Imatges de pÓgina

pand relates the attack and reduction of by the reception of his volume, has fub. this castle of despotism : there were in it mitted it to a revifal, and has just pubbut seven prisoners, four of whom were lithed another edition, corrected and enaccused of forging bills of exchange ; one larged. The eighth chapter in the preconfined at the request of his family on sent edition treats on the subject of the charges of the most serious nature, and pluoder which has so long and so successtwo who were so deranged as to be con- fully been carried on upon the river, and fined among the mad people at Charenton explains the advantages which have althe day after their liberation from their ready resulted to trade and the revenue by former imprisonment! In the Provinces the establishment of the Marine Police in there were several state prisoners, particu- ftitution. The ninth treats of the plunlarly in Brittany ; and our author tells der in the public dock-yards : Mr. Colus, that when he was intendant there, he quhoun states the allowance of chips to received an express order from the King the artificers to coli Government 140,900l. to visit every one, and to receive from a year! The eleventh chapter treats on each prisoner a statement respecting him- the origin of criminal offences, which the felf, and to transmit an account of it to author imputes to an ill-regulated police, the minister, the Baron de Breteuil. The principally as it regards public-houses: circular letter, containing ampleft inftruc- is the quantity of beer, porter, gin, and tion cespecting the motives of justice and compounds which is sold in public-houses humanity by which it had been dictated, in the metropolis and its environs has was addressed to all the intendants; I been estimated at near 3,300,00ol. a obeyed it,” says M. Bertrand, “as was year.” After defcanting on the indigence, my duty, with the utmost strictness; and debility, and contamination of morals proI attest, upon my honor, that there was duced among the lower classes of people pot in Brittany a single state prisoner by this enormous consumption, Mr. C. whose confinement was not an act of juf- remarks that, however unpopular it may tice, and in inany instances an act of be- appear to those who have not considered nevolence and mercy.". The present the subject, if a triple duty were imposed work contains a great deal of very curious on malt fpirits, and a much higher on matter, and will be read with much plea- strong beer and porter, it would be an act sure by all who interest themselves in the of the greatest humanity on the part of events of that revolution, whose influence the legillature. He makes the following, is felt in every quarter of the globe. curious and alarming calculation : sup

Of the last work which we have to no. posing the excess in which 200,000 of the tice under the head of History, we fhall lavoring people in the metropolis indulge merely transcribe the titlc-page, which thortens the natural period of their exiitwill be found fufficiently indicative of its ence five years each on an average, the lacontents : “ Ao Index, drawn up about bor of one million of years is lost in the the Year 1629, of many Records of Char. lives of this class of men after the expense ters, granted by the different Sovereigns is incurred in rearing them to maturity, of Scotland, between the Years 1309 and which during a period of thirty-fix years 1413, most of which Records have been of adult labor at 251. a year, establishes a long missing. With an Introduction, deficiency to the community of 25 milgiving a State, founded on authentic Do. lions ferling! In the twelfth chapter of cuments fill preserved, of the Ancient the present edition is discussed the impor. Records of Scotland, ivhich were in that tant subject of female prostitution. The Kingdom in the Year 1292. To which magnitude of this evil in the metropolis are subjoined, Indexes of the Persons and almost exceeds belief; it admits of no Places inentioned in those Charters, al. common remedy, and cannot be materially phabetically arranged. Published at the diminished by any efforts of private bene. defire of the Right Hon. Lord Frederic volence : with considerable diffidence Mr. Campbell, Lord Clerk Register of Scot: Colquhoun has ventured to propose some Jand, with a View to lead to a Discovery specific regulations for the purpose at leat of those Records which are missing. By of leileping this melancholy and increasing William Robertson, Esq.

evil. It would exceed the reasonable li PoliticAL ECONOMY.

mits of our article to state the particulars A work containiog more extraordinary of the plan which is here laid down, or Atatements, has not, we conceive, been pre- to enter into an examination of its merits ; fented to the public for many years than we must refer our reader to the book itMr. COLQUHOUN'S “ Police of the Me- felf, and at the fame time express a most tropolis." ." This magistrate, encouraged fincere wish that the fubject may nog

4 Ka


Aumber, but that some scheme may be fel for the crown with moderate salaries, devised and adopted for the reclamation of to conduct all criminal prosecutions ; that that unfortunate class of females, who all lodging-houses in the metropolis be live by prostitution, and for the preven- . registered, and the proprietor pay a small tion of those public enticements to immo- fine annually. The committee recomrality, which are nightly exhibited in every mend the adoption of Mr. Bentham's plan ftreet of the metropolis. We have no for employing convicts in solitary confinedoubt but that a large proportion of those ment; this plan was submitted to governfemales, who earn their bread by the pro* ment five years fince, and approved by ftitution of their bodies, are driven into them; but the difficulty of finding a prothis 'melancholy and humiliating way of per place for the erection of his Panoptilife, by an inability to find sonic honor- con has hitherto delayed its execution: able employment : when we see a man, this difficulty we understand is likely to qualified by the alertness and muscularity be foon removed. In the report before us, of his limbs for the labor of a gladiator, it is stated that the whole annual disburstmeasuring lace, or forting ribbons behind ments attending the criminal police in the counter, we are disgusted at the mean. Great Britain amount to 234.1531.545. 714. nefs of his encroachment; for it is impof- that the avnual cost of each convict emfible to avoid considering him as a tyrant, ployed in the hulks, dedu&ting the value walking in those paths of industry which of his labor, is 121. 135. 7d. ; and the anshould be facredly appropriated to the fe- nual expense of each convict sent to Botany male sex. The publication of Mr. Col- Bay 44). 198. 1d.! How little the public quhoun's Treatise on the Police of the is compensated for these enormous exMetropolis, roused the legislature to a tense penfes by a general reformation of the of. of the inefficiency of that police to the fenders who are either imprisoned in our prevention of crimes, or the detection of several places of conhneinent, who are criminals: a select committee was in working in the hulks, or transported to confequence appointed, who presented a Botany Bay, we are alas, but too well acreport, in which they advised either quainted ! 'In the in-liscriminate association the consolidation of the two offices of with each other, they devise detp plans of hawkers and pedlars, and of hackney; plunder which are too frequently executed coaches ; or that they might both be on the recovery of their liberty, abolished, and their duties respectively An interesting " Account” has been afligned to the office of stamps, and to published of the proceedings of the acting the magiftrates of the metropolis; or governors of the House of Industry in lastly, if the office hould Dublin for two years, from which it Hill be retained, that a material retrench- clearly appears how essential is the perfonal ment might take place in its expense. fuperintendence, as well as money of men Since the presentation of this, the com- of opulence and relpectability, for the mittee has fitten again and published ano- economical and comfortable management ther Report,” dated June 26th, 1798, of a House of Induftry. Previously 10 in which they declare their opinion, that the appointment of the acting governors much more salutary effects with respect to the average expense of maintenance with police may he derived from a plan drawn other incidental charges in relieving the up by Meffrs. Colquhoun and Poole, poor was annually at the rate of 71. 15. id. (which is annexed to their discussion) per head; in the first half year of the futhan from any of the schemes which the perintendence of the acting governors the committee fubinitted in their report of average per anrum for the same purposes the preceding year.

was sl. 45. vid.; the charges for the The outline of this plan is, that one ensuing year were only at the rate of great board of police revenue formed by 41.155. 3d. Various objections have arisen à certain number of commissioners with and been pointed out by those who have handsome salaries be established, and that written on the subject agaiost any public it thall discharge the duties of the present eftablishment for the poor: asuming, offices of tawkers and pedlars, hackney, however, the eligibility of such establishcoaches, &c. That iuo new officers of ments in general, the plan of the House police be moreover establithed, and that all of Induftrv of Dublin is foexcellent, that of them have concurrent jurisdiction over it may well serve as a model for similar the whole metropolis, and the counties of inftitutions Middielix, Kent, Eirex, and Surrey. It On a former occasion we poticed with is timáght advisable that the attorney-ge- great pleasure COUNT RUMFORD's proneral thail be empowered to a paint coun- pusals for forming by subscription in the


dom ;

metropolis of the British Empire a public writes in a pert manner and seems not veinstitution for diffusing the knowledge, ry competent to impart information. Mr. and facilitating the general introduction, Brooke, in a pamphlet entitled “ True of useful mechanical inventions and im- Causes of our prefent Diftress for Proprovements, &c. To the honor of the visions, &c.” has discussed the subject with Nation these proposals were embraced and more sobriety and good sense, than either fupported with a degree of ardor, which of the authors whose works we have just nothing could have to generally inspired, mentioned : he considers the principal but a real eagerness for the propagation of causes of the present scarcity in grain of science, and the application of it to the every defcription, butchers' meat, poultry, common purposes of life. A “ Prospec- &c. to be “ monopoly of farms; the im. tus" is now printed “ of the Royal Insti- menfe number of horses kept in this king, cution of Great Britain incorporated by the neglect in breeding cows, Charter, M.DCCC., Patron, the King; horned cattle, hogs, asses, and goats ; the with a Copy of the Charter, and a List of almost disuse of fish, and carelessness of Subfcribers." This magnificent institu- our fisheries; the present method of suption, which has scarcely been twelve porting the clergy ; too extensive hopmonths before the public, is already under grounds; neglect of orchards, &c.” “Exthe direction of nearly 150 proprietors, sub- clufive of these general causes of scarcity,” scribers of so guineas cach ; 126 life sub- says Mr. B. “there are others which have scribers at 10 guineas each ; and 314 an- operated in a less degree, these second nual subscribers at 2 guineas each: goool: causes are extensive parks, and pleasure has been 'raised on voluntary loan for the grounds; the common mode of rowing construction of a theatre for public lectures; grain ; the extravagant manner used by and a splendid and convenient house in Al- the poor in dreifing met ; the ridiculous bemarle-ftreet, has already been taken for waste of straw, &c." Mr. B. enlarges on the purposes of the society: under fuch mu- each of these topics, particularly the first; nificent patronage and such wile directors, namely, the moropoly of farms, which he there cannot be any doubt of the success and confiders as the great source of the evil coinprosperity of this national establishinent. plained of, and intersperses a number of

The 7th, 8th, and oth Reports of the useful hints for the improvement of agriSociety for bettering the Condition, and culture and the encouragement of fisheries, increasing the Comforts of the Poor" are The anonymous author of “ Cursory published: they relate a variety of very. Remarks on Bread and Coals," displays interesting experiments for the relief of much judgment, acuteness and philanour fellow creatures in distress, and evince thropy: his observations on the unnecefthe activity and indefatigable attention of fary and unnatural scarcity of coals partithose gentlemen who superintend its con- cularly merit attention. The last work

A few pamphlets have been writ- which we shall notice under the head of ten on the subject of the high price of Political Economy is, “ The Reports" of corn, but they do not, in general, possess tivo Committees who were appointed by much inforination as to the causes of it; the House of Commons, one in 1798 and or propose other remedies than those which one 1799, for the purpose of inquiring in. have been offered to the püblic a hundred to the best mode of levying and collecting times before. “ The Question of Scarcity the duties upon the distilleries and corn plainly stated, and Remedies considered, spirits in Scotland : the Right Honourable ivith Observations on permanent means to Sylvester Douglas in the chair. These keep Wheat at a more regular Price, by Reports contain a mass of information reARTHUR YOUNG.” This writer considers lative to the distilleries of Scotland, which the scarcity as real, but not sufficient to does great credit to the industry and accuauthorize the high price which has been racy of the gentlemen who composed demanded for corn; his propofed remedies them. There are two fyftems which hase are to encourage the cultivation of pota- been succesuvely adopted in the collection toes; to prohibit the feeding of horses of these duties, namely the licence lystem kept for pleasure, on oats ;

and the survey fiftem : the former of these every scrap of waste land into little poffef- leaves the distiller unmolested by the exfions for the poor, and to aflign gardens ciseman, previously exacting the duty on and grass lands to labourers for one or two such a quantity of spirits as it is 'calcu

The author of " A Word for the , lated the digiller might polibly produce in Poor, &c. &c. &c.” contends eagerly, and a giren time; on the payment of this duty wc thirk ignorantly, that the present the diftiller gets a licence to carry on his Scarcity of bread corn is artificial: hc business. The survey fyftem consists in


to convert



an actual reckoning and account taken by diétory purposes. No one will seriously the revenue officer of the quantity really question Mr. Reeves's loyalty or the finceproduced by the distiller. The obvious rity of his attachment to our conftitution ; defeet in this latter fystem is the difficuky, fe expressly says, indeed, in this presede or to speak more accurately, the absolute publication, that all is now right in tbis impoffibility of afccitaining that real quan country, and be would bave nothing altered; tity. The licence system, therefore from Mr. Reeves is in the notorious enjoyment its facility of execution and apparent cer- of so many finecures that there can be no tainty of adequate receipt sec med in every doubt of his indispoßtion to any alteration. respect preferable: it was not, however Still however had we been disposed long in use before its imperfection was which we certainly are not to cxcite dirmol ftrikingly exhibited; for the present affection against the government of this rapidity of distillation far exceeds what coumry and bring the parliament into ever had before been practised or conceived. contempt, we could have devised no more The legislature had been taught to believe effeciual method, in our estimation, than that the process could not be completed in to have written such another pamphlet as less than 24 hours; whereas modern im- that which is before us. We should have provements have carried that art to such told the people, as Mr. Reeves has done, perfection that, instead of 24 hours, not more that the English government is a fimple han five, probably not more than three, mi- monarchy; that the monarch creates the nutes are now required for the proceis of two houses of parliament ; that they (the distillation! This wonderful rapidity in people) were utterly deftitute of all claim the operation, effected by a series of inventic to sovereignty, and of course that they ons which were prompted, no doubt, by the appointed no part of the legislature: that licence system, has been found productive the King might rule without any parliaof very serious evils; it is said to create a ment, and yet violate no law, and finally waste, not only of fuel, but of grain ; it that he is the sole maker and executor of Injures morcover the quality of the spirit the laws!. There are precisely the docand renders it more noxious. The com- trives which, in our opinion, have the mittee therefore have proposed a combina- ftrongeft tendency to promote disaffe&ion tion of the two systems as a substitute for among the people against the person and both: they have sketched the outline, high office of the Sovereign: these morewhich they conceive, if properly filled up, over are the exact doctrines which Mr. will in a great mealure unite their advan- Reeves with very unsuccessful assiduity, tages and avoid their defects. As it was labors to establith. He contends - conno part of the instiuctions of we com- fiftently indeed--that in no instance where mitiee that they should consider how far in the succession of the crown has been in. a moral and political point of view the terrupted by any violent change, has the distilleries Phould be encouraged, they have people or the parliament appointed a King: but slightly touched upon that important on every such occasion the reigning moinquiry: they seem to be of opinion hownarch bas cuber made bim/elf or beex mode ever, that if it were thought proper to at. ty some other king! This pofition, says be tempt a total suppression of the manufac- with becoming gravity of countenance, ture, its practicability is very questionable ; ought to startle nobody, when it is conftill they think such a duty Thould be im fidered "that a fettlement of the crown pored as to prevent the excettive use of has no force, vnless it is made in parlia. fpirits among the poor.

ment; and the King, being the maker of Politics.

law, AS HAS BEEN PROVED, he must of Mr. Reeves, whore well-known course make the limitations and fertlee pamphlet, entitled “ Thoughts on the ments of the crown, whether upon him. English Government, &c." was profecuted self or upon others: further, in order to as Tibellous by order of the House of such parliamentary settlements where the Commons, has undertaken a defence of descent is interrupted there muft be prehis publication, in a “ Second Letter” on viously an acceptance and assumption of the same subject. The political tenets of the crown. Mr. Reeves then endeavours this author are generally known, and the to show that the accellion of Henry IV. doctrine which he attempts to establish is of Henry VII. and of William ll. all generally execrated. It often happens proceed upon the fame principles. that, in order to bring about the same end, The hypothesis of Mr. Reeves has been opposite measures are successfully pursued, controverted in all its parts by the Vinerian and the fame measures occasionally adopt- Profeffor in the University of Oxford, Dr. ed to effect very different and WOOD VESON, in a pamphlet cutiiled," A


brief Vindication of the Rights of the war by writers of high respe&ability who Britifla Legislature, &c.” In this pam. have maintained very opposite opinions phlet the learned author has fully refuted with arguments plausible and strong.. But the letter-writer, even from the authorities with whomsoever the culpability rests in the which himself has adduced, and contends first instance, there can be little doubt of that the very words of the acts of Par- the guilt of the Minister in refufing to treat liament, in exprefling that each law is en- for peace at one time, and in commencing acted not only by and with the advice, but

an equivocal negotiation at another. by the autbority of that body, directly Of these notorious facts, we have the and peremptorily oppose the doctrine of Minister's avowal in his “ Speech in the Mr. Reeves. This latter gentleman has House of Commons, February 30, 1800, exposed himself to public ridicule and on a Motion for an Address to the Throne, discredit in a “ Third and Fourth Letter' approving the answers_returned to the which are chiefly employed in replying to Communications from France relative to Dr Wooddefon's vindication: This reply is a negotiation for Peace.” This labored weak and contemptible to the last degree. speech has passed through several editions :

Sir Francis D'IVERnois has again it is a specimen of splendid captivating blown the erumpet of war: he has pub- oratory-mere oratory - fatis eloquentia, lished in one octavo volume a “ Historical fapientice parun, for its statements were and Political Survey of the Losses sustained invalidated and its conclusions reduced to by the French Nation, in Population absurdity, in a speech-such an one as the Agriculture, Colonies, Manufactures, and house scarcely ever heard before but from Commerce in consequence of the Revo- the same orator-in a “ Speech" of the lution, and the prefent War.”. A fober Hon. Chas. James Fox which has also calculator, one who had really the good of been publithed. We will not suffer ourbis country. at heart, would not, we thould selves to enlarge on the comparative ex. imagine, have confined his survey to the cellencies and demerits of these two jufily lofles uitained by our enemy; he would celebrated productions, for reasons which have directed his attention alto to the losses it is unnecessary to state : they who feel we have ourselves fustained in this terrible interested in the fwject may at an easy and ferocious conflict: he would have ex- expense indulge themselves with both amined the effects of the war on our colonies, publications and form an unbiased judg. commerce, manufactures, &c. and have ba- ment for themselves. The “ Speeches' lanced the immediate and certain advan. of Mefīrs. Dundas and Erikine on the tages to be derived from peace against the same occasion have also been publithed. remote and precarious fucceiles of war. John Bowles, Esq. has given the Sir Francis D'Ivernois, however, because public his 'ss Reflections on the Political he finds out that the French finances are State of Society at the commencement of dilapidated; that is to say, that the ex- the year 1800.” The voice of Mr. Bowles pense of the government exceeds its in- like that of Sempronius, “ is still for come, fancies that the restorarion of ino- war"-interminable war! may the found narchy is a very feasible project, and calls of it never rcach our ears again. amain for a coalition of the European A fellow of St. John's College, Campowers to re-establish the throne.

bridge, has in a small pamphlet compreiled Mr. HERBERT MARSH, the able and some sensible « Confiderations concerning learned translator of Michaelis, has pube Peace :” the author gives it as his opinion, lished in two octavo voluines, « The Hila

that France is fully competent to maintain tory of the Politics of Great Britain and the relations of peace and amity ; nay, France, from the time of the conference that the must maintain those relations whenat Pilnitz to the declaration of war against ever a peace is concluded, for the people Great Britain; with an Appendix, con- of France will feel their interest so deeply taining a Narrative of the Actempus made involved in it, that the government cannor by the British government to restore renew hoftilities without an appeal to them, Peace.” In this work the author has in. which he contends must be ineffectual. defatigably taboured to throw the odium The author of a pamphlet entitled of the present war on France : he has “ The Question Stated as it respects Peace fudied iviih much minuteness all the pure and War" adopts the same opinion wich lic documents which could be procured the preceding writer as to the expediency relative to the subject, and examined the of an immediate pacific negotiation, and condition of both countries within the the probable permanence of peace : he period of his bittory. Numerous public argues with ability and fairness. cacions have appeared on the origin of the The same may be laid of Mr. Cross of


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