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ing for a course of years been employed in examining and comparing together the vast collection of birds in the National Museum of Natural History, was convinced of the necessity of a new classification of these animals, by which they might be arranged with more precision and simplicity. He commences with noticing the form of their feet and claws, observing that it is the organization of these parts which determines their habitudes. The construction of their feet (says he) directs them to seek their place of refuge on the tops of trees, in low bushes, on the dryground, in dirty marshes, on overflowed banks, or on lakes and seas: we also farther perceive that the manner of attack and defence, and the nature of the aliment, preferred by birds, have a relation to the form and characters of their feet.' The beak, or bill, is the next object of attention : then the form of the head; and the varieties in the tinges of the plumage are directed to be arranged in the order of the pris.natic colours.- By M. LACÉFÈ DE’s new method, the two thousand five hundred and thirty-six kinds of birds, already known to naturalists, are distributed into two classes (sous-classes), four divisions, nine subdivisions, forty orders, and one hundred and thirty genera. A table, drawn up according to this new mode of classification, is given at the end of the memoir, and its merit will be obvious to naturalists.
l'ursuing the ideas suggested in this paper, M. LACÉPÈDE submits to the Institute, in a subsequent lecture, a memoir, containing
A new methodical Table of Animals which suckle their Young (des animaux à mamelles). According to this table, the four hundred and twenty mammifères already known are distributed into three divisions, ten subdivisions, twenty-two orders, and cighty-four genera. This method of arrangement is also minutely illustrated by an annexed table; the first grand division of which includes the mammifères without membraneous wings or fins, or quadrupedes properly so called; these are subdivided, ist, intó quadrumanes, or animals having the four feet in the form of hands; 2d, into pedimanes, the hind feet in the form of hands; 3dly, into plantigrades, the sole of the foot divided in such a manner' as to support the animal when he walks ; Athly, digitigrades, fingers without hoof$; 5thly, pachyder mes, the fingers inclosed in a very thick skin, or more than two hoofs ; othly, bisulques, on ruminans, or hoof divided in two ; 7thly, solipedes, or animals with only one or an undivided hoof.' The second grand division is of mammiferes with membranous wings; the cheiroptéres, or the fore-feet furnished with membranes in the form of wings. The third, of empêtrés, or ani. mals with the hind feet in the form of fins; and of the cétacées, or animals with no hind feet.
Our readers will judge, from this abstract, of the system on which this arrangement is conducted.
We have now gone through the volume appropriated to the Mathematical and Physical Sciences; and in our next Appendix we hope to furnish our readers with an account of the other two volumes of this series.
Art. XV. Annales de Chimie ; i.e. Chemical Annals. Nos. 118
-123. 8vo. Paris. 1802. Imported by De Boffe, London, New Experiments on the spontaneous Motions of different Sub
stances, when approached by or in contact with each other. By M. B. PREVOST, &c. &c.—This paper is intended as a reply to that which was published on the same subject in the 37th volume of these Annals by Dr. Carradori. In the first series of these experiments, M. Prevost relates the effects observed when æther or camphor were placed on water or quicksilver ; and, in a second series, he shews that similar effects may in some cases be produced without the assistance of odorous, oily, or volatile substances. From the whole of the experiments, he concludes:
1. That the spontaneous motions of certain bodies are pro'duced by an invisible fluid.
2. That the more odorous bodies possess this property to the "greatest degree, and therefore that it is not confined (as Dr. Carradori asserts) to oily or resinous substances.
3dly, That all liquids have the property of repelling one another, when placed under certain circumstances.
Observations on the Substitution of peeled or pearl Barley for Rice. By M. PARMENTIER.– The author strongly recomiends the use of peeled barley in all public establishments, as well as in private houses, on the score both of economy and salubrity,
Observations on the Affinity which the Earths exert on each other, By M. DARRACO.-This chemist, having repeated, with great care, the experiments made on the earths by M. Guyton, considers himself authorized to conclude that the greater part of the phænomena, observed by that gentleman, were occasioned by impurities contained in the substances which he employed in his experiments.
Remarks on the Observations made by M. Paisse, and published in No. 117 of the Chemical Anr:a's, on Barytes and Strontites;
with a new, certain, and easy Method of obtaining those alkalis perfectly pure.
By M. DARTIGUES, &c. &c.-The writer of this paper first shews that M. Paisse could only obtain carbonate of barytes by decomposing nitrate of barytes with carboDate of potash, and that he has confounded this substance with the pure or caustic barytes which may be obtained by exposing nitrate of barytes to a strong heat.--He afterward recommends the following process as the most economical way of procuring pure barytes:-the carbonate of this earth, natural or artificial, is to be strongly heated with 12 or 15 times its weight of charcoal; after which, the residuum is to be well washed, and will then be found as pure as that which is obtained when the nitrate has been decomposed by heat.
Note on the Properties of the Oxalic Acid. By M. Darrace -M. Brugnatelli having stated, in the 29th volume of the Chemical Annals, that oxalic acid has erroneously been considered as a proper re-agent to detect the presence of lime : and having supported this assertion by some experiments, the author of the present note was induced to repeat them, and, from the results which he obtained, he is of opinion that these conclusions are not accurate : since oxalic acid always precipitates lime from various solutions, except the acid menstrua bę in excess. In such cases, therefore, this excess should be saturated by an alkali, and oxalate of ammonia should be employed in preference to uncombined oxalic acid.
A new Process for the Earthing (Terrage) of Sugar, proposed by M. Hapel-Lachenaie, of Guadaloupe. This paper cannot be abridged, nor does it contain any thing interesting to the genepality of chemical readers.
Observations on the internal Temperature of Vegetables, compared with that of the Atmosphere. By M. SOLOMÉ.-We are here presented with an account of some experiments, made by introducing thermometers into holes bored in the trunks of certain trees. The author observes that the only value, which he attaches to these first attempts, is the having opened the way to philosophers who may be better qualified to make such experiments, and will render them useful.' M. SOLOMÉ, however, mistakes in supposing that he is the first who has entered into this investigation ; because the late Mr. John Hunter, so long since as the winter of 1775-6, made a great number of experiments on the internal temperature of vegetables, exactly in the manner adopted by M. SOLOMÉ ; and an account of the whole may be seen in the Phil. Trans. for 1778, p. 7.
The real or affected ignorance of the French, respecting the state of science in this country, is truly astonishing !!!
An Essay on the Preparation of Phosphoric Æther. By M. BOUDET.-Having prepared some pure phosphoric acid, by de'composing vitric acid with phosphores, M. BOUDET mixed it with alcohol, and distilled with a Woulfe's apparatus. He obtained, ist. an acid liquor slightly coloured, which had a disagreeable odour; 2dly. a very pale yellowish oil, which swam on the former liquor.-on examination, he found the first product to be alcohol, but the second possessed the characters of phosphoric æther.
Notice, concerning Oxide of Iron. By M. ROARD.-The experiments made by this chemist were intended to ascertain the best and most ceconomical method of removing iron-moulds from linen, &c.—The acidulous oxalate of pot-ash (salt of sorrel) has been commonly employed for this purpose, and M. Roard compared its effects with the aciduloas tortrite of potash (cream of tartar) and with very dilute sulphuric acid. Having stated the results of his comparative experiments, he sàys ; • In consequence of the different trials to which I have subjected the substances capable of acting on oxide of iron and on ink, we see that acidulous oxalate of pot-ash does not exclusively possess this property ; since the acidulous tartrite of pɔt-ash, and very dilute sulphuric acid, may be empioyed for the same purpose with very considerable advantages, not only on a large scale, but also in every other case in which the oxalate of pot-ash has hitherto been used.'
Memoir on the Gum contained in the Buls of the Hyacinthus non Scriptus. By M. LEROUX.--In our account of the 39th vol. of these annals, we noticed a letter from M. Degaux to the edi. tors, giving an account of this discovery of M. Leroux.-In the present paper, this gentleman first describes the various processes by which the gum may be extract d. but, as this is essentially performed by, pounding the root, by infusing the pulp in water, by occasionally subjecting it to pressure, and by evaporation, we need not enter into minute particulars. He then states the proportion of the principles of the hyacinth, recently taken out of the earth, to be neariy as follows.
The memoir is concluded by some remarks on the culture of the plant, and the utility of the gum.
Experiments concerning the Analysis and Synthesis of the Alkalis and Earths, announced by M.A1. Guyton and Desormes. By M.
DARRACO-M.M. Guyton and Desor mes having published, in the 3d vol. of the Memoirs of the Institute of France *, an account of some experiments, from which they asserted that the composition and decomposition of the two fixe alkalis and of some of the primitive earths had been effected, M. DARRACO was induced to repeat these experiments; and, having described the mode which he adopted, together with the results, (which certainly appear to be decisive,) he thus concludes.
• If the experiments which I have described in the course of this memoir be exact, and if I have properly observed the phænomena af. forded by them, the result must be that the facts announced by M.M. Guyton and Desormes, although for the greater part correct, do not lead to the conclusions which they have inferred, on account of the nature of the substances employed by ther;—that at least for the present, the alkalis and earths must remain in the class of simple or undecomposed bodies ;-that the experiments of these philosophers do not prove that pot-ash is formed of lime and hydrogen ;--that magnesia and azore produce lime ;--that alumine and azote constitute magnesia ;-and, in short, that magnesia and hydrogen form soda.-- I do not, however, assert that these are simple substances, but only that the facts lately brought forwards are not competent to prove the contrary.'
Observations on the Existence of Phosphorus in Sugar. By M. BOULLAY. This chemist had occasion to prepare sulphureous acid, by distilling a mixture of sulphuric acid and sugar; and he says that he obtained a considerable quantity of phosphorated hydrogen gas. He has vot, however, been able to discover phosphorus, nor any of its combinations, in sugar.
Reply to the Remarks of M. Dartigues, &c. &c. concerning Barytes and Strontites. (See p.522,3.) By M.PAISSE.—This reply evinces that its author persists in his former opinion : but we do not deem it necessary to transcribe the particulars or the paper.
On the Electricity called Galvanism. By M, VOLTA.--This excellent paper contains the author's system of the theory and doctrine of galvanic electricity : but we must refer our readers to the original, because an abridgement of it cannot be brought within the limits necessarily prescribed by the nature of our work.
Memoir on Medicinal Spirituous (alcoholiques ) Tinctures. By M. PARMENTIER. -- Instead of the medicated wines which are sold by the druggists, and which often become spoiled, or which are of unequal qualities, M. PARMENTIER recommends tinctures to be made with diluted alcohol; so that, by the ad. dition of these tinctures to wine, any of the medicated wines
See p. 519. of this Appendix.