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1. The conjunctions agus, and no, or, na, than, and the likes have the same moods, and cases, after them that go before them ; as, amuil mar ata, agus bi, Agus biar go brat, as it was and is, and shall be for ever; tosač an lae agus na hoibre, the beginning of the day and of the work. (145.)
2. War as, o, since, sul, before that, má, if, mur, if not, na, than, gur, that, and their compounds, aspirate; as, Račam leis ma tig re liñ. Let us go with him,. if he come
Fažaim bár o coñairc me do Let me die, since I have seen gruis.
thy face. 3. Go, that, ou, if, muna, if not, nać, that, and their compounds, eclipse, and prefix 1 to vowels; as, (146.) Deirim go dtainic re anall. I say that he came over. UĊ naċ bfuilio mo bratra O that my words were anoir ronjobta.
written. Wuna bfilleaó re uaim.
If he had not turned from me. THE CONSTRUCTION OF CONJUNCTIONS PROMISCUOUSLY EXEMPLIFIED. Ma cuala tu me,
If you heard me. Ge gur buail me é.
Although that I struck bim. Se go mbuailfiñ é.
Although 1 had struck him, Wund dtiucfaó aonduine na Unless someone would come cuiñe.
for him. Cluinim go bporfar bean aca. I heard that one of the women
will be married. Da dujuF40 liñ fuireac. If we could stay. Cogáo Coin moir agus Chuin The war of Eoin the great, and céad ċatais.
Conn of an hundred battles. Ni bfuarar blás bjó no diže. There was not a taste of meat or
drink found. Ar an abar rin fuigfió an Therefore shall a man leave his
Fear a acair, agus a racs. father and his mother. Ir mo 140 na ir feidir air- They are more than can be ear.
numbered. Ma ta nač bfuil mo tij mar Although my house be not so
rin ag Dia, gióead do piñe with God, yet he hath made a re ceangal liomsa.
bond with me. Leo fos teagasgdar do rear- Moreover by them is thy serbfogantuió.
vant taught. D'eagal go bfuigeo rib bás. Lest ye die.
Oir ir tu is cóir a faghail. For you have a right to get it.
Notwithstanding you are strong.
1. The interjection 4, o, requires the vocative; and aspirates the noun next to it; as, a Thiarna De, O Lord God. (147.)
1. Wairz, woe to, and the like, require the dative; as, mairg oudre a ouine oona, wo to you wretched man. (148.)
THE CONSTRUCTION OF INTERJECTIONS PROMISCUOUSLY EXEMPLIFIED.
Ar truag naċ bfuilim. Woe is me that I am not ! Faraor! Tamoio yle faoi čáin Alas! we are all subject to don éug.
death. Wairg oamra ! a bi mo hort. Wo to me! who was silent. Monuar, is truaige do cinea- Alas, hard is your fate !
thuin. Tar an ro, a Sheamais. Come hither, James. eiro, eiro, mo leanab ! Hush, hush, my child ! Wo léan gur aimtis mo Alas that my friends are gone cairde uam!
from me! uc ! uc ! ca gruaige turas. Alas! alas! what a sorrowful
END OF THE GRAMMAR.
[THE NUMBERS IN THE GRAMMAR REFER TO THE CORRESPO ING NUMBERS IN THE FOLLOWING NOTES]
1. It is impossible to find English words, which exhibit all the sounds of the Irish language. The words contained in this table are such as most nearly resemble them; the examples, however, will be satisfactory to such as read for their private improvement, and will be found very important, in assisting the instructions of the teacher.
2. The preposition in, in, was anciently prefixed to many words; but, for sound's sake the n was omitted ; as, cat, a battle, 1gcat, in battle. In latter ages, in order to comply with a rule of comparatively modern invention (which is noted in treating of the vowels,) the 1 was changed into a; as, agcat; still however, the same rapidity of pronunciation, which the j received was applied to a; and, in many instances, the 1 or a was entirely omitted, both in writing and speaking; as ca me in mo coolav; properly contracted into imo codlad; but commonly written and spoken mo coolao, I am asleep, or in'my sleeping state.
3. The thick sound of o, and , resembles the hardest sound of th, in the English word think; but in forming this thick sound, the tongue must be strongly pressed against the root of the upper foreteeth, instead of being protruded between the teeth; by which means the aspiration is completely stopped, and these consonants receive nothing of that semivocal sound which is given to th in English.
4. and 5. The sounds of l, and n double, are both formed by the same position of the tongue; viz. by placing it so as to press upon the upper foreteeth and gum, while the point of it is perceptible between the teeth. The only difference, in forming them, is, that the aspiration to l is gutteral, and to n, nasal.
6. This sound is formed by slightly touching the sound ee English, before, as well as after r; as if the word free was written and pronounced, feeree.
7. This sound of r is much more hard and forcible than that of single s in English: it is formed by presenting the point of the tongue to the aperture of the teeth, and expressing a very strong aspiration.
8. See note 3. 9. In ancient writings, the letter h was prefixed to vowels, much more frequently than in modern ones; thus é, he, j, she, were anciently written he, and hi. But it was very seldom attached to consonants, the pronunciation of which was left to the reader's own judgment. The contraction, formed by fixing a point over a consonant, is a modern invention.
10. The broad vowels are frequently commuted for each other when they are not emphatical; and, in like manner, the small vowels may be commuted for each other; as, orireall, humble, may be written uirisioll. This change can be made only wherr the vowel or dipthong is short; thus bás, death, is always written with á; but bar, the palm of the band, may be also written bor.
il. B and p, c and g, o and t, were frequently commuted, in ancient writings; thus agus, or ocus, and; labairo, or laphairt, speak; cuairt, or cuairo, a visit; and, since it became usual to aspirate consonants, bh, and mh, oh and gh; have often öeen commuted in the same manner; as, adhaig, or aghaid, the face.
12. Dh and gh may be written indifferently, in terminations, or where they are not radical; as, bjó, or bjag meat; f140nuire, or Fiaġnuise, witness.
13. Grammarians have commonly laid it down as a rule, that F may be eclipsed by o, m, or , as well as by bh; but this is not correct. The examples given of these eclipses are only contractions for mo, d0,(or to, instead of do); thus, do feoil, or to feoil, thy flesh, is commonly written ofeoil, or ofeoil; and mo fear, my husband, is written mfear.
14. It will appear, from these tables, that the greater part of the words in Irish consists of one or two syllables; all radical words do so; but they are very easily compounded into words of three or four syllables. In studying these tables, therefore, the learner should be accustomed to resolve the polysyllables into their constituent parts, and observe the separate force of each part.
Although the directions already given are most agreeable to the true pronunciation of the Irish language, yet a considerable diversity exists, in the manner of speaking it, in different places
It would be impossible to speciiy all the deviations from rule, that have corrupted the expression of the various provinces ; bui the following may serve as a few instances of them :
In general the accent falls on the first syllable, and this principle is observed in the north of Ireland ; as, áran, bread ; rá.
Scottish rür, a razor; but, in the south and west, they say arán, rasúr, anan &c.
Again, when 1 follows c, 5, m, ort, it is pronounced, in the north, like r; as, cnari, a bone, cran ; cno, a nut, cro cmajm gnion, an action, grioris ; tnut, envy truo; but in the south groin and west the true pronunciation is retained, and the n receives its thuc and sound.
also trui. B, or m, when aspirated, was originally sounded as v; as ma matair, my mother, pronounced mo vahair. This ancient pronunciation is still retained in the north of Ireland, as in Scotland, and the Isle of Man It is also retained in the south, in the beginning of words; and in the middle, if joined by a small vowel, thus, rájóbir, rich, the pronounce saivir. But if the next vowel be broad, as in the words fožmar, barvest; f40bar, an edge; which should be pronounced favor and favour (being two words of distinct syllables,) those of the south entirely suppress the consonant; and, contracting the two syllables into one, they say, Fóar, and fáer.
Throughout Connaught, Leinster, and some counties of Ul. ster, the sound of w is substituted for that of v, to represent bh, and mh. Thus, mo bás, my death, and mo rijac, my son, (properly sounded, mo vas, and mo vac,) are pronounced, mo was, and mo wac. Thus, too, in the Apostle's creed, the words, gabar on Spiorad Naori), conceived from the Holy Ghost, are pronounced in the west of Ireland, gow on Spiorad Naom; without considering that the word gabad in ancient manuscripts, is often written capaò being clearly of the same origin with the Latin capio.
Ch, at the end of words, or syllables, is very weakly expressed by the natives of Ulster : 4ć receives no more force, than if it were written ah; and ch, before o, is quite silent in all the country along the sea coast, from Derry to Waterford ; thus, bj. duine boċt, there was a poor man, is there pronounced, bj duine bot.
Th is also omitted in pronouncing many words, such as atair, father, macair. mother, &c., in most of the counties in Ulster and the east of Leinster, where these words are pronounced as if written sair máair.