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translated Sir Lancelot of the Lake from the was the business of an * order of reciters, French of Arnaud Daniel : Albert of Hal- who travelled from castle to castle, amusing berftade and Wolfram of Eichenbach tranf- with their tales thote vacant hours which lated from the French of Guyot the Ro. the modern novellift occupies. Rimed mances Gamuret and Percival, about the Atories of marvellous import, merry year 1200 : Rupert of Orbent, in 1226, fabliaux, miraculous legends, romances of translated Fleur Blanchefleur ; and God- chivalry, were best adapted for the purfrey of_Strasburg, in 1250, Sir Tri- poses of such an employinent. Atram. The Icelanders, it should feem from III. The older romances of chivalry, * Peringskiold, have borrowed usually from have especially celebrated the lieroes of the Germans: as the Niflunga- saga, which greater or lelier Britany, and are thereis the most ancient of their ballads not my- fore of Armorican origin. chological, appeals to Teutonic poems for
Armorica was the north west corner of vouchers.
Gaol, included between the Loire, the II. The French romances originate in Seine, and the Atlantic. In imitation of the north of France.
Britain, and in concert with it, this t proAmong the provincial dialects of that vince favoured, about the year 410, the country, the only t two which attained in revolt of Constantine against the Roman the middle ages a degree of polish and emperor Honorius ; but it did not resume fashion, were the Provenzal and the Nore on the death of the rebel its ancient alleman, then called langue d’oc and langue giance. Under a conftitution in which the deui. South of the Loire the cultivated clergy, the nobility, and the city-corporadarles spoke and wrote in Provenzal, north tions had all a format influence, it contiof the Loire in Norman French. In each nued in a state of independence until Chara of these dialects the kings of France were lemayne. The titular I sovereignty of accustomed to pronounce the coronation. Clovis, who, by an opportune conversion oath ; and in each, a variety of versified to christianity, obtained the voluntary subcompofitions were early drawn up. But mission of the g Armoricans, encroached among the Provenzal poets the History of so little on the real franchises of the the Troubadours enumerates only I two burghers, that neither he nor his royal makers of metrical romances, Arnaud de succesors rivalled in power the metropoCarcailes and Raimond Vidal. Nor is litan mayors, and were often temoved by there more than a fingle romance of Pro- them. The conduct of the independent venzal origin (for Philomena is placed by British was similar ; first they hired the Count Caylus ç under Saint Louis) which protection of the Gothic stragglers, next bas probable claims to high antiquity and they conferred a limited and local foveoriginality: that namely of William the reignty, and finally they submitted wholly Short-nosed, a companion of Charlemayne, to the fway of the barbarian intruders, a who, for his services againft the Spanish revolution which may be considered as Moors receives the duchy of Aquitain, completed throughout this island, with the and at laft turns monk. Whereas l in exception of a few Welt mountains, in the langue d'oui, or Norman French, above the time of Offa, the correspondent of a handred romance writers have been Charlemayne. Among the chieftains of reckoned. The cause of this disparity continental Britany, Charles Martel acseems to be, that in the fouth of France quired the strongest claims to public gratipoetry was cultivated as an accomplishment of the gentry, as a gay science, and dealt chiefly in galant fonnets, or latirical * In the Encyclopédic, article Jongleurs, Drventes ; while in the north of France it a tariff of Saint Louis is quoted, in which,
these wandering story-tellers are exempted • See also Bragut III. p. 354.
from the taxes levied at the gates of Paris, # Lagrand's Preface to the Fabliaux. on condition of their repeating to the tolle Histoire des Troubadours. II. 390, and gatherer a stanza from some ballad,
of Zofimus, liv VI. Oeuvres badines.
I Mezeray, Abregé Chronologique, 1.9313. See Corps d'extraits des Romans de Che The name Armorican, which fignifies Falerie, par le Comte de Treflan: Fauchet's on ihe sea-shore, was perhaps applied as far east Recueil de l'origine, &c. plus les noms et
as the mouth of the Rhine (Procopius peri fommaire des oeuvres de CXXVII. poetes Gothikóngas amended by HadrianValefius); it François vivans avant l'an MCCC: and the seems to be translated in the law of Clovis Appendix, No. 11, to Eichhorns Geschichte by the term ripuaire, and in the maritime code de Cultur,
titude for maintaining and extending the would naturally, be inferred, that the counindependence of his country against the Sa- ry of Arthur, and the country of Charlesacens of the south, and the Germans of mayne, gave birth to these compositions. the east : and among the pendragons of But it may be doubted, whether the roBritain, Arthur won the like celebrity mances concerning Charlemayne do in against the Piksof the north, and the Sax. fact relate to this Emperor. They ascribe ons of the east. A survey of romantic li- to him a father named Pepin, who has terature will evince that these two herces four fons; exploits in the forest of Arand the companions were principally ex- denne; wars against the Saxons; the retolled,
pulsion of the Saracens, in consequence of The romances of chivalry may be ar a victory at Poitiers; the institution of an ranged in four main clases. Those order of knighthood; the deposition of the which relate to Amadis of Gaul and his Duke of Aquitain, an embassy from the fellows. These were all written originally Pope; and the gift of the sacred territory in prose, are nearly cotemporary with the to the fee of Rome. All these circumintroduction of printing, and are therefore stances are historically* true of Charles coinparatively modern. 2. Those which Martel. The names are the more likely relate to Arthur* and the Knights of the to have been confounded through the me Round Table, or to Charlemayne and his dium of an Armorican dialect, as meur peers. These were mostly published in fignifies great, le mayne ; and marra, a prose during the first century of printing, mattock, martel, in that language, so that but pre-existed in metre, and were recited Charlemar would be the Britannian name in that form by the minstrels of the middle of both. Passing on to the third and fourth ages. 3. Those which ascribe to religious claffes ; the Lives of the Saints, the Troyworthies the manners of chivalry; as the book, the Story of Alexander, and the Seven Champions of Christendom, the Gesta Romanorum, are obvioully modificaLives of the Saints, and the Vision of tions of the later remnants of Latin cula Pierce Plowman. Such romances mostly ture: they can, by no plan of inference, occur, both, in prose, in metre, and in be referred to an Arabic or a Scandinavian Monkish Latin, from which language the origin. They must, either be deduced various vernacular metrical versions seem from the Italian literature of the middle to have been made for the convenience of ages ; or from the vestiges of ancient lithe pilgrim's memory. 4. Those which terature, which in Armorica and Britain ascribe the manners of chivalry to the he- survived the separation of these countries roes of classical antiquity ; rehearsing the from the Roman Empire. But they do fjege of Troy, or the exploits of Theseus not derive from Italy, because that country and of Alexander, with the moral costume has no native legends in which the manners of knighthood. These mostly occur in of chivalry are ascribed to the champions vernacular metre, and in Monkish' Latin of religion ; and because William of Bri. verse.
tany, Walter Chatillon, and others, preFrom the modern imitations of the pro- ceded Guido Colonna and the Italian per romances of chivalry, no conclusion romancers in the chivalrization of ancient can be drawn relative to the patrial foil of epopeas. It remains probable, therefore, the originals. From the second class, it that even these stories received first in
Armorica their chevaleresque garb. Treffan, indeed, says, (Discours pré
IV. Rime derives from Armorican liminaire, p. 15.) - Tous les anciens Romans de la Table-ronde, tir és par les Bretons language. The speech of Armorica and des anciennes & fabuleuses chroniques de of Britain, during the fifth, fixth, seventh, Melchin et de Telezin, furent écrits en Latin and eighth centuries, which include the par Rufticien de Puise." But the paffage period of their connexion and independence, implies that the Latin versions were either must have resembled closely that of the from the Norman-French, or from the fill older Welch -bards. The patois of Briprior romances of the Bretons. This Telezin tany, Cornwall, and Wales are kindred is probably the same with the Tyrsilio of the dialectst of the Cimbric tongue, differing Welsh. Chaucer says very truly (v. 11021) radically from the Gaelic or Irish, and
Thise olde gentil Bretons in hir dayes from the Gothic or Saxon idioms of their Of diverse aventures maden layes
western and eastern neighbours, but agreeRimeyed in hir firste Breton tongue,
Which layes with instruments they' longe. ing minutely with the few remaining moand he no doubt transcribed this tradition from rome Norman-Frenci poem which he was
* Velly's Histoire de France, vol. I. refashioning
+ Lhuyd's Archäologia.
summents of the old Armorican and Britisa; croaching guardians, and the conquered so that from what is known of the Welsh, equal against infult, were the topics of his me may reason concerning the Armori- oath. An order-spirit, an exclusive care can. Now rime* is essential to Welsh for the interests of gentlemen, diftinguishes poetry. Their oldest versifiers, t Talief- the practice of the initiated. The personfa, Aneurin, and Cian, employ this mea- al rights of women of the lower clafies fure. The heroic elegies of Llywarch aref were invaded without scruple; while thole composed in rime. In each of the po. of ladies were respected with superstitious ems of Hywel the son of Owain Gwynez politeness. Such features seem rather the the same rime is repeated throughout the reliques of a receding, than the tokens of whole compoGtion. - In all the Gothic di a growing, civilization. The whole ritual akets rime is a novation : but in Welsh of chivalry, the military exercises, the it is coæval with recorded poetry. It is tournaments, the fortified palaces, its very the more probable, that out of this Jan. religiosity, imply an advancement in focía guage rime passed into all the other Eu- ety, to which the Scandinavians could not ropean tongues, as the first Latin rimes have attained. The sacred reverence for en record are thosejl of St. Augustin rela- ladies cannot have proceeded from the tive to the Pelagiási heresy, which origi- Mahometan Moors. ‘Armorica alone was nated with Morgan, a monk of Bangor, adapted by its political circumstances, its and was rife both in Britain and Armo- Christianity, and its long participation of rica. The peculiarity of the form of at- Roman culture, to beco the nurse of tack is a legitimate ground for inferring, such peculiarities. Some ceremonies of that rime had been recurred to for its knighthood bear a strong resemblance to diffufion, and was consequently in popular tholé bardic inftitutions which were compk. St. Patrick, an Armorican, intro mon precisely to the Belgic provinces of duced** rime into Ireland.
Gaul and Britain; and which retain uncil V. Chivalry, though of obscurer origin, now among the Wellh a great influence. is allo probably Armorican. Its history The Ovyds,* like the knights, passed has been less evolved than its inditutions through preliminary grades, were admitted by the labors of St. Palaye. It resembles, by dubbing, were instructed in the use of in the spirit of its operation, a confederacy arms, affected a green livery, swore obeof country-gentlemen to ward off from each dience to the judge and priest (to the other the dangers and evils of anarchy. Braintf and Druid), respected the truce A defenhve, not an offensive, spirit characterizes the obligations of a knight. To protect the church against heathens, la.
* See the Differtation on Bardism, prefixed
to the Elegies of Llywarch, p. xxxvi, &c. dies against ravishers, orphans against en.
+ The Braints answer to the Chevaliers de
lei, and the Ovyds to the Chevaliers d'epée, of “ The first kind of stanzas' was the the ancient French jurisprudence. Loirei, in triplet; and the first kind of rime was iden. his Dialogue des Avocats, remarks, p. 468 : tical rime." Institutes of the bards, as quoted “ Pendant long temps une bonne partie des in the Life of Llywarch, p. xix.
gens lais du parlement étoient appellés cbeva, † Evans de Bardis, p. 67. Pinkerton liers," Boutillier, in his Sorime Rurale, says, (Esquiry into the History of Scotland, II. 97) “Or sachez que le fait d'avocacerie font les pless time as a proof that these poems are of anciens faiseurs de loix, si est tenu et compte the thirteenth century : in the lives of Saint pour chevalerie ; & pour ce font ils appellez en Columban and Saint Faron, that is in the droit escrit Cherjaliers de Loix et peuvent eg Exth century, Latin rimes occur.
doivent porter d'or comme font les chevaliers." | Heroic Elegies of Llywarch, by W. We find the Weith nobles wearing a gold
chain, and breaking off one or more rings to
reward their followers for prowess in battle, or Monthly Magazine, III. 95, 186, 257, their mindrels for excellence in song : we 335,419.
also find the vaers, maers, or municipal ma. | Quisquis novit evangelium, recognoscat gistrates, with a gold chain: posibly it was a cum timore;
badge common to both orders of chivalry, the Videt reticulum ecclesiam, videt hoc fæcu- makers and the executors of the law. It is lum mare,
highly desirable that those Welch antiquaGenus autem mixtum piscis juftus eft cum ries who are at presunt so laudably employed pecsatore ;
in the translation and publication of their mae Sæculi finis eft listus, tunc ef tempus sepa- nuscript monuments, would bestow a preferrare, &c.
ence of care on such as tend most to evolve .* Vacrii Antiq. Ecclef. c. 17, p. 45%.
the early form of an institution la influen.
of God (the intermission of hostility com. a character, or introduces persons acting manded occasionally by the Bardic order) a part*: were liable to puniliment by excommunica. On this principle Homer throughout his tion, and often made greit sacrifices of per. Iliad and Odyssey is Dramatic, as well as, fonal convenience to the desire of executing though not so much as, Sophocles, or Arisan individual vengeance from deference tophanes; Virgil, as well as . Terence; apparently for secret tribunals. To these Mlion, as well as Shakespeare ; though features may be added, a pallion for public the title given to their poems will be Epic ; historical recitations in rime by the Dail. for the poets set out at least in their own geiniad, an order of men educated for names, and narrate in their own persons. that purpose, and analogous to the earlier Paltoral poetry is in a manner dramatic; minitrels.
and, indeed, derived its form and characThese intimations fingly taken migheter from the same source as Comedy t. be infufficient to authorize decision ; but Didactic and descriptive poems occasionally as they all favour one conclusion collec. take the dramatic form. In the story of tively, they are entitled to much confi- Orpheus and Euridice, in the fourth book dence. It is reasonable then to believe, of the Georgics, the poet becomes dramathat romance, rime, and knighthood, which tic; Thomson is dramatic in the story of are the pivots of what is mult peculiar in Palemon and Lavinia ; and Mason, in the che manners of our heroic ages, and the fourth book of his English Garden, is compositions of our popular poets, are all dramatic. Oules are very frequently dra. derived from the Welsh or Cimbric inha- matic. A Dutch critic has classed the bitants of Armorica and Buitain.
Odes of Horace. Ode the 28th of the first book,
Te maris et terræ numeroq. carentis arenæ, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
he calls 7.poszyoglutian; he might have SIR,
termed it more properly dramatic ; for the HE
not applying of them to the full In fume fort Gray's incomparable Oje, extent of which they are capable, it is entitled, The Progress of Poetry, is drawell known may produce very serious matic. The poet, indeed, speaks in his mistakes, and be the cause of personal own person ; but he places himself in difmalice. Hence the importance of accuracy. ferent ages, and different countries ; and in the use of language, and hence the nec hence his imagery becomes appropriate and cessity of attending to the scope of an beautiful, which other wise would be liable author, if we wish critically to determine to censure. Ovid's Love Epistles, and the character of a particular writing. Pope's Eloisa to Abelard, and others, may,
Among the many words which in com- in this sense, be denominated dramatic. mon conversation, and sometimes in writ li a certain person, whom I accidentally ing, are not carried to their due extent, is met the other day, had attended to this the term Diarnatic.
circumstance, he would not by his broad The word is used to express that species bint have informed me, that in a copy of writing, which conhits in the imitation verses which appeared in your magazine of life and manners, an imitation by action the last month, I had some particular perand representation. Here the author bor- sons in any eye, and lealt of all his own. rows characters, and his writing is termed self. He would have seen, that the dramatic, in oppotition to the narrative or verses are entirely dramatic. They make epic, where he borrows no character, but one of a series of little poems, that I speaks in his own person,
composed some time ago without having Hence the propriety of calling Tragedy any perlon living in my eye; and I am and Comedy, emphatically. The Drama, no more like Democritus, than he is like as confifting entirely of action and repre. Homer or Pythagoras. I remain, Sir, sentation, under allumed characiers ; but
Your's respectfully, the word Dramatic must not be restricted to
G. DYER, the stage ; but applies to any species of writing, where the author himleli alfunes
* Vid. Ariftot. de Poet.
# Vid. de Bucol. Poes. Græcorum Difiertjal on the education and character of modern tation.-præfixed io Warton's Theocritus. Europe as chivalry.
For the Monthly Magazine. Assuming this kind of data, we shall be KEMARKS on the CLIMATE in NORTH enabled to form a tolerable conjecture con
AMERICA; with Observations upon cer- cerning the nature of that exalted summit lain Effees of Frost in Mountainous Parts which gives rise to the unexplored waters of the Country; Methods used to preserve of the rivers Missouri, Oregan, Missisippi, Fruit Trees, by means of Straw Conduc- and other divergent streams which are yet 1or 5, Fire, Pavement,c. by Mr. Tatham. but partially known to us; and when, by
T seems to be somewhat generally be. this measure, we are enabled to compare the climate of the American Continent is moisture, with what we know of the lakes wholly regulated by its spherical grada. of Canada, which feed the rivers Ohio and tions; for we frequently hear it obferved, St. Lawrence throughout the thirsty feathat a place must be hot or cold, fickly or son of a summer's drought; we shall, I. healthy, because it is situated in such or think, rationally conclude, that the high such a latitude.
regions of the American Continent, which If the whole western continent, indeed, are hitherto unknown to us, contain vaft had been a continued plain, corresponding reservoirs of stagnant water, collected into with the fout bern banks of North America, lakes and inorasses, which the wisdom of which border upon the Atlantic Ocean, it Providence bath contrived as a permanent is probable, that this doctrine might have resource to supply the perpetual demand of proved generally true ; but as the interior such unparalleled channels as are elleparts of the country are not only moun- where unequalled, and are exceptions to tainous, but greatly elevated above the the ordinary operations of natural philofocommon horizon, and formed upon a mag. phy; nor need we be surprised, if the acnificent scale, we must search for an auxili- counts of circum.navigators should conary principle of temperament in more ex. firm this ideal theory with future proofs, alted regions than this imaginary level. that reversed winds produce similar wea.
The bountiful hand of Providence has ther and climate to that which is preva. constructed things in America of a mag. lent at the opposite point of a central line, nitude widely different from that upon which takes its transit across the higheit which men are accustomed to observe on fummit of the land, from one sea to the the European side of the sea ; and when other. we enter a river of the Transatlantic hemi. This fupposition is, I think, greatly fphere, which we find to be ten or (we!ve strengthened by the well known fact, that miles wide at its mouth, and ascend be- north-westerly winds are the most powerFond the flow of the tide until we approach ful and piercing of any which the people a visible inclination of river current similar of the United States experience; and certo that which moving water assumes in tain it is, that winds in this direction every country as it approaches the ocean, traverse the cold regions of the highelt we are naturally led to consider the posi- summit on the continent, and bring with tion wbich nature must have assigned to its them the frigid quality with which they foarce, according to the proofs which we are impregnated in passing over ; which behold in an existing result of the philoso- necessarily purifies the atmosphere, and phical principle by which the descent of subjects the parts of the country which are Áuid particles is necessarily governed ; and most exposed to the winds blowing in this we form our conception of its distant ori. direction to the greatest dominion of cold, gin to correspond with its cubic contents, and to the severelt effects of the chilling iod the angle of its inclination.
blast. Beyond Tuch a rule for judging of an In respeat to the degrees of cold, which unknown source, we have, at this day, an obtain a more powerful agency in a line of autbentic knowledge of the topography of perpendicular ascent (if it can be fo exthe country, as far westward as the banks presed) from the common horizon, I be of the river Misfilippi; and, in fuch parts lieve the philosophical theory is well un. where the beights of land which divide the derstood by the scientific characters of eattern streams of that wonderful river England; but in respect to the confirmafrom those which fall into the Atlantic, tion of theoretic experiment by practical have not been actually ascertained, we proofs, this is one of thofe grand and for bave, at least, the superficial admeasure- tunate cases in natural philosophy, which ments of the States, and the obtuse angle affords the most satisfactory demonftration. which is indicated by the respective east. Those who have dared to soar above the en currents, as the foundation of an ap- clouds in a balloon have felt and testified proximate calculation.
the gelid perception ; thoie who have a. MONTHLY MAG. No. 54.