Imatges de pÓgina
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18 59

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Entered, according to the Act of Congress in the year 1831, by

CAREY AND LEA, In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

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ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

Indrction, in logic; a conclusion from treasure for the church, of which the the particular to the general. Strict con- pope has the keys, and is autnorized to clusions are made from the general to distribute as much or little as he pleases. the particular. The general premise be- in exchange for pious gifts. The historing true, the application to the particular ical origin of indulgences is traced to the case which is included in it follows with public penances and the canonical punlogical certainty. Induction gives only ishments, which the old Christian church probability. If, for instance, we conclude, imposed on the community, especially from the earth being habitable, that the on those who did not remain firm unto other planets are so, the conclusion is martyrdom. When ecclesiastic discipline only probable. Induction rests upon the became milder, and the clergy inore covbelief that general laws and rules are ex- etous, it was allowed to commute these pressed in the particular case ; but a pos- punishments into fines, for the benefit of sibility always remains, that these general the church. At first, the only source of laws and rules are not perfectly known. indulgences was in Rome, and they could An induction may be perfect or imperfect. be obtained only by going there. At To make it perfect, the premises must in- Rome, this treasure of the church was diclude all the grounds that can affect the vided among many churches, which result. If this is not the case, it is imper- seven principal ones were gifted the most fect. For instance, every terrestrial ani- largely by the popes. These churches mal lives, every aërial animal lives, every were termed stationes indulgentiarum. aquatic animal lives, every reptile lives; One of the richest was the church in the therefore, every animal lives. If we now Lateran, on which were bestowed, at its allow that there exists no animal not in- renewed consecration, as many days of included in the four enumerated classes, the dulgence as the drops which fall in a rain induction is perfect.

continuing three days and three nights. INDULGENCE, in the Roman Catholic The whole treasıre of indulgences of the system ; the remission of sin, which the churches in Rome was accordingly inexchurch has power to grant. (We shall haustible. When the popes were in want first give the Protestant, and then the of money, and the number of pilgrims Catholic views on this subject.) The vis- who resorted to Rome to obtain the reible hend of the church, the pope, distrib- mission of their sins began to decrease, utes indulgences in various ways. They indulgences were put into the hands of are divided into temporary and plenary. the foreign archbishops and bishops; and, The principle of indulgences rests on that finally, agents were sent about, who made of good works; for the Catholic theologi- them an object of the meanest traffic, ans prove the authority of the church to During the period of jubilee (see Jubilee), issue indulgences in this way :--many the people were taught to believe that the saints and pious then have done more efficacy of indulgences was doubled, and good works, and suffered more than was the richest harvests were always reaped a: required for the remission of their sins, this time. Leo X, famous for his love or and the sum of this surplus constitutes a splendor, commenced his reight -1513:

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