions, which he thought classes to surgical operations is so strong, dilgraceful to a country boasting its hu- that I trust I need not expatiate on this as manity; and his idea was, instead of hang. a powerful argument in favour of the ing so many felons, to make them submit scheme. The light of a case of instruments to certain experiments and operations in would create more terror than the fight of a physic and surgery. Hereby, said he to cat-o-nine-tails, which I am told there are ine, with all the enthufialm of a schemer, various ways to evade. For Night of. science will be promoted as well as crimes fences, or first offences, it may perhaps be punished, by rogues being obliged to sub. necessary to order the felon to he put under mit to operations, which, I am lorry to say, the hands of an apothecary's boy for a we can ícarcely persuade honeft men to week or fortnight. Crimes of the next undergo, although their lives are in dan. degree of atrocity might be punished by a ger; and I know so much of these opera- gentle dislocation; as we rile higher in tions, that I will venture to say, that, if offence, we ascend through the various my scheme be adopted, felons will under. degrees of fractures fimple and compound, Mand what it is to fuffer the pains of law up to the trepan, or lithotomy. better than ever they did.

Methinks I hear the recorder paffing



sentence at the conclusion of an Old Bailey drawing would in general be sufficient, and sessions in this manner :

perhaps as good for the morals as beating “ You, John Glim, have been found hemp and blafpheming , or the apotheguilty of house-breaking : it only remains caries might be permited to try the effect for me that I pronounce the sentence of of some new-invented medicine. I fancy the law, which is, that you be taken from I shall some day or other read in the news. thence to Surgeons Hall, in Lincoln's Inn papers a paragraph like the followFields, in the City of Westminster, and ing: County of Middlesex, and there be cut for « Yesterday three men and a woman, a fiftula."

were brought before the Lord Mayor, for *** You; Thomas Vagrant, have been getting drunk and making a riot in a puh. found guilty of stealing privately: The lic house at unreasonable hours : but, on sentence of the law is that your right hand their making a handsome apology for their should be cut off ; hut the court, in confic conduct, and promising to behave better deration of your having a numerous family, in future, his lordship was pleased to order whom you maintain by your profeffion as that each should take a box of Dr. Huma ballad-finger, hath been pleased to remit bug's Cathartic pills, and be discharged.” that part of your sentence, and orders that In this plan, 'I humbly prefume, it is you be qualified for the Opera House." very obvious that various persons would

This, Sir, would alter the face of things' be gratified. Men of science would be unin Newgate; instead of rioting, drinking doubtedly pleased with so extensive a range and swearing, which are too much to be of experimental pra tice; and I trust there heard in all our jails, we should hear no- is enough in the scheme to satisfy those thing but groans, and screams, and the who think that our punishments are in gedireful operation of boluses and juleps., neral too lenient. Executioners and jai. The Newgate Calendar then would be a lors may be bribed, and there are various list of cases in forgery; and the keeper, if ways of softening punishments ordered by fie found a prisoner refractory, might ea- the law; but the gentlemen to be employed fily procure luch advice from the first fur- upon' my plan would have too much ingeon in the neighbourhood, as would ef- terest in its success to be swayed by any lectually prevent his running away. considerations of another kind, or to be

Upon highwaymen, footpads, and all prevailed upon to lay down the knife or such blood-thirfty fellows, I would have the lancet before law and justice had been the various kinds of syptics tried ; expe- fully satisfied. Besides, should a greater riments might also be made with gun.fbot degree of severity be contended for in the wounds, a species of re.aliation which cale of certain crimes, than an expert opewould admirably serve the purposes of rator might infict, we have bungling furscience and justice. As to crimes com- géons and blundering apothecaries enough, mitted in a state of intoxication ; for the whose handy work and prescriptions would lesser species, a course of quack medicines amount to the full rigour of the law ; or might probably be severe enough; but for the numerous tribe of advertizing doctor's the more atrocious, it would be absolutely might be employed, and I hope none will necessary to punish by tapping. Not that say that the punishment in that case would I mean that the sentence of the judge should not be perfectly adequate to the crime. be definitive. Alleviating circumstances Having suggested these hints, Mr. Edi. ought ftill to appeal to the fountain of tor, I leave them and the whole scheme to mercy, and in cases where the jury itrongly the consideration of your readers ; I trust recommended to mercy, his majesty would they will weigh it with impartiality, and no doubt remit the trocar or the bistoury, determine whether it is or is not entitled as might seem fit. Very heinous offences to a preference over the present system, committed by females, might be punished I am, Sir, your most obedient, by operations incident to the sex, such as A FRIEND TO JUSTICE AND SURGERY. experiments on the nervous system, on the

P, S. I have this moment read that the ! tongue, &c. or perhaps the cafarian ope- Divorce Bill has been thrown out of the Houte ration might be ordered in lien of hanging ; of Commons. I am sorry for it. I think I and, if we may believe some learned pro- could have recommended, in my plan, a trifling feffional men who have lately tried that operation or two, which would have effe&tually operation, it would not amount to much prevented the increase of Divorces. Sublais mure than a respite for a week!

causa, tallirur effatus, As to petty offences, bleeding and tooth. June 13, 1800.


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To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the Epic Muse. Permit me to transcribe

the well known fimile of Homer, and acSIR, N consequence of Mr. Robinson's com

coinpany it with a translation into Welsh blank verse :

' 'oon take the liberty to acquaint ihose of your

πες φυλλων γενεη τoιη δε και ανδραγ. classical readers who may not be

Φυλλα τα μεν τ'ανεμος χαμαδις χεει, αλλα δε pre

Surn fent possessed of the information, that some verv curious remarks on the subject are to

Τηλεθοωσα φυεί, εαρος δ'επιγιγνεται άσε.

“Ως ανδριν γενεη ή μεν φυει ή δ' απολήγει. be found in Hermannus's Treatise on the Metres of the Greek and Roman Poets; a

As is the race of leaves, is that of men. very ingenious work of a very acute and The wind blows down the leaves, and then learned man, which it is to be hoped will Budding, with others decks the time of speedily find a place in the library of every

tpring : Britim scholar. I am, Sir, Your's, &c.

So blooms one race of men, another fades. June 7th, 1800.

E. COGAN. P.S. In reading the Medea of Seneca the Fel dzil y coed, yw oefoedd dynobryw. ather day, I could not help remarking, that Ua hilo ddail a gwymp, gan auaf wynt; Gronovius, in his note on verse 335, affirms Hîl arall, yn y gwanwyn, dardd ar frys : of the verb reclude that it signifies both to shut Felly ûn oes o ddynion gwiwa, 'naill a dyf. and to open. But he produc:s no examples.

If motives of distance and curiosity iti

mulate us in inspecting the dialects of To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Madagascar or of Japan ; those of approx

imation and excellence might be expected OUR correspondent M. P. desires to to induce thie admirers of poetic lore to in. be informed how he may separate vestigate the magnificent language of the

WIL EVANS, the ncutral falis from Kelp or Barilla. I bards of Cambria. apprehend it may be done thus. Add to Tavislock, Marzb 6, 1800, the Barilla a sufficient quantity of quick Time to deprive it of its carbonic or aerial acid, and lixiviate the mass with water.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Then run off the lees, and boil them down SIR, till they are of a proper ftrength to be fet TN the thirty - fixth Number of the by for the falts to crystallize. When cold,

Monthly Magazine, Mr. Warburton the neutral falts will be found in crystals has referred to a pailage of Suidas, in ielseparate from the mineral alkali, which timony that, for the invention and introJaiter being by the lime rendered caufic duction of punctuation, we are indebted and incapable of crystallization will remain

to Tbrasymachus, who lived about the suspended in the mother water. This may three hundred and eightieth year before afrérwards be evaporated, and the alkali the Chriftian æra; but, if the following prelerved for use. 'If it is requisite to have pailage in Huetius be genuine, and foundthe mineral alkali in crystals, all that is ed upon proper authority, the invention necessary, is to give it the carbonic acid, of this science is not to be ascribed 10 of which it had been deprived by the cal. Thralsmachus, but to Ariftophanes of careous earth, and it will then be as capa. Byzantium, a learned gramınarian, and who ble of crystallization as other falts. I mall is said to have been fuperintendant of the be glad if M. P. will tavour me with his famous library at Alexandria, and to have address by poit, and am, Sir, Your's, &c.

lived in the one hundred and forty-fifth SAMUEL PARKES.

Olympiad, or about two hundred years Stoke upon Trent, May scth, 1800.

before Chrift: “ Triplici punctorum titu

orationis distinctio omnis abfolvitur, col. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. locaio punéto vel ad fummum literæ, vel

ari medium, vel ad inum. Politura prior, SIR,

quæ eft ad fummum literæ, fententiam OUR correspondent Meirion may he perfectè claudit, ut nihil præterea ad ejus ers, howtar the Welch language, which is,, ter litus ad medium literz, fententiam I tancy, exclusively used by toe Lyric, may' quidem claudit, sed don perfeciè; ut ad be adapted to convey ihe productions of explendum lectoris animuin et abiolven



dam penitùs fententiam aliquid præterea ation was then unknown. Belides, if desideretur, et ejuídem ferè fententiæ com- Thrafymachus or Aristophanes had, as mata dividit. Infima verò pofitura mo- has been asserted, invented marks of puncrulam interponit quandam, dum lector fpi- tuation, and this had been generally ritum ducat, et diversas ejufdem fententiæ known, Quinctilian would scarcely have partes una connexione aptas inter fe et omitted to mention this particular. conclusas distinguit. Prioris generis punc- On the whole, the arguments hitherto tum Textíz soypen appellatur ab antiquis brought forward in favour and support of grammaticis; secundi néon; tertii loçiyun. the great antiquity of punctuation, appear Atque id inventum ad orationis nitorem ex. fallacious, and founded upon no good aucogitatum, Aristophani Grammatico accep- thority; and there is every reason to betum refertur. Quod cum ipfe hoc tem. lieve, that the invention of this science be. pore reperiffet, quo literis quadratis, et longs to a period less remote than some majusculis vulgo fcribebatur, aptiflimus have imagined. To what particular pe.. fuit et utilislinus siyueño illarum usus,, riod, or to what particular person, the ho. quod literarum amplitudo intercapedi- nour of this invention is due, it is perhaps nem observatu perfacilem tres inter punc. difficult accurately to decide, since satistorum fedes conftitueret*.” And that this factory authorities seem to be wanting, Aristophanes was the author of the mode for judging with precition upon the subof punctuation, which at first prevailed, ject was the opinion also of Montfaucon and This, however, appears to be generally Salmasiust.

agreed upon, that the form of punctuation, But there does not appear to be any at first practised, 'was similar to what Mr. probability, that either Thrafymachus or Warburton has thewn from Dr. Bernard, Aristophanes invented punctuation, or that and of which Huetius, in the passage this science was ever practiced at periods quoted above, has taken notice, viz. a so remote. Mr. Warburton refers to paf- point at the bottom of a letter denoted a sages in Cicero and Aristotle, as authori.. comma; in the middle it fignified a coties in vindication of the opinion of Sui-' lon; and at the top was equivalent to a das. It must however be observed, that period or full stop. Nevertheless, it is not these authorities amount to nothing in be- unworthy of observation that the mode of half of what they are intended to prove. punctuation used in after times was less Cicero and Aristotle, in the passages referred full and complete. I have seen a Latin to, mean not the marks of punctuation, translation of “ Strabo," published about but only the parts and completion of a fen- the year 1490, in which no other marks, tence. And with respect to the affertion besides the period (composed of a square of Huetius, I know of no proofs from an- dot), and the colon, are to found. And cient writers, that have ever been adduced Mr. Dowling, in the thirty-fifth Number in confirmation of his opinion ; nor do I of your Magazine, tells us, that in “ Diabelieve any such proofs can be ariduced. nyfius de Situ Orbis” printed at Venice in

I can easily conceive, that fome kind 1498, the colon and period are abundant, of paules, in speaking and reading, muit but no others. That a different modifia have existed with the knowledge of com. cation in the characters. of punctuation municating ideas; but that marks of should have been a consequence of the punctuation, in writing, were also coeval use of letters different in lize and form with this knowledge, I cannot so readily from thole formerly emploved, is a matter admit. Had punétuation in writing been of no furprise ; but that this modification used in the times when Dionyfius of Ha- should be less perfect, feems unaccount. licarnassus, and Quinctilian, .compoled able. •

John ROBINSON. their celebrated crtatiles upon language, I Ravenstonedele. cannot imagine but they would have mentioned it: the most minute parts of grammar are noticed by them; and their fi- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. lence upon this subject I consider as an argument sufficient to prove, that punctu.

N alluding to a remark of one of your

correspondents respecting benefit-lucie* Dan. Huet, præfat. ad Orig. Comment. ties, I by no means intended to represent

+ Vide Palæogr. Græc. pp. 31. 32. and the plan of providing for the necessities of the Epifle of Salmafius to Sarravius. age by such means as wholly imprac






ticable; but I certainly did mean to af. whence the posterior and prevalent word sert, what J. S. admits, that the present Qaww, and the Latin facies, face. The situation of the labouring poor, arising meaning of the verse, therefore, is primafrom the disproportion of their wages to rily and fully this : “ Man, even on his the advanced price of the necessaries of life, superficial appearance, is sufficient to sug. is such, as “ to immense numbers of them geft the idea of misfortune:" « At the absolutely precludes the possibility of fav. first sight of man, or the very mention of ing," and consequently that the present his name, calamity is presented to our moment is by no means favourable to the view." Hence those standing epitbets in establishment of such focieties, as the num. the poets for our species : which epithets I her of those who would become members have enumerated in my Notes on Lücretius, of them must be comparatively finall, and v. 642, vi. 1. A fragment from the Pro. there is so much probability that of these tefilaus of Euripides, preserved by Stobzwho did enter many might afterwards be- us, is equivalent to this sentence of Mecome unable to continue their payments. nander under consideration : But, though I conceive little success would attend any attempts at present to render

Ου θαυμ ελεξας, θνητον οντα δυςτυχειν. benefit-focieties more general than they “ You tell us nothing strange, when you are, I have a high opinion of the utility speak of a mortal exercised by calamity." of such inftitutions when they are founded Dorchester Goal, GILBERT WAKEFIELD. on rational principles, and conducted with June 3, 1800. care and integrity; and if J. S. or any of your readers can find a sufficient number of persons willing to join in a fociety of this To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, kind, they will have few other difficulties to encounter, as the rates of contribution, both for allowances in old age, and during

HE Duke de Liancourt, in his Tra. incapacities of labour, produced by fick ness or accidents, may be adjusted on fe. the population of the United States, iupcure grounds from the tables computed poses that it is doubled every twenty years, for this purpose by Dr. Price, which have and, computing on the foundation of the been published in the last edition of his enumeration of 1791, he finds, that in and the necessary regulations can be easily United States will be peopled in the same Observations on Reversonary Payments, 1876 the population will amount to

80,000,000, when the territory of the formed from the inolt judicious rules of the focieties that subfitt at present.

proportion that France was before the reLondon, June 4.

J. J. G.

volution. This is a very eafy mode of determining the future sale of a country

with relpect to the number of its inhabi. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

tants, but it is extremely erroneous, though

it has been frequently adopted, even by SIR,

those who ought to have been better acAM I obliged to the candour and libe- quainted with the subject. Sir William

rality of your correspondent Wm. Petty, when he wrote his Essay on the Evans, for recalling my attention, in p. Growth of the City of London, in 1683, 441, of your last Number, to my transla- finding it appeared that for some time the tion of this iambic :.

number of deaths had been double what it Ανθρωπος ίκανη προφασις εις το δυςτυχειν. .

was forty years before, assumes this period

as the rate of increase of the population of I allow my representation of it to be suf. London, which would thus continue to ficiently vague and indistinct ; will w. double every forty years, till its further E. excuse me, if I venture to pronounce progress became imposible from the difhis translation also deficient in perspicuity? proportion of the inhabitants of the metro. Some satisfactory illuftrations have been polis to those of the country: upon this made, I recollect, in my interleaved copy of ground, he calculated that the growth of my own book, bur that is not with me, and the city would be at its utmost height in I am therefore unable to produce them. I the present year 1800, when its inhabitants regard #popacis in this lenie, not as de. would aipount to upwards of fue millions. rived from ones, according to the common Such a striking inttance of the fallacy of lexicons, but from $20, to shine or appear; this incde of computing the future fate of


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