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ceptions, and both form a vivid contrast with the scheme of Christianity. This deals with the world and its interests from the point of view of the realization of the purpose which they serve. It is part of the finality of the Christian scheme, already noticed, that this should be so. It does look forward to a time when the world's day will be over: and this belief enables it to estimate things at their true value. It affirms that the narrow area and limited interests of human life are of vital importance. Nothing is too small to be the object of the infinite concern of God. But it does not matter so much which way this or that question of human policy is settled, as on what motives this or that human agent made his decision. Thus there is revealed behind the play of physical forces, which is so impressive to the philosopher, a moral battle of which the physical world is merely the scene. Human ends have a human importance, but there is an infinite value in human selves. Small things become great, and great things become small, in proportion as they are fit for the revelation of human character.1
If our analysis has been correct, it will be clear that the determining difference between human speculation and revelation lies in its relation to human life. It does not enter suddenly and claim to revolutionize all men's opinions. Rather it comes in naturally, and blends
1 Cf. Hutchison Stirling, Gifford Lectures, p. 78.-"Undulations there are, doubtless, that are light to us: but no undulation will give light to them, the globes. Vibrations there are, doubtless, where there air, that are sound to us; but all vibrations are as the dead to them. It is in a cave, in a den, blacker than the blackest night, soundless and more silent than the void of voids, that all those intermingling motions of the globes go on--but for us, that is; but for an eye, and an ear, and a soul behind them!" If this be true of the speculative intellect, it is more profoundly true still of the moral life of man.
easily with the general order. And its proper range of action is to be found in the moral life. It gives a new meaning to moral activity in relation to that new knowledge which it conveys.
We started by affirming the presence of two factors in religion, a moral and a metaphysical. We have treated them, and the religions of which they are severally characteristic, practically as on an equality. Our last point, however, enables us to strike the balance between them. It now becomes plain how deeply true it is that the Jewish religion was a revealed one. We do not deny that the Jews were conscious of the same feelings as those which led to the mythological developments of pagan religions. We do not deny that the Jewish religion took up and embodied many elements which are found in pagan religions too. But if the Incarnation be true, as we have here assumed, it was the Jews' moral conception of God which in the truest sense prepared for it: it was the Jewish religion which, in the character of its inspiration and the closeness of its relationship, is most truly continuous with Christianity.
The lists of books appended to this and the following chapters make no claim to be exhaustive. They are simply intended to indicate the sources from which the author has drawn, and to act as a guide to any readers who may care to pursue the subjects further. They represent, in many cases, opinions which the author does not share.
For the Anthropology see the following :—
Lang, Myth, Ritual, and Religion. Tylor, Primitive Cul
H. Spencer, Principles of Sociology, vol. i. Robertson
Smith, The Religion of the Semites. O. Gruppe, Die Griechischen Culte und Mythen in ihren Beziehungen zu den orientalischen Religionen.
For the Proofs of the Existence of God:
In general: Kant, Critique of Pure Reason; Transcendental Dialectic, Bk. ii. ch. iii.; cf. also E. Caird, Kant's Critical Philosophy, Bk. i. ch. xiii. ; ii. ch. v. J. Caird, Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion, ch. v. Hegel, Ueber die Beweise vom Daseyn Gottes. Werke, Bd. xii. Flint, Theism. Stirling, Gifford Lectures.
The Cosmological Proof.-Aristotle, Metaphysics, Bk. xii. (A.) ch. vii. S. Aug., Sermo, 197. S. Thom. Aq., Summa Theol., Pt. I, Quæst. ii. Art. iii. c. xiii. Leibniz, Monadologie, 36-41.
Summa Cont. Gent. Lib. i.
The Teleological Proof.-Xenophon, Memorabilia, Bk. i. ch. iv.; cf. Plato, Phaedo, 97 c-99 D. S. Thom. Aq., Summa, as cited above. Paley, Natural Theology (cf. Temple, Bampton Lectures). Von Hartmann, Wahrheit und Irrthum im Darwinismus. Moore, Science and the Faith, pp. 186-200. Martineau, Study of Religion, vol. i. pp. 270-398.
The Ontological Proof.-S. Anselm, Proslogium, ch. i.-iii. (cf. S. Aug., De Trin., Bk. viii. ch. iii.); Descartes, Meditations, iii.; Spinoza, Eth., Bk. i. Def. 2. Leibniz, Nouveaux Essais, Bk. iv. ch. ix. Steere, Existence and Attributes of God, Bk. i. pt. iii. ch. iii.
The Proof from Conscience.-Raymundus Sebundensis, Theologia Naturalis, Tit. lxxxiii. Kant, Critique of Practical Reason, Bk. ii. sect. ii. ch. v.-viii. Martineau, Study of Religion, Bk. ii. ch. ii. § 3.
THE HISTORICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE INCARNATION
We have spent much labour in tracing the coherence of the doctrine of the Incarnation of our Lord with the religious aspirations of previous systems. In order to do this with the requisite detail, it was necessary to anticipate in some measure the subject of the present chapter. We must now turn to inquire more definitely what is the historical evidence for the truth of the fact which for the purposes of the last chapter we assumed to be true.
I. The first stage in this inquiry will, of course, take us to the Gospels. We shall ask, What account do they give or suggest to us of the nature of our Lord? In discussing this question, it will be impossible to enter upon a subject which is, properly speaking, preliminary to it, viz. the authenticity of the Gospels themselves. For this is a matter requiring much special knowledge, and far too technical to be undertaken in passing. References will be given at the end of the chapter to works dealing specially with the point; but for our present purpose their general historical authority must be taken for granted.
It will not be disputed by any one that the Gospels
represent our Lord as human. Quite directly and simply they ascribe to Him definitely human characteristics. He was born of a human mother, under miraculous conditions, but still in the ordinary human way. He grew up to manhood with gradually-developing human powers, and was subject to His mother, like other human children; and, while He refused to allow her to govern in any way at all His course of action during His ministry, He still recognized her claims when hanging upon the Cross. Of the years which intervened between His birth and His showing forth to Israel but little is told us. When, however, the story is resumed, we find Him sharing our human conditions physically and morally. He is tempted, though without sin (S. Matt. iv. 1-11; S. Mark i. 12, 13; S. Luke iv. 1-13); and in one passage in S. Luke (xxii. 28) He describes His whole ministry as being in some sense temptation. 'Ye are they,' He says to His Disciples, 'who have continued with Me in My temptations’(ἐν τοῖς πειρασμοῖς μοῦ). He is capable of emotion, even of violent emotion. He wonders at the unbelief of the Nazarenes (S. Mark vi. 6), at the faith of the centurion (S. Luke vii. 9). He feels compassion on the multitude (S. Matt. xiv. 14; S. Mark viii. 2), upon the widow of Nain (S. Luke vii. 13). He rejoiced in the Holy Spirit (S. Luke x. 21). He wept over Jerusalem (S. Luke xix. 41), and at the grave of Lazarus (S. John xi. 35). He was wroth (S. Mark viii. 12, x. 14). He passed through a strong emotional struggle at the visit of the Greeks (S. John xii. 24), and at the agony in the garden (S. Matt. xxvi. 28; S. Mark xiv. 32; S. Luke xxii. 43, 44). Also He suffered weariness (S. Matt. viii. 24; S. Mark iv. 38; S. Luke viii. 22; S. John iv. 6), and hunger (S. Matt. iv. 2, xxi. 18; S. Mark xi. 12;