Imatges de pÓgina

Fh is entirely mute; as, an fairge, pronounce, an airge,

the sea.

Wh is sounded like b; as, rnati), swimming; amuil like.

Ph is sounded, as in other languages, like ph in philosopher ; as myo páiste, my child.

Sh and th are sounded as h alone ; as, mo súil, my eye mo čiš, 5, my

house. But ř, before 1, 1), or r is entirely unute ; as, mo plainte, my health; mo inuad, my countenance; mo iron, my nose.

IMMUTABLE CONSONANTS. 1, n, r, are called immutable, because they never change, or lose their sound, by the addition of h. But they alone can be doubled in the middle, or at the end of words; as, barr, a top ; ceannaigim, I buy.

It is to be observed, that ol and In, in the middle of words, are sounded like ll; as, codlad, sleep; colna, flesh; pronounce collaó, colla ; and on like nn; as, ceadna, the same, pronounce ceanna.





Ale long, as ai in pain,
Aj long and distinct,

short, as i in fight,
Ao long, nearly as oo in fool,
ea long, as ea in bear,

short, as ea in heart, ei long, as ei in reign,

short, as e in ferry, eo long, as aw in shawl,

short, as o in shock, eu long, as a in fare, Ja long, as ea in clear, Jo long, as ie in cashier,

short, as io in fashion, Ju long, as u in fume,

short, as i in shirt, Oj long, force on the 0,

short, force on the i, Ua long, distinct, Ui long, force on the u,

short, force on the i,

lae, of a day.
cáin, a fine.
mait, good.
maol, bald.
méar, a finger.
ceart, just.
déirc, charity.
geir, tallow.
reól, a sail.
deoch, a drink.
féur, grass.
ciall, sense.

Fjon, wine.
: bjolar, water cresses.

cjúnas, quietness.
fliuch, wet.
cóir, right.
coir, a crime.
gual, coal.

Túil, an eye.

fuil, blood.

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ECLIPSIS. In the inflexion and combination of words, certain consonants are frequently prefixed to others, with which they cannot be sounded; and the adventitious consonant is then said to eclipse the radical one; viz: 6, C, D, F, G, M, P, r. o, when beginning a word, and followed by a vowel or by l or r; as also , followed by n, may be eclipsed thus :


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m, 4 mbaile, our town.
3, 4 gceart, our right.
n, 4 ndja, our God.

b, 4 brearran, our land.

n, 4 ngearan, our complaint.

b, 4 bpém, our punishment.
T, an oslat, the rod,

0,4 dteine, our fire. In pronouncing these eclipses, the first consonant only is sounded; as, 4 maile, 4 geant, &c. Except ng, in which both letters are uttered, with a strong guttural expression.

Instead of bf, the ancients frequently wrote FF; as, 4 Ffear. ran, our land : cc, instead of gc; as 4 cceart, our right; and to, instead of ot; as, 4 steine, our fire; and these words are pronounced in the same manner, as if written 4 bfearran, 4 gceart, and 4 oteine. (13)


An accent is placed over such vowels and diphthongs, as are naturally either long or short, when they are to be pronounced long; as, mac, a son, short; bás, death, long; fjor, knowledge, short; cíos, rent, long.

Monosyllables ending in a, e, i, u, being commonly long, require no accent over them; as, la, a day, tu, thou.

In words of two or more syllables, the accent commonly falls on the first syllable; as, déiğionać, last, múčaim, I extinguish.


In reading Irish, every letter, except f and i before l or r must be sounded. But some of the aspirated consonants are so slightly expressed as to be almost imperceptible ; the reason of which is as follows.

According to the principle of the language, no number of vowels, meeting in a word, forms more than one syllable.

The poets, however, frequently wanting to lengthen words, by multiplying their syllables, devised the method of throwing in an adventitious consonant, generally o or ğ, to divide two vowels into two syllables ; thus, Giarna, a lord, which consists of only two syllables, is divided into ciğearna, of three syllables.

Now, as this manner of spelling was unknown in earlier ages, the primitive pronunciation is still so far retained, that the adventitious letters are passed over, with an almost imperceptible flexion of the voice.

In like manner o and 5, which, always in the beginning of words, and frequently in the middle, have a clear and strong sound, are very commonly used at the end, merely to give a fuller vowel cadence to the termination, as, neargujao, to strengthen, rig a king.



Wo mhac, my son.
Wo bás, my death.
Ro beag, very small.
An bean, the woman.
Wo béul, my mouth.
Wo bonn, my sole.
Wo reall, my knob.
Wo rjan, my desire.
Wo bjad, my meat.
An rijar, the dish.
Cnáinn, a bone.
Sliab, a mountain.
Naori, a saint.
Near, heaven.
Dub, black.

Deild, a form.
Széin, beauty.
Uairi), a grave.
Tarbi, a bull.
Dani, an ox.
Cnuri, a worm.
Cnob, a maggot.
Wo dja, my God.
Mo corp, my body.
Fájó, a prophet.
Criad, clay.
Fuact, cold.
Tuaid, north.
Fliuc, wet.
Drjúco, dew.
Liaig, a physician.

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Súil, an eye.

Noċt, night.

Stróic, a slice. Mo ceann, my head.

Wóin, turf. Wo súil, my eye.

Réult, a star. Wo cor, my foot.

Wéur, a finger. Wo irón, my nose.

Deor, a tear. Ruaó, reddish.

Féur, grass. uco, the breast.

Géug, a branch. Graó, love.

Grian, the sun. Fiao, deer.

Siar, west. Deoć, a drink.

Cliar, clergy lact, milk.

Pjan, pain, Wead, Meath.

Cjall, sense. Nuad, new.

ead, jealousy: Waj, a field.

Céard, a trade. Beac, a bee.

Céad, a hundred. Fjac, a crow.

Smúid, smoke. eac, a horse.

Gnúir, a countenance. Croo, a portion. Seaċt, seven.

Drúis, lechery. Occ, eight.

Cúig, five. Deic, ten.

Sion, weather. Uoo, Hugh

Cíor, a comb. Targ, Teague.

Fjor, true. Cajó, weeping.

Fjon, wine. Geoó, a goose.

Sjol, seed. lam dear, the right hand. Cíor, rent. lam ċli, the left hand. Wjol, a louse. Cric, shaking.

Saor, free. Crác, time.

Caol, small. Weiċ, Fat.

Taob, a side. Feic, a sinew.

Taom, a fit. Gut, voice.

Sraoó, sneezing Dat, color.

Caor, a sheep. Fuat, hatred.

Taor, dough. 20 tir, my country.

Blaorg, a husk. luaji, ashes.

laog, a calf. Sít, a fairy.

lae, of a day. Wo reol, my sail.

Céir, wax. Mo flias, my thigh.

Féji, a vigil. Wo inuad, my countenance. Féin, self.

Réjo, ready. DIPHTHONGS. Céim, a degree. Glóir, glory.

Fuar, cold.


Cluar, ear Gruag, hair. Fual, urine. Uan, a lamb. Cran, a bay. Cruac, a rick. Cuac, a cuckoo. Cuaz, a daw. Fáil, a ring Sráid, a street. Júr, an yew tree. Júl, July. Fiú, worth. Sjúr, a sister. Tjúg, thick.

Treas, third. Fuil, blood. Cuirp, of a boay. Cuirm, a feast. Cuid, a part. Wuir, a sea. Sjoc, frost. Smjor, marrow. Fior, knowledge. Crior, a girdle. Fion, fair. Bjor, a spit. Leir, with him. Ceir, a sow. Ceiro, a question. Sail, a beam. Staid, a state. Sailm, a psalm. Cailc, chalk. Cairo, paper. Straif, white thorn. Caid, of a cat. Slajn, of a rod.


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Oir, east. Sdoirm, storm. Troig, a foot. lois, a wound. Brojo, a goad. Coill, a wood. Clojó, a hedge. Toit, smoke. Ourg, an ewe. Tear, heat. Dear, south. Fear, a man. Cean, a head. Sean, old. Geal, white. Breac, speckled. Gean, love. Fearg, anger. Dearg, red. leact, a tomb. Bean, a high top. Speal, a scythe. Cearc, a hen. Cead, permission.

2140l, bald. Ngoj, nine. Uo1, an island. Uojb, courteous. Feol, flesh. Stjuir, a rudder. Cjuin, gentle. Cuairt, a visit. Uair, an hour. Fuaim, a sound. Uairi), a cave. Duair, a reward. Luaic, speed. Lidij, a physician.

Pean, a pen.

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