Imatges de pàgina

Passover) was to be performed with a bunch of hyssop; which

may, perhaps, be considered as an emblem of that faith, bv , which the blood of sprinkling becomes the security of the soul.'

Mr. Lowell should also have informed us of what the door posts were an emblem.

The author is more happy in moral exhortation than in the province of scripture exposition. We shall adduce a short passage from the discourse on the Snares of Afluence, as no unfair nor unfavourable specimen :

• We are hereby reminded, that riches are no evidence of the divine favor. Men of opulence frequently look down upon the poor and needy with an insolent scorn, which is not only contrary to christianity, but an outrage against all the feelings of humanity. Assuming an air of importance, they sometimes speak and act, as if the world were made for their exclusive enjoyment, and as though they were the only favourites of Heaven. It cannot, however, be doubted, but that riches are sometimes given in a way of judicial punishment. An insensible security is one of the most awful judgments ever inflicted in the present life, and is often occasioned by great possessions. Wealth" has that stupifying influence, which blinds the minds of the wicked, and they see not the dreadful preci. pices by which they are surrounded. The Almighty appears to connive at their sin, but this delay will add terror to the stroke of his justice, because they hated knowlege, and did not chuse the fear of the Lord. Therefore, if riches increase, set not your heart

upon them; but open your eyes to the dangers which thicken all around. Remember you have a soul--that you will shortly leave this world—and that in that decisive day, “ your silver and gold shall not be able to deliver you.” Be watchful against those temptations, by which persons of affluence are so frequently ensnared. Guard against the demon of pride. Yield not to the ensnaring devices of an ungodly world. Suspect your own heart. Use the bounties of Providence with moderation.' Let your wealth be well employed, by supplying with liberality the wants of your dependants-by contributing, in an exemplary manner, to the support of the cause of Christmand by opening your heart and hand to the poor and needy. Remember that no temporal wealth can compensate for the want of spiritual riches Did you possess millions, being destitute of the renewing influencés of the Holy Spirit, you would finally sink beneath the pressure of everlasting infamy. Worldly prosperity, and irreligion, are not, however, necessarily connected. If, with the distinguishing bounties of providence, God bestow the richer blessings of his grace, be sensible of your obligations. Live to his praise – be zealous for his glory--and exert yourself for the happiness of your fellow-men. “ Deliver the poor when they cry, and the fatherless, and him that hath none to help him. Let the blessing of him that is ready to perish come upon you ; and cause the widow's heart to sing for joy."

The volume consists of sixteen sermons, on the following subjects ; Religion the source of Domestic Happiness :-At13

tachment tachment to Public Worship :-The Sower ;-The effect produced upon Agrippa by the Defence of Paul:- Repentance and Pardon :- The Candour of the Bereans an example to Christians :--The Atonement:- The Sympathy of Jesus :

- The Power of Conscience:-The Character of Jacob : The Passover:- The Penitent Malefactor :-The Snares of Affluence :- Resignation :-The Triumph of Piety over Ad. versity :-A Dissuasive from Procrastination.

If we cannot compliment Mr. Lowell on having greatly improved the eloquence of the pulpit, we may congratulate him on the ample encouragement which he appears to have received; and, from the ardour of his friends, we conclude that he is boch a popular preacher and an amiable man.

in a great

ART. IX. Synoptic Tables of Chemistry, intended to serve as a

Summary of the Lectures delivered on that Science, in the public Schools at Paris. By A. F. Fourcroy, &c. &c. &c. Translated from the Original French. By William Nicholson. Imperial

Folio. il. is. Boards. Cadell jun. and Davies. Soi.
*HE twelve tables which

this work

may measure be regarded as the Synopsis of the System of Chemical Knowleye, sincs published by the same author, and also translated by Mr. Nicholson ; and an account of which, we shall at a future time present to our readers. The plan of arrangement, which M. Fourcroy has here adopted, was formed in consequence of the obviously defective method hitherto followed by the generality of chemists ; according to which, the different substances have been classed under the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms. Although this might be a convenient and proper mode, as far as Natural History is alone concerned, it is by no means adapted to the purposes of chemistry, which requires a classification founded on the chemical properties rather than on the external characters of Natural Bodies.

• This original notion, (says M. Fourcroy,) according to which I at first divided bodies chemically into eight classes, led me to a second wliich is not less important in the progress of the science, because it is singularly favourable to its study. 1 inferred that having, in this great outline, followed the order of composition, to establish the fust distinctions between these natural bodies; and having classed them from the greatest simplicity to the utmost complication in their composition, I might, in each of the eight classes thus presented to view, adopt as the basis of ulterior distinctions to be established between them, chemical properties, which, while they removed every 21 bitrary process in their respective disposition, should be, at the same time, calculated to present an accurate series of their relations and habitudes, with a connected line of characters calculated to give a clear notion of their history.- From this labour it has resulted, after a great number of trials and various attempts, that the chemical attractions mutually exerted by bodies may be employed as characters for their relative arrangement ; and by this disposition alone, or the order thus introduced, they may serve to trace; in a manner no less exact than precise, the whole of their chemical pro. perties.

a clear

Table i, contains general matters concerning the science ; such as an exposition of the order of arrangement, with a view of the means, history, and divisions of chemistry, as well as the principles of its application to medicine.

In Table 2, we find the first class of simple or undecomposed substances; some being arranged according to their mass and abundance, as light, caloric, oxygen, and azote : while the others follow the order of their attraction for oxygen, viz. hydrogen, carbon, sulphur, diamond, and the metals. 2dly, these bodies, when combined with oxygen, or in the state of oxides and acids, are afterward arranged according to their attraction for the above substance, and according to the difficulty which attends the decomposition of them.

Table 3, like the former, comprehends two different objects; the first of which is an exposition of the salifiable bases, namely the earths and alkalis; the former being arranged in proportion as their earthy characters gradually become alkaline, and the latter being placed according to their comparative strength, beginning with those which are considered as the most powerful. Barytes and strontites, although hitherto called earths, are classed with the alkalis, in consequence of their marked alkaline properties, and of the great force of ata traction which they exert.-In the ad division of this third Table, as well as in Tables 4 and 5, the salts properly so called are considered.—This part, the author thinks, very evidently demonstrates the superior advantages of his new mode of classification; for the salts (of which there are now known upwards of one hundred species, though, thirty years since, not more than twenty could be enumerated,) are arranged in such a manner, that the division of them into genera and species, their classification, and their respective disposition, include the whole of their most useful properties : which disposition, being united with their methodical nomenclature, presents a view of the principal part of their chemical history.

Tables 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, comprehend the metals. In table 6, the general metallic properties are stated; and in the four others, we find the twenty-one metallic substances successively arranged, beginning with the acidifiable metals, and ending, with those of difficult oxidation, viz. silver, gold, and platina. REV. MARCH, 1802.

M. FourM. Fourcroy observes, that the importance of the properties and uses of metallic substances require that they should be noticed with particular care ; and he has thereiore considered each of them in these Tables according to a similar order, and under similar comparative circumstances: so that, without attempting to present a complete history of these combustible bodies, he has arranged the contents of the Tables 7, 8, 9, and 10, in such a manner as to convey a distinct idea of the nature, properties, and utility of each of the metals.

The last two Tables, 11 and 12, treat of vegetable and animal chemistry; and of these the author very candidly re-, marks that they are to be regarded only as sketches of these branches of the science, intended to point out the method of treating organic substances, rather than to give any very detailed account of their chemical properties : the more important features, however, have not been neglected.-M. Fourcroy farther observes, that he has considered the different genera. more particularly than the species of these substances; the latter being only compared by those characteristics, which are most strongly defined. He has not, therefore, entered into the particular history of vegetable and animal substances, which would have rendered a great number of tables requisite: but he has carefully stated the most essential and recent facts. which relate to the analysis of these bodies.

Mr. Nicholson, whose exertions in literary and scientific pursuits are well known to the public, informs us that he has taken the greatest care to insure the fidelity and precision of this translation, not only in the first preparation of the copy, but by a subsequent collation of the proof sheets with the orizinal, during the last corrections of the press.'

Art. X. Memoirs of the different Rebellions in Irelarid, from the

Arrival of the English: also, a particular Detail of that which broke out the 2 3d of May, 1798; with the History of the Con. .spiracy which preceded it, and the Characters of the principal Actors in it. To this Edition is added, a concise History of the Reformation in Ireland ; and Considerations on the Means of ex. tending its Advantages therein. By Sir Richard Musgrave, Bart. Member in the late Irish Parliament. The Second Edition. 4to. pp. 635. Appendix, pp. 210. il. 145. Boards. Milliken,

Dublin ; Stochdale, London. 1801. A PARTIAL historian may be applauded by a faction, and

may gratify the sensations of the passing moment: buty when his pages meet the eyes of those who are strangers to his passions and his bias, praise gives way to censure, and the


acclamations of encouragement are succeeded by the murmurs of disapprobation. Minds of sound judgment and accurate discrimination quickly perceive each infringement of the relation between cause and effect, and readily detect each contradiction to the principles of human action. Indignant, then, at the attempt to impose, and lamenting the loss of the instruction which they might have derived from faithful reports of importa ant transactions, they either throw aside the work in disgust, or submit to a petusal of it under the tortures of doubt at every step. No performances more rapidly experience their merited fate than falsified' ot prejudiced histories; which even the powers of genius cannot rescue from the contempt and neglect which are their inevitable destiny. The great masters of the historic art, whose laudable aim was the immortal suffrage of posterity, perceived the necessity of discarding all bias, forgetting all private wrongs, and assuming the most rigid impartiality. If very eminent moderns are not free from prepossessions, they yet venture not to conceal important adverse matter, and are careful to perform the duty of partisans in the most covert manner. If in Davila's narrative the protégé of the Queen mother be never out of sight, no writer lays more fairly and fully before his reader all the parts and relations, all the tendencies and consequences, of the events which he describes; and hence his work, though deficient in the charms of pure idiom, and written in a dialect sui generis, will ever be the study and delight of the best judges. Bentivoglio, Clarendon, and other upright though partial historians, state facts with fairness, and are only guilty of too frequently intermixing their individual opinions; and it is under the semblance of the utmost disintes restedness, that Hume intersperses his own unwarranted conclusions amid a fund of the richest matter. In the historic page, in which the matter of fact has not been the principal object, we look in vain for simplicity, perspicuity, or method; and the narrator who disseminates falsehood, or who conceals the truth, effectually obstructs his literary fame while he indelibly sullies his moral character.

To a man of leisure, who had the means of information within his reach, and who could sustain the labour, the late unhappy commotions of Ireland, in all their bearings and relations, presented a subject which afforded ample scope for the display of the greatest talents, and the highest acquirements. The crooked policy, to which barbarism and superstition owe their long and fatál reign among a people surrounded by the highest culture, refinements, and liberality, required to be analized, its motives to be assigned, and its schemes to be exposed;-the machine of the Irish goverument, connected by its



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