Imatges de pÓgina



1. The article agrees with its substantive, in gender, number and case; as, an fear, the man; na mna. of the women.

2. For the influence of the article, in aspirating, eclipsing, &c., the noun with which it is declined, see pages, 27, 28, 29.

3. When two nouns come together, signifying the same person or thing, that one only is eclipsed or aspirated which is immediately joined with the article ; as, tij an bratair, Briain, the house of brother Brian.

4. When the article follows a particle ending in a vowel, it loses a; as, o, from, an, the; ón, from the; do an, to the; don.

5. When the article precedes a word beginning with a consonant, the n is scarcely heard in speaking ; and in poetry it is sometimes altogether omitted; as, un tine, commonly pronounced a tine, the fire. (105)

6. When the article precedes f, or feminines beginning with vowels, the n is often separated from a, and prefixed to the following noun; as, an fir, written and pronounced a nfir, of the man ; an uair, written and pronounced a nuair, the hour. (106)

7. When the article follows an in, for better sound, r is inserted between it and an; as, an ra nuair, in the hour.

* This is frequently written ran, as, ran ovir, in the country. Or, omitting n, it is written ra; as sa dtij, in the house.

8. Although the primary use of the article be to speak definitively, as the in English, yet the use of it does not exactly correspond to that of the English article : for,

First. When a person's state or office is expressed; or when this, that, yon, occur in English, although the be not used, yet an is used in Irish; as, ir maic an fear comán tu, you are a good reaper; tainic an fearra go heiriñ, this man came to Ireland.

The same may be observed after go de; as, go de a nuair ? wbat o'clock is it ?

Secondly. When the precedes a noun which governs another in the genitive, the article, in Irish, is used with the genitive only ; as, ridire an locrañ, the knight of the lamp ; mac an duine, the son of man.

(107) But

proper names admit no article; as, rig eiriñ, the king of Ireland.

9. The Irish language has no article corresponding to the English a or an; but when the office, or state of being is expressed, a possessive pronoun is used, having an expressed or understood before it; as, bi me (an) mo faigideoir, I was a soldier; i. e. I was in my soldier state. (108.)

10. Present participles, which are also nouns expressing a state of being, are used in the same manner; as, ta se (an) na jearam, he is standing; i. e. he is in his standing state.

* The preposition is almost entirely lost, except with 4, his, hers, its, their; or, ar, our, with which n only is used ; as, ta re na ouine mnajë, he is a good man; bejö riñe nar daoine glice, we shall be wise men ; ta tu do Peasan, you are standing.

The use of the article exemplified promiscuously. Si an cruil rolus an cuirp. The eye is the light of the body. Tabair póg don oslaju. Give a kiss to the rod. Thug na hogánaig cuiread do The youths invited the damsels.

na hainorib. Thug na hainore cuiread do The damsels invited the youths.

na hogánajb. Ceol na naingeal.

The music of the angels. Ceileabar na néan.

The warbling of the birds. Gair na naindear.

The cry of the damsels. Dúil na ndeağ-ban.

The hope of the ladies. Luar na gcon.

The speed of the greyhounds. Briatar na braid.

The word of the prophets. Fuaim na otoñ.

The sound of the waves. Grao ban óg na tíre.

The love of the young women of

the country. 204c for an tslejbe.

The son of the man of the

mountain. Uirir eunlaic an deir.

The number of the fowls of the

air. Un macra an fir rin.

This son of that man. Un mjan rin na mban óg ud. That desire of

those young


Si an ingeanre an fir ud. "Tis this daughter of that man. Un cablacra an rig ud na This fleet of yon king of the noileán.

isles. Ta riri na cailin rijajt.

She is a good girl. Ta reirean na buacaill tijait. He is a good boy. Tamoidne nar ndaoinib boċta We are poor men. Tasibre burndaoinibrajobre Ye are rich men. Tarjadran na ndaoinib móra. They are great men.

Thainic me on tíž.

I came from the house. Ca bfuil fear an tig ? Where is the man of the house Ta se sa ngairdin.

He is in the garden. Torać a nfoğrair.

The beginning of harvest. Deiread an geimpió.

The end of the winter. An teac agus an fearan.

The house and land. A gcluin tu fuaim a ngoča ? Do you hear the sound of their

voices ? Ta me mo coolad.

I am asleep
Un bfuil tu do ruide ? Are you sitting ?
Bhi riri na seirbiseać. She was a servant.
Ta se na Peanduine.

He is an old man.
Bejó tiñe nar reasar).

We shall stand. Bhi tu do jeasan.

You were standing. Bhi me mo faigideoir.

I was a soldier. Thainic mac an duine ag ite The Son of Man came eating agus ag ól.

and drinking Chuajó re arteać 30 Tij De. He went into the house of God. Do tuit re on Greas lota. He fell from the third story. lomfujo an nféaroz.

It shall consume the beard. Do cruid a nuair liñ, agur The hour is at hand and the Son

ata mac an duine ag tab- of man is delivered into the

airt a latnajb na bpeacać. hands of sinners. Sliğe a néir air an otalar. The way of a man on the earth. Waille le cuideao na grár. With the assistance of grace. eireiriše na gcorp.

The resurrection of the bodies.



1. Substantives signifying the same thing agree in case; as, epircil Phóil easbail, the epistle of Paul the Apostle.

* The latter substantive may be put in the nominative case, though the former is an oblique one; but the article is then inserted; and some word, such as eacon, or is é sin, is understood; as, mac Joreip an saor, the son of Joseph the carpenter. (109.)

2. An adjective agrees with the substantive before it, in gender, number, and case; as, an fir gil, of the fair man; na mna zile, of the fair woman; dona fearajó zeala, to the fair


page 32.

3. For the aspiration of adjectives joined with nouns, see

4. When two or more substantives are joined to an adjective, the adjective is commonly referred to them separately; as, ir gesnamuil an fear agus an bean, the man and woman are lovely

5. Adjectives of one syllable may be prefixed to their substantives, without undergoing any inflexion; forming, in this manner, compound terms; as, dearg lasair, red fame, for lasair dearg.

* In this case, if the noun begins with a mutable consonant, that consonant is aspirated ; as oigfear, a young man.

6. When the adjective is asserted of, or concerning the noun, it is placed before the noun, and undergoes no inflexion; as, ir glic an duine tin, that man is wise. (110.)

7. Substantives signifying the same person or thing, require their adjectives between them; as, an curajó crova Conlaoć, the valiant hero Conloch.

8. Many synonymous adjectives are elegantly joined to the same substantive; as, a ndaignib oorċa dúnta, in dark, close fastnesses.

9. When the adjective is connected, in meaning and force, with the verb, it assumes an adverbial form, and undergoes no inflexion; as, piñe re an talari cirim, he made the earth dry. (111.)



10. When two substantives comes together, signifying different things, the latter is put in the genitive; as, mac na mna, the woman's son. (112.)

11. The latter substantive is sometimes joined with the former, as an adjective, making one compound expression, but still inflected in the genitive; as, fear corráin, a reaper.

12. The active infinitive and participles govern the genitive, as nouns ; as, bi me dul ag iarraio mna, I was going to seek a wife;

iar leagad an csorgeil, after reading the gospel. * The object of the infinitive may come before it, in the accusative; as, ir maic an obair De do rolar, it is good to praise God; for, is mait an obair molao De.

13. When one substantive governs another in the genitive plural, without the article being joined with the genitive, the latter substantive may be aspirated ; as, fuil gabair, the blood of goats. (113.)


for you.

14. Adjectives signifying profit, proximity, fitness, and their opposites, require the dative; as, ir majů out, it is good

15. Adjectives signifying dimension require air before the measure; as, tri troise air doiiineaċd, three feet deep.

16. 'Adjectives and nouns, signifying a part of any thing, require de an, or de na, of the, (commonly written don, and dona,) with the ablative; as, gać ran don leabar, each part of the book; fear do na daoinib, one of the men ; an fear ir riñe do na braitrib, the elder of the brothers; an fear ir airde don triur, the highest of the three.

* But adjectives signifying fullness, and the like, may have a genitive; as, beata lán trioblojde, a life full of trouble; but lán don triobloid, full of the trouble.

17. Adjectives signifying likeness, or an emotion of the mind, require le with the ablative; as, ir corruil an duide le fear, Tuarastail, a man is like an hireling; bi riad go mait leat, they were good to you; cuaille com f4d4 le cran, a pole as long as a tree; bj cartanac liom, be friendly to me. (114.)

18. The comparative degree requires ná or no than, before the following noun; as, ir fearr Peadar ná Pól, Peter is better than Paul. (115.)



A dark

Ir fuar an la é.

It is a cold day Ta ay rajdin fuar.

The morning is cold. Ir dorċa an ojoċe, j. It is a wil night. Bhfuil a čloc sin trom ? Is that stone heavy ? Ir grom a čloc s.

It is a heavy stone. Déan deoc Geje dar). Make a warm drink for me. u ndearna tu an deoc tejë ? Did you make the drink warm ? Ta cor fricir agam.

I have a sore foot. Ta mo cos fritir.

My foot is sore. Un milió armaċ ainmneac The hero valiant, renowed, and eolac.

learned; Deudjeal, dealltac, meann- White tooth d graceful, magnac, Greorac.

nanimous, and active,

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