Imatges de pÓgina

This entirely mute; as, a fairge, pronounce, an airge, the sea.

Mh is sounded like b; as, snam, swimming; aṁujl like.

Ph is sounded, as in other languages, like ph in philosopher; as mo páiste, my child.

Sh and th are sounded as h alone; as, mo †úil, my eye mo ¿ż, my house. But †, before 1, 1, or ɲ is entirely inute; as, mo Plainte, my health; mo inuad, my countenance; mo iron, my nose.


1, 1, μ, are called immutable, because they never change, or lose their sound, by the addition of h. But they alone can be doubled in the middle, or at the end of words; as, barr, a top; cean→ naiżim, I buy.

It is to be observed, that ol and ln, in the middle of words, are sounded like ; as, codlad, sleep; colna, flesh; pronounce collaỏ, colla; and on like nn; as, ceadna, the same, pronounce





Ae long, as ai in pain,

A long and distinct,

short, as i in fight,

Ao long, nearly as oo in fool,

ea long, as ea in bear,

short, as ea in heart,

ej long, as ei in reign,

short, as e in ferry, eo long, as aw in shawl, short, as o in shock, eu long, as a in fare, Ja long, as ea in clear, Jo long, as ie in cashier, short, as io in fashion, Ju long, as u in fume,

short, as i in shirt, Oj long, force on the o, short, force on the i, Ua long, distinct, U long, force on the u, short, force on the i,


lae, of a day.

cáin, a fine.
mait, good.
maol, bald.
méar, a finger.
ceart, just.
déjnc, charity.
geir, tallow.
reól, a sail.
deoch, a drink.
féur, grass.
cjall, sense.
Fjon, wine.

bjolar, water cresses.
cjúnar, quietness.
fliuch, wet.
cóir, right.
coin, a crime.
gual, coal.

rúil, an eye.
full, blood.



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In the inflexion and combination of words, certain consonants are frequently prefixed to others, with which they cannot be sounded; and the adventitious consonant is then said to eclipse the radical one; viz: b, c, d, f, g, n, p, s, t, when beginning a word, and followed by a vowel or by lor p; as also r, followed by n, may be eclipsed thus:



is eclipsed by


m, 4 mbaile, our town.
3, 4 gceart, our right.
n, 4 ndia, our God.
b, 4 bfearran, our land.
n, 4 ngearan, our complaint.
b, 4 bpén, our punishment.
t, an tslat, the rod,

10,4 dteine, our fire.

In pronouncing these eclipses, the first consonant only is sounded; as, 4 maile, 4 geart, &c. Except 13, in which both letters are uttered, with a strong guttural expression.

Instead of by, the ancients frequently wrote FF; as, 4 ffearnan, our land: cc, instead of 3c; as 4 cceart, our right; and tt, instead of dt; as, 4 tteine, our fire; and these words are pronounced in the same manner, as if written 4 bfearran, 4 gceart, and 4 dteine. (13)


An accent is placed over such vowels and diphthongs, as are naturally either long or short, when they are to be pronounced long; as, mac, a son, short; bár, death, long; fjor, knowledge, short; cjor, rent, long.

Monosyllables ending in a, e, 1, u, being commonly long, require no accent over them; as, la, a day, Tu, thou.

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In words of two or more syllables, the accent commonly falls on the first syllable; as, déigionaċ, last, múċajm, I extinguish.



In reading Irish, every letter, except before l or p must be sounded. But some of the aspirated consonants are so slightly expressed as to be almost imperceptible; the reason of which is as follows.

According to the principle of the language, no number of vowels, meeting in a word, forms more than one syllable.

The poets, however, frequently wanting to lengthen words, by multiplying their syllables, devised the method of throwing in an adventitious consonant, generally or 5, to divide two vowels into two syllables; thus, tjarna, a lord, which consists of only two syllables, is divided into tġearna, of three syllables.

Now, as this manner of spelling was unknown in earlier ages, the primitive pronunciation is still so far retained, that the adventitious letters are passed over, with an almost imperceptible flexion of the voice.

In like manner and 3, which, always in the beginning of words, and frequently in the middle, have a clear and strong sound, are very commonly used at the end, merely to give a fuller vowel cadence to the termination, as, neartużad, to strengthen, a king.





Mo mac, my son.
Mo bár, my death.
Ro beag, very small.
An bean, the woman.
Mo béul, my mouth.
Mo bonn, my sole.
Mo reall, my knob.
Mo man, my desire.
Mo biad, my meat.
An mas, the dish.
Cnájm, a bone.
Slab, a mountain.
Naom, a saint.

Neam, heaven.

Dub, black.

Dejlb, a form.

Széjm, beauty.

Uajm, a grave.
Tarb, a bull.
Dam, an ox.
Chum, a worm.
Cηob, a maggot.
Mo 14, my God.
Mo corp, my body.
Fáj, a prophet.
Crjad, clay.
Fuact, cold.

Tuajo, north.

Fljuċ, wet.

Drjúċt, dew.
Lja, a physician.

Noċʊ, night.


Mo ceann, my
Mo rúil, my eye.
Mo cor, my foot.
Mo trón, my nose.
Rua, reddish.
Uct, the breast.
Grad, love.

Fiad, deer.
Deoć, a drink.
Laċt, milk.
Mead, Meath.
Nuad, new.
Maz, a field.

Beac, a bee.

Fjaċ, a crow.
eać, a horse.

Croo, a portion.
Seact, seven.
Oċʊ, eight.
Dejċ, ten.

Aoo, Hugh.

Strójc, a slice.
Mójn, turf.
Réult, a star.
Méur, a finger.
Deon, a tear.
Féur, grass.
Géuz, a branch.
Grian, the sun.
Sjar, west.
Clar, clergy.
Pjan, pain,
Cjall, sense.
Ead, jealousy.
Céano, a trade.
Céad, a hundred.
Smúid, smoke.

Gnúis, a countenance.

Súil, an eye.

Drúr, lechery.

Cúig, five.

Sjon, weather.

Cjor, a comb.

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Tear, heat.

Dear, south.

Fear, a man.
Cean, a head.

Sean, old.

Geal, white. Breac, speckled.

Gean, love.

Fearg, anger.

Dearg, red.

Leact, a tomb.

Bean, a high top.

Speal, a scythe.

Pean, a pen.
Cearc, a hen.

Cead, permission.

Fjon, fair.

Lejr, with him.
Ceir, a sow.
Cert, a question.
Sail, a beam.
Staid, a state.
Sailm, a psalm.
Cajlc, chalk.
Cairt, paper.
Straff, white thorn.
Cait, of a cat.
Slajt, of a rod.



Caoin, Aoir, age. M4011, bald. N401, nine. A01, an island. Aojb, courteous. Feoil, flesh. Stjur, a rudder. Cjujn, gentle. Cuairt, a visit. Uair, an hour. Fuaim, a sound. Uaji, a cave. Duair, a reward. Luajt, speed. Ljajż, a physician.

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