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African tribes who occupy the region be done in such a manner that no breach between the Nile and the Red Sea. Some of the peace is committed, and no more of them have penetrated into Upper Egypt, injury be done to the property of another where they earn a subsistence by the trans- than is sufficient to accomplish the object portation of merchandise on their camels. intended. They trade chiefly in senna, and in char- Abattoir. The public slaughter-houses coal made of the acacia wood. Burckhardt are so called in France. Those of Paris regards them as Arabs; Ritter conjectures are the most remarkable. Five of them that they are descended from the people were constructed by a decree of Napoleon, known, under the Roman emperors, as promulgated in 1879; three on the right Blemmyes; but Rüppell is of opinion that bank of the Seine, and two on the left. they are a branch of the ancient Ethio- They are situated without the city, and pian race established at Meroë. In their consist of a spacious area surrounded by a manners and customs, they do not differ high wall. Within the enclosure are stafrom the Bedouins.

bles for the animals destined to be slaughABANDONMENT; a term used in insurance. tered, and apartments for the different Before any demand can be legally made butchers, built of stone, and provided with for the total loss of a ship, or goods with every means to facilitate their operations, which she is freighted, the owner of the and secure a proper degree of cleanliness. ship or goods must abandon or relinquish They pay a small sum for each animal to the insurer all right to any portion of they kill, as a rent for the accommodations the property which may be saved. The which they receive, and to compensate the term is also used in the language of the labour of the subordinate persons employed customs, when the owner of a commodity in the establishment. These payments imported relinquishes it altogether, rather amounted in the aggregate, in 1824, to a than pay the duties imposed upon it. million of francs. It is singular that build

ABANO; a small town not far from Pa- ings of the nature of these abattoirs should, dua, in Italy, noted for its sulphur or mi- hitherto, scarcely have been erected anyneral springs, which were well known to where out of France; and that most peothe Romans, under the names of Aqua ple, even in the largest towns, should reAponi and Aquæ Patavinæ ; and a de- main willing to endure the nnisance of scription of them is given in a letter of numerous private slaughtering yards or Theodoric, the king of the Ostrogoths. sheds, offensive in the highest degree to Remains of ancient baths were discovered both the eye and the smell, and, what is towards the end of the last century. The worse, diffusing pestilence and death waters are the warmest of the kind in Eu- through the midst of their population. rope, their temperature being as high as Abbas Mirza, the second son of Feth 180 or 187 degrees of Fahrenheit's ther- Ali, Shah of Persia, was born in 1785. mometer. When applied to the surface The partiality of his father, together with of the body, either by bathing, or by means his descent from the royal race of the of the mud application or process, they are Khadjars, led to his being, at an early age, said to be efficacious in the cure of rheu-proclaimed heir to the throne, to the prematism, gout, and diseases of the skin. judice of his elder brother, whom he sur

ABATEMENT. To abate a nuisance is to vived. He possessed considerable talents, remove whatever unlawfully annoys one, and agreeable and winning manners, but VOL. XIV.-2

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ABBAS MIRZA-ABD'EL KADER.

was chiefly remarkable for his appreciation on the river Somme. Vessels of from 100 of the advantages of European culture and to 150 tons burthen can come up to the civilization. Being appointed governor of town, where the tide rises 6 or 7 feet. It the province of Azerbijan, on the northern was fortified in the time of Charlemagne, frontier of the kingdom, he endeavoured and in the 17th century was erected into to introduce them there, as far as lay with a fortress of the 4th order by Vauban. The in his knowledge and power, and especial- principal edifice is the Gothíc church of ly, with the assistance of British officers St. Wolfram; and the houses are in genewhom he employed for the purpose, to or- ral well constructed. It contains about ganize and discipline his army after the 19,000 inhabitants. What, however, is European model. These efforts were, ne- most remarkable in Abbeville, is the mavertheless, unavailing. He contended un- nufacture of fine woollen cloths, established successfully against the Russians in the by a Dutchman, of the name of Van Ro wars of 1803 and 1813. By the treaty of bais, in 1665, under the auspices of Colbert. Gulistan, in 1814, in which Russia gua- One English writer remarks, that "the rantied the succession the throne of cloths are little inferior to those of our own Persia to whichsoever native prince should country;" and another speaks of their surbe named by the Shah, he was necessarily passing “even the English.” placed in a certain dependence on the ABD'EL KADER, who, next to Mehemed Russian government. The irksomeness Ali, is unquestionably the most remarkable of his situation, added to his predilection individual in the existing Mohammedan for the English, gradually augmented his world, was born towards the end of the dislike to his northern neighbours, and at year 1806, at the ghetna of his family; a length, through his influence with his fa- seminary for the education of marabouts, ther, produced a renewal of the war with in the vicinity of Mascara, in the territory them in 1826. Misfortunes now ensued of Algiers. His family were of the tribe more rapidly, and to a greater extent, than of Hashem, which traced its descent from in the contests in which Abbas had been the Fatimite caliphs. When eight years previously engaged. The Russians over- of age, he accompanied his father in a pilran the whole of Armenia, and entered grimage to Mecca; whence he acquired Tabriz itself, the prince's residence. And the title of El Hadji

, the pilgrim. On it was only by great sacrifices that a peace returning from this journey, he completed could be purchased from them by the Per- his education at the school of Fez, in sians, at Turkmanshai, February 27th Morocco, by the study of the Koran, and of 1828. On the massacre of the Russian Arabian literature and science. He visitambassador and suite by the fanatical po- ed Egypt in 1827; where, at Alexandria pulace of the capital, Teheran, in the fol- and Cairo, he observed the civilization of lowing year, Abbas was sent by the Shah Europe, at least in so far as it had found to Petersburg, to deprecate the wrath of its way into that country under the austhe Russian government, as well as pices of its ruler. His exterior is dignified serve as a hostage for the good faith of his and prepossessing; his disposition humane; father. He was favourably received by and his habits correct, and exempt from the emperor; and having accomplished the the sensuality which very generally chaobject of his mission, he returned home, racterizes the Arab race. Adhering most content to live in peace with Russia, till zealously to his religious faith, and perhis death in 1833.—Abbas Mirza, it may fectly understanding how to avail himself be mentioned, had the singular honour of the fanaticism of his followers, he yet conferred upon him of being elected a partakes not of their intolerance. He has member of the Asiatic Society at Calcutta, always governed the tribes which acknowas a reward for the enlightened views and ledged him as their chief, with a gentle thirst for knowledge which he exhibited sceptre; and many traits are recorded of on all occasions, and also, perhaps, for his his magnanimity to his foes. His public leaning towards the English. Be this last, life began with the conquest of Algiers by however, as it may, the reply which he the French, in 1830. Î'he Arab tribes of returned to the letter, accompanying the the province of Oran then at once seized diploma transmitted to him, would in itself upon the opportunity afforded them of bego far to justify his election, viz., " that coming independent. Abd'el Kader's father the acquisition of a province would have appeared at their head, and overpowered afforded him a less gratification.” the Turkish troops which still occupied

ABBEVILLE; a considerable town in the the capital. The inhabitants offered the department of the Somme, in France, and chief authority over them to their deliverer. situated in a pleasant and fertile valley, The latter, however, declined the offer in

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favour of his son ; who was, accordingly, | Kader's power. But these successes reinvested with the office and dignity of an sulted merely in the partial destruction of emir. Shortly afterwards, the neighbour- that town, and the subsequent retreat of ing tribes acknowledged him as their chief; the Marshal: Abdel Kader resumed the and from his residence, or head quarters, occupation of all the ground which he had at Mascara, he contrived to extend his in- lost. In the military operations that enfluence still more and more widely. sued, the French were almost uniformly

The only important undertaking of Abd' the victors; seldom, however, obtaining el Kader, for a time, was an unsuccessful any advantages beyond the possession of attack, on the 3d and 4th of May 1832, on the field of battle. At length, a body of the French, who, since the events just 3000 men, under General d'Arlanges, after mentioned, had occupied the town of Oran. having fought successfully in a previous There followed then a state of more or less engagement, was defeated by the Arabian active warfare between the parties, with- chief, on the Tafna, on the 25th of April out any permanent advantage of moment 1836, and would probably have been enbeing gained by either; until, at length, tirely cut off, but for the timely arrival of wearied by such fruitless hostilities, a treaty an additional force of 4000 men, under was concluded between them, known, from General Bugeaud. On the 6th of July, of the name of the French general command- the same year, the last-mentioned general ing in Oran, as the treaty Desmichels. inflicted a severe defeat on the enemy on It was soon apparent that the advantages the Sikak. The war now began to lanof this treaty were principally reaped by guish; and when it became desirable for the Arabian emir. He acquired an oppor- the French, on undertaking the expedition tunity of triumphing over his enemies against Constantine, to concentrate as large among his own countrymen, and of extend- a force as possible in a different direction, ing and confirming his power; an oppor- a treaty of peace was once more concluded tunity of which he profited to the utmost between them and Abdel Kader, who by his untiring activity. The discipline, consented to acknowledge the sovereignty too, of his troops was improved, by the aid of France. This took place on the 30th of European renegades. And the confi- of May 1837. Abdel Kader, however, dence which had been diffused in the re- lost no time in making every preparation sources and ability of the emir was evinced, in his power for a renewal of the contest by the title of sultan being now conferred at a future period. He continued to upon him by every city and tribe in the strengthen the position of Tekedemt,which, provinces of Oran and fittery. At length, after the destruction of Mascara, he had the French government, become aware of chosen for his residence, and which he had the mistake which had been committed in made the seat of a manufacture of arms, allowing Abd' el Kader leisure to strength and the depôt of his military stores; he en himself, appointed General Trézel to sought by every means to renew the consucceed General Desmichels in his com- fidence of his followers in himself and his mand, doubtless with such instructions to fortunes, as well as to enlist in his support direct his conduct as could scarcely fail to the Bedouins of the Sahara; he organized lead to a renewal of hostilities. Such, at anew his subject territory, delegating to any rate, was the course adopted by the others many of the details of administranew commander, and such were the con- tion, on which he had hitherto bestowed sequences which ensued. A French force his personal attention; he endeavoured, by penetrated into the enemy's territory, as the instrumentality of some deserters from far as the river Macta,-only, after having the French army, to form an efficient body to maintain a sanguinary conflict, to make of regular troops; and he obtained ammua disastrous retreat upon the point from nition and arms from the French themwhich it had advanced.

selves, by the trade which had been opened So great was the moral effect of the re- to him by the late treaty, and especially sult of this expedition on the minds of the from English merchants, through Morocco, Arabs, in favour of Abd' el Kader, that it with whose ruler he always maintained was judged necessary, in November 1835, the best understanding. The better to for Marshal Clausel, the commander-in- deceive the French government as to his chief of the French army in Algiers, to real designs, besides maintaining, by means march himself, with a strong corps of troops, of his agents, an occasional intercourse against this formidable enemy of his coun- with their officers in Algiers and Oran, he trymen. He triumphed over the Arabs, sent an ambassador to Paris in the summer after an obstinate resistance, gaining pos- of 1838. When his preparations were session of Mascara, the centre of Abd el completed, and circumstances, in other re

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ABD' EL KADER-ABEL.

spects, seemed to be propitious, he renewed | one or two papers on mathematical subjects, the war, on the alleged ground of the ex- which brought him into notice, and, aided isting treaty having been violated by the by the earnest recommendations of the proexpedition undertaken, in October, 1839, fessors, obtained for him the patronage of from Constantine, by Marshal Vallée, ac- the government. An annual allowance of companied by the Duke of Orleans. Much 600 dollars (thalers) was bestowed upon hard tighting occurred in the following him, that he might travel for his improveyear, without any important results. But, ment. He accordingly visited Berlin, Viin February 1841, General Bugeaud as- enna, and Paris. His efforts, during the sumed the command of the French forces stay which he made in the last-mentioned in Africa, in the room of Marshal Vallée. city, to induce the men of science to proThe contest at once assumed a decisive mote the publication of some memoirs character. Blow after blow was inflicted which he had prepared, were unavailing; upon Abdel Kader, and he was soon re- and he returned, in no slight degree disduced to extremities. His principal strong-couraged, to Berlin. Here, however, he holds fell into the hands of the enemy. was so fortunate as to meet with precisely The various tribes, which he had repeat- such a patron as he now wanted. Mr. edly led to battle, now, for the most part, Crelle, himself highly distinguished as a abandoned his cause as hopeless, and ac- man of science, and thoroughly qualified knowledged their subjection to the king of to judge in the case, did not hesitate, on the French. After the loss of Tlemecen perusing the papers submitted to him by and the fort of Tafrua, in the beginning of the young Norwegian, to pronounce their 1842, and the almost entire destruction of author to be entitled to take rank among his regular troops, he was under the ne- the first of living mathematicians. He cessity of seeking refuge on the territory engaged, moreover, to publish those papers of Morocco. His own tribe of Hashem, in the “ Journal for the Pure and Applied with a few others, continued faithful to Mathematics," which he at once resolved him to the close of the contest, and have upon editing. This journal, too, with the since evinced a disposition to renew it at "Astronomical News” (Nachrichten) of every fitting opportunity. Abdel Kader Mr. Schumacher, became the principal has, in fact, repeatedly returned to give mediums for the communication of Abel's serious annoyance to the foreign occupiers future labours to the scientific world. On of his country, and has latterly become his return to Christiania, Abel was appointagain sufficiently formidable to call for ex-ed to supply the place of Professor Hantraordinary measures on the part of the steen in the university and the school of French government to accomplish his de- engineers, during the absence of that genstruction.

tleman on a journey to Siberia. He now ABDUCTION is the carrying off, by force applied himself with the most indefatigable or fraud, of the person of a child, ward, ardour to the performance of the duties asheiress, wife or other woman. In the four signed him, and to the investigations in first-mentioned cases, the law infers that which he was engaged. But his bodily force or fraud has been practised, although, constitution was too feeble a support for å in reality, persuasion only has been used. spirit like his. His health soon began to The abduction of females, especially heir- decline; and he expired on the 6th of esses, was a crime, according to Sir Wal- April 1829, in the 27th year of his age. ter Scott, of frequent occurrence in the Young as he was, his merits were already Highlands of Scotland; and it is even now everywhere acknowledged; and from no not seldom committed in Ireland, although, quarter had his praises been more genein aggravated cases, visited by the severest rously and loudly uttered, than from that penalties of the law.

to which, a few years previously, he had ABEL (Nicholas Henry), one of the most looked for encouragement, and been disacute mathematicians of the present age, appointed. The first mathematicians of was born August 5th 1802, at Findoe, in France had united in a testimonial to the the diocese of Christiansand, in Norway. government of his own country in his beAfter receiving the elements of instruction half; and, although the office which he from his father, who was the clergyman held in the university at Christiania was of that place, he was sent to the cathedral merely a temporary one, there can be no school of Christiania, where his genius for doubt that, had he lived, he would have mathematics was called forth by the solu- been appointed to the first vacancy in that tion of geometrical and algebraical pro- institution. As an evidence of the fame blems. While still at the university, which he had acquired, it may be menwhich he entered in 1821, he published | tioned that, a few days after his death, an

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invitation arrived from the King of Prus- ABEYANCE. When a freehold or inhesia, in a high degree honourable to Abel, ritance is not vested in any one, but is for him to remove his residence to Berlin. ready to descend upon or vest in the per

His works have been published, in the sons who shall first fulfil the conditions French language, in two volumes 4to, at required by the nature of the estate, such the expense of the King of Sweden. The freehold or inheritance is said to be in most important portions of them are his abeyance. Thus, if lands be leased to one paper on the impossibility of a general so person for life, with reversion to another lution of equations of the 5th degree, and for years, the remainder for years is in those relating to elliptic functions. abeyance till the death of the lessee. Ti

ABERDEEN.* Few places in Great Britain tles of honour, as well as the rights and have so much improved, during the present privileges attached to them, may also be century, as New Aberdeen. Many new in abeyance; as, for example, the peerage streets, with substantial and even elegant in England, where the persons next in inhouses, have been formed; several beauti- heritance to the last possessor are females. ful bridges have been constructed; its ma- ABIAD (BAHR EL). See Nile. nufactures and commerce in a remarkable ABJURATION* signifies any solemn rodegree extended; and its harbour deep- cantation of opinions, especially of opinions ened, by lengthening the pier originally connected more or less closely with relibuilt by Smeaton in 1780. The cotton gion. Of this nature, for example, is the manufacture now employs upwards of 3000 renunciation required, on the marriage of persons; the linen 4000. There are ma- the Emperor of Russia, from his consort, nufactories of woollens; iron works of va- of her former religious persuasion, in farious descriptions; distilleries and brew-vour of the tenets of the Greek church. eries. The products of these different Such, too, was the renunciation of his Proestablishments, together with salmon, kept testantism by Henry IV. of France, in fresh by being preserved in ice, and gra- 1593, as a condition requisite to obtain the nite, for building and paving purposes, acknowledgment of his sovereignty by his constitute the chief exports. A new edi- Roman Catholic subjects; as well as that fice has been erected for Marischal College, which was exacted by the Inquisition at and the numbers of the students attending Rome, in the following century, from Gathe courses in it and King's College, in lileo, of his doctrines concerning the moOld Aberdeen, have been considerably in- tion of the earth. When abjuration of the creased. In the session of 1837–38, we realm is mentioned by English writers, find them stated to have amounted to about what is meant is the taking of an oath, 700. The population of the Old and New permitted by the ancient common law to Town together was, in 1841, about 62,000. any felon who has not been guilty of sacri

ABERDEEN (Lord).* To what has been lege, and who has fled to a parish church already stated concerning this nobleman, or churchyard for sanctuary, to renounce in a previous volume of the present work, and depart the realm for ever. For oaths we may add that he was appointed Secre- of abjuration in England created by statary of State for Foreign Affairs in 1828, tute, see Abjuration. In the United States under the Duke of Wellington's ministry. we also have an oath or oaths of abjuration. Directed by him, a reaction then took place Every alien, on becoming a citizen, is rein the foreign policy of Great Britain. The quired to abjure all allegiance and fidelity battle of Navarino was disapproved of, and to any government of which he was before declared to be “an untoward event;" and a citizen or subject. And if the alien shall British diplomacy was employed in nego- have borne any hereditary title, or belonged tiating in the interest of Don Miguel, by to any order of nobility, in the country from the very individual who, but a short time which he came, he must also make an exbefore, had applied to the Portuguese press renunciation of such title or order of prince in Parliament the harshest epithets. nobility. Lord Aberdeen quitted office, with the ABLUTION; a religious ceremony, conDuke of Wellington, in November 1830; sisting in washing of the body, either became a member of the cabinet again, as wholly or partially. Ablutions, or lustraSecretary of the Colonies, during the short- tions, as they are also styled, were prelived tory administration, from November scribed in the Mosaic law, on various oc11th 1834 to April 8th 1835; and was casions; sometimes to the priests, and at once more placed in charge of the foreign other times to the people of Israel genedepartment, on the accession of Mr. Peel rally. The superstitious attachment to and his friends to power, in 1841. them of the Hindoos, at the present day, ABETTOR. See Accessary.

is well known, as well as their peculiar

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