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It affords us matter of real concern, that the publication before us has accidentally escaped our notice for a long period. The question respecting the utility of factitious airs in medicine may now be corsidered as set at rest, since the original advocates of the practice have withdrawn their support ; and the general persuasion that the gases posseas little salutary power, in any mode of exhibition hitherto contrived, ie no longer a prejudice, as it is termed by Mr. Hill, but. has proved to be the result of considerable experience. The present author, therefore, appears to some disadvantage, in strongly recommending a class of remedies in which most practitioners have ceased to place confidence.
If any prejudice originally existed respecting the employment of
gases, it appeared to be in their favour ; and the mode of exhibiting them was rendered so easy, by the ingenuity of Mr. Watt, that proofs of their utility might readily have been attained, had the remedies possessed any real efficacy. There was moreover no deticiency in the zeal of their tirst patrons ; to whom we may apply, with a slight variation, a couplet of Voltaire :
« Sans rien omettre, ils racontoient fort bien
Ce qu'ils savoient—mais ils ne savoient rien." In short, the disappointment has been so complete, that the single testimony of Mr. Hill can scarcely suffice to re-instate the proposed remedies in the public opinion. Justice to this gentleman, however, requires us to observe, that his cases are stated with every ap. pearance of fairness and attention, though we cannot assent to all his conclusions. Art. 50. A Letter to Dr. Percival, on the Prevention of Infectious
Fevers. And an Address to the College of Physicians at Philadelphia, on the Prevention of the American Pestilence. By John Haygarth, M. D. &c. 8vo.
Cadell jun. and Davies. 1801.
The principal facts relating to the prevention of fever, by the institution of fever-wards, are detailed in this publication at considerable length. Indeed, from the importance of this subject to the general welfare of mankind, it cannot be too strongly impressed on the public attention ; and there seems now to be a sufficient body of evidence, to establish the possibility of arresting the progress of the most alarming epidemics, by the early separation of the persons first infected from the rest of the community. The result, therefore, of operations 30 beneficent in their tendency, and so exalting to the character of the profession, must deeply interest every friend to humanity. We have already had occasion to notice the leading facts on which Dr. Haygarth has commented, in reviewing the publications of Dr. Currie and Dr. Ferriar. The observations of former writers on the utility of fever-warcis have been confirmed by the late establishments in Liverpool and Manchester, on an extensive scale; and those principles, which had been dispersed in medical books as matter of probable speculation, are now brought to a practical bearing on some of the most extensive and frequent evils of existence. On oc. casions like the present, we forbear quotations, because we wish that the work itself may be perused by all our medical readers.
In his address to the College of Philadelphia, Dr. Haygarth op. poses the notions of Dr. Rush and the Acadeny respecting the origira of the yellow fever. He is of opinion, that the disease was originally imported from the West-Indies; and he discredits the supposed action of putrici coffee, and other irash, to which the opponents of the College refer. To avert farther attacks of the epideinic, he recommends the institution of fever-wards in the sea-port towns, sufficiently large to accommodate the families first seized with the pestilence.-01 both these subjects we have already given a concurring sentiment; and it is only necessary at present, therefore, to express our earnest desire that the faculty in America will drop their dissensions, and liste: to the voice of reason and experience, which has been so happily beard on this side of the Atlantic.
Another article on this important topic occurs in p. 404. of this number of our Review. Art. 51. Observations on the Bile and its Diseases, and on the Oeco
nomy of the Liver ; read at the Royal College of Physicians, as the Gulstonian Lecture of the Year 1799. By Richard Powell, M. D. 8vo. 45. sewed. Rivingtons.
On this much-agitated subject, Dr. Powell has added several in genious observations and conjectures, to an accurate view of the principal facts previously ascertained. It is the former class of passages only, that we can be expected to notice.
For a manual examination of the state of the liver, the Doctor prefers a standing position for the patient, with a little flexion of iho body forwards: but the most favourable position has always appeared to us to be that of sitting, with a slight inclination of the frunk anteriorly.-Dr. P. supposes that the secretion of bile in the liver is performed by the artery, as in other glands, not by the branches of the vena porte. Though liis reasoning is ingenicus, it cannot be reckoned conclusive, on a point so litule understood as the peculiar process of secretion.-- That portion of the bile, which has been generally considered as resinous, is regarded by Dr. P. as a peculiar modification of animal maiter ; and he thinks that it
be denomic nated, the animal bitter principle.
In the history of biliary concretions, which is full and interesting, the author observes that they occur more frequently in persons who lead a sedentary life.--The diseases of the liver, and the different morbid states of the bile, are also considered at scme length, and occupy a great share of the pamphiet. We quote the following observation as a specimen of the author's style, and as conveying useful information :
• I have mentioned a peculiar state of liver which I have thought especially connected with dram-drinking, where the secretion itself seemed to be vitiated, and especially so with respect to its density. In this our means of relief are more certain, and the operation of medicines more ascertained. I think that mercurials are here inju-' rious, and ought never to be given ; but in the earlier stages of the complaint, the diseased action in which it consists may be stopped by the steady and regular use of bitter and warm purgatives: a mix
ture of the infusion of gentian with that of senna, answers this pur. pose better than any other which I have seen. In the more advanced stages I think, too, the nitric acid will be found as useful as mer. culty is injurious; at present I have in my own mind experience enough to justify me in recommending it to notice, though not sufficient to enable me to speak with precision as to its powers. In conjunction with these means, a perfect restriction from the use of alko. hol, with great regularity as to modes of life in every respect, are to be strictly enjoined ; perhaps the first of these points is rather to be wished than expected. I have seen very many of the evils arising from this source ; I have witnessed the bodily suffering, and mental horrors, whicli flow from it ; but I never yet saw the man who hand once established himself as a drunkard, possess sufficient resolution to forbear the practice.'
Dr. Powell adds that he has found the nitric acid very useful in this discase.
This work deserves to be attentively perused by medical readers ; and possesses, among other merits, that of brevity, which is a strong recommendation to the favour of those who set a proper value on time. Art. 52. Practical Observations on the Cure of the Gonnorrhæa Viru
lenta in Men.' By Thomas Whately, Member of the College of Surgeons, London. 8vo. 25. 6d. Johnson. 1801. After some general remarks on the nature of this diseas”, Mr. Whately divides it into three species : the gonorrhæa attended with ulcerations in the urethra ; that which is accompanied by violent chordee, ardor urine, and other marks of strong inflammation in the passage ; and that in which the inflammatory affection is considerably slighter throughout.
In the species first mentioned, the internal use of mercury is advised; and in the second, the author thinks that a mercurial course has a considerable effect in mitigating the most troublesome symptoms, though he confesses that it will not effect a complete cure. He promises largely, indeed, when he assures us that mercury will remove both chordee and ardor urina. We shall be extremely glad if the fact can be supported by farther experience : but surely, when the use of mercury in gonorrhæa was universally laid aside by the practitioners of she last age, that general consent must have resulted from ample proof of the inefficacy of this method of treatment. The third species of gonorrhæa (which appears, however, to be only a lower degree of the second, ) is cured by Mr. Whately by means of mercurial injections. He recommends in preference, for this purpose, the muriated mercury.
Young practitioners will meet with many useful remarks in this pamphlet, though we cannot agree with Mr. Whately in expecting much benefit from the revival of the use of mercury during the inflammatory stage of gonorrhea. It would require many well authenticated instances of the efficacy of this method, to refute the obsersations of Hunter and his contemporaries.
MISCELLANEOUS. Art. 53. New Instructions for Playing, in all its Varieties, the Game
of Billiards, with Ease and Propriety: to which is prefixed, an historical Account of the Game. By an Amateur. Illustrated with an elegant Copper-plate representing the Tables, Players, &c. and Cuts to delineate the Fortificacion Game. 6d. Hurst.
This compilation will be an useful manual to young players at the clegant and entertaining game of billiards, and may occasionally assist the memories of the more experienced. The History of the Game is very brief and insignificant ; and we think that the writer is wrong in stating that the clumsy mace is the prevailing instrument' in this country: the cue, we believe, is now much more generally used, particularly by adroit players. When the person making a stroke, at the Red or Carambole Game, hits both his adversary s and the red ball, the stroke is commonly termed a cannon : but it is here properly styled a Caram, or Carambole. This misnomer should be abolished ;-as also the vulgar phrase of holding a ball, instead of holeing it. Art. 54. Esseys moral, economical, and political. By Francis Bacon,
Baron of Verulam, Viscount St. Albans, and Lord High Chancellor of England. Jones's Edition. 8vo. 6s. Ed. Jones. 1801.
In our 34th volume, N. S. we noticed a new and elegant edition of these admirable Essays, and mentioned in terms of merited com: mendation the preface, by which they were justly characterized and introduced to the notice of the reader. The subject of the present article is also elegantly printed, and is recommended by a short Life of the illustrious Author, with an engraving of him from an original picture by Hopwood. Art. 55. An Indian Glossary; consisting of some thousand Words
and Terms commonly used in the East Indies : with full Explanations of their Meanings. Forming an usefal Vade Mecum, extremely serviceable in assisting Strangers to acquire with Ease and Quickness the Language of the Country. By T. Roberts, Lieut. &c. of the 3d Regiment of the Native Infantry, E. I.
8vo. 35. 6d. Boards. Murray and Highley. 18.0.
As every attempt towards the accomplishment of a work of this kind undoubtedly merits encouragement, the present compilement, from a competent hand, will probably meet with a favourable reception; and it cannot but prove very useful, in proportion to its present extent. The explanations here given are necessarily briet, but to us they appear to be as satisfactory as they could reasonably be expected to be, in a publication intended merely for common use.
In his preface, Mr. Roberts occasionally takes notice of a similar work by Mr. Hadley; and he observes that, in the performance now before us, the terms collected are infinitely more numerous than in Mr. H.'s production. The word infinitely is, surely, too great for the occasion.
For a similar work, intitled The Indian Vocabulary, see M. R. vol.
1xxviii. p. 158.
Art. 56. A Hint of the Clouan Army's having been but a Snare fabri
cated by the Facobins themselves !!! 4to. 28 Spragg. 1801.
An old proverb says, “ A word to the wise is enough.” We should always be glad to obtain the credit of wisdom by taking any seasonable intimation that might be offered to us : but really the present author's Hint is thrown away on our dull capacities. Art. 57. An Account of the Emancipation of the Slaves of Unity Valley
Pen, in Jamaica. By David Barclay. 8vo. 6d. W. Phillips. 1801.
Of all the sects into which the Christian Church, or body of nominal Christians, is divided, the people commonly called Quakers profess to be most deeply impressed by those amiable sentiments which distinguished the preaching of the Saviour of the world. Quakers bave never perseculed: nor will they be induced, by motives of interest, to be possessors of slaves. David Barclay employs the following lines of the late Mr. Cowper, the poet, to express his sentiments :
“ I would not have a slave to till my ground,
To carry me, to fan me while I sleep,
That sinews bought and sold have ever earn’d.” Thinking thus like a true Christian, he was resolved also to act like one. He and his brother John coming, in consequence of a debt to them, into possession of a pen (or grazing farm) in the island of Jamaica, with thirty-two slaves, they resolved to emancipate these poor Blacks; and John dying, the execution of the design was left to David. As the measure would have been unpopular in Jamaica, he removed them at considerable expence to Philadelphia ; where, by proper care and attention, they were prepared to make a good use of the liberty which was so generously conferred on them.
The manumission bestowed in this instance was the effect of a principle, not of a fit of generosity. These Blacks, be it remembered, were not turned adrift, without the solicitude of their former master : but great pains were taken to fit them for emancipation, and, in restoring them to their natural rights, to render them useful members of society.
Mr. Barclay is decidedly of opinion that emancipation must be gradual ; and it appears, from the evidence here adduced, that, if conducted with prudence and humanity, this measure would ultimately be as beneficial to the Community, as it must be comfortable to the Individual.
SINGLE SERMONS. Art. 58. Bull Baiting! A Sermon on Barbarity to God's dumb
Creation, preached in the Parish Church of Wokingham, Berks, the 20th of Dec. 1801 (being the Day previous to the annual Bull Bait in that Town). By the Rev. Edward Barry, M. D. 4to. 18. 6d. Spragg.