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country where they live; that they may be tender of both, and able to defend both. They should know how to state the bounds of their own authority, and of the rights of the people; that while with firmness they assert the former, they may not infringe on the latter. Wisdom is necessary to direct them in all that variety of business, to which their stations call them; which variety I cannot now further consider.
Religion is the other qualification which I mentioned, as necessary to the character of a good ruler. He must be a man of religion, who discharges the duties of a magistrate with fidelity. By a man of religion, I mean one that is a true fearer of God, one that is in a good measure sanctified by his grace, formed to the temper recommended by the gospel of Christ, and sincerely endeavors to act up to those rules of piety and virtue, which are therein prescribed.
Piety towards God is the only basis, on which a proper conduct towards men, can stand firm and steady against those blasts of temptation, to which all men are exposed; and which beat on those that are in elevated stations, with peculiar violence, as storms do on a house that stands on an eminence. "He that fears not God, will not regard man," will not regard him with that tender concern for his prosperity, and that sincere endeavor to promote it, which the laws of religion require. True patriotism (for such a thing no doubt there is, though many may be strangers to it, who are fond of the name) hath its foundation in religion. A vicious man hath no settled principle of action. He is ruled by selfish passions. To gratify these, he will sacrifice his conscience; he will trample on law, when he can do it with impunity; be will betray his friends; he will sell his country; having first "sold himself to work" all these kinds of "wickedness."
Directly the reverse of this, is the tendency of religion, when it is pure and undefiled. It regulates the passions; it enlarges the mind; it fills it with noble, and benevolent designs; it leads men to enterprise great things for the public good; it drives away the mists of prejudice and temptation, which are so apt to obscure the path of duty; it inspires a noble fortitude and resolution to pursue the end of government, though it should lead through a scene of painful opposition; though the best intentions should be misconstrued, and the most important services go unrewarded.
Now those that are concerned in promoting men to public stations, are bound to have great regard to their virtue and religion. For "the God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me-He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God." 2 Sam. xxiii. 3. King David determined to act on this principle in calling men to office under him. "Mine eyes shall be upon the faithful in the land: He that walketh in a perfect way, he shall serve me." Ps. ci. 6.
God, who is the judge, and who never errs in judgment, hath plainly intimated the necessity of the two leading qualifications for rulers, which I have mentioned-and not barely mentioned, but a little enlarged upon, as this head of discourse hath a particular aspect on the public transactions of this day. And are you not under the most solemn obligations to regard the will of God in promoting men? When you do so, you are workers together with him in the matter: When you do not, you set yourselves in opposition to him; and if he suffers you to succeed, it will no doubt be in judgment to you, and to the land.
Fifthly. This subject instructs those who are advanced to places of power and trust, how they should behave, and presses fidelity on them by the most serious motives. They are to consider themselves as promoted by God, and accountable to him for their conduct in public life. God is the judge: He putteth down one, and setteth up another.
Rulers ought always to look on their authority as derived to them. They are not originally possessed of any. This consideration should make them humble. It should give a check to a proud and haughty spirit; if, at any time, they find such an one ready to prevail. It should guard them against an overbearing tyrannical behavior. They should frequently make the reflection of the apostle; What have we that we did not receive? And if we received it, why do we boast?
They should consider their authority also as limited by the Author of it; and that, both as to degree and continuance. God putteth down, as well as raiseth up. The triumphing of wicked rulers, who abuse their power in ways of pride and oppression, is generally short. To one of this character, the remark of the ancient sage concerning a hypocrite may be applied; "Though his excellency mount up to the heavens, and his head reach unto the clouds, yet he shall perish for ever:-They that have seen him, shall say, Where is he?" Job xx. 6, 7. When a virtuous people are oppressed, they may carry their complaints to God, in humble confidence, that he will not long "suffer the rod of the wicked to rest on the lot of the righteous." Ps. cxxv. 3.
The consideration that their promotion cometh from God, should make rulers careful to improve it in a way, the most agreeable to his will, that they can. They do this, when they faithfully pursue the ends of government; when they studiously imitate the supreme Ruler of the universe, "the sceptre of whose kingdom is a right sceptre." Legislators do this, when they are solicitous that all the laws they enact, be just and good, correspondent to those of the supreme Lawgiver. And those that execute the laws, when they act in their offices with steadiness and impartiality, that they may be a terror to evil-doers, and a
praise to them that do well. All those who are vested with authority do this, when they have a tender concern for the rights and privileges of the people, and endeavor to preserve them entire and inviolate-when they feel for them under all their burdens; and "in all their afflictions are afflicted"-when they construe their conduct into the most favorable sense it will bear-when they are ready to pass by, and excuse as many faults and offences as will consist with the regular support of government-when they are willing to lose something of the severity of the magistrate, in the tenderness of a father-In a word; when in their administration, "mercy and truth meet together, righteousness and peace kiss each other." Psalm lxxxv. 10.
Rulers should use their influence in an especial manner to promote religion. This they should do, not only by rewarding virtue, and punishing vice; but by what is often more influential, their own pious and good example. People in the lower classes in life, have a peculiar fondness to imitate those that are in stations of eminence and dignity. This would operate for the general good, were "great men always wise," virtuous, and circumspect, in their conversation. The morals of a people are greatly affected by those of their rulers. Religion flourished or declined in Israel very much according to the disposition and practice of their kings. Solomon observed, that "if a ruler hearken to lies, all his servants are wicked." Prov. xxix. 12. Vices receive a currency from the example of princes, as money doth, from their image and superscription. If magistrates are eminently pious and good, they are lights in the world, which, shining before others, induce them to "glorify our Father who is in heaven," by a correspondent practice of piety and goodness. But if they are vicious, they are like baleful comets, that spread plagues and desolations through a land, by their malignant influences.
God is the judge, says our text. Rulers should always consider him in that character. To him they are accountable for their conduct. I say not indeed that they are not, in some sense, accountable to men. The power of government is by God, the original source of it, lodged in the people. By them it is delegated, under divine Providence, to certain of their brethren, to be improved for the common good. When therefore they prostitute it to oppress and enslave, in direct contradiction to the ends of government; the people have a right to call them to account, and to take out of their hands the power which they have so abused.
But they are especially to consider themselves as accountable to God. They should remember that he now acts the part of a judge, so far as by his impartial eye to survey all their counsels, designs, and actions. They should consider him as always present
with them; and that their most secret purposes and schemes, are "naked and opened to the eyes of Him, with whom they have to do;" (Heb. iv. 13.) whose "eyes are as a flame of fire ;" (Rev. i. 14.) and that this "righteous Lord loveth righteousness, and his countenance approveth the upright." Ps. xi. 7.
A solemn sense of God in this tremendous character, cultivated in the minds of rulers, would banish a thousand temptations to venality and corruption. It would lead them to a humble review of their past behavior, that the errors of it may be repented of, and similar ones avoided, for time to come. It would make them afraid to indulge to any selfish and sinister designs, which militate against the public welfare, though they were sure to conceal them from the eye of men. The fear of God would check the fear of man, and prevent its prevailing on them, so as to ensnare them. They would not fear losing their places, by faithfulness in discharging the duties of them. They would consider, it is the favor of God that makes their mountain stand strong; that their times are in his hands; the date of their political, as well as natural life.
Rulers should look forward to that approaching day, when they must appear before God's august tribunal, and give account of all the talents he hath committed to them. They should endeavor to bring that day near in their meditations. It is apt to appear more distant than it really is, and so lessens to the eye of the mind, as objects do by their distance to that of the body. The word of revelation assures us, that "it is appointed for all once to die, and that after death is the judgment;" (Heb. ix. 27.) and that "every one shall give account of himself to God," (Rom. xiv. 12.) who is no respecter of persons; but will render to every one according to his deeds. It is an invariable rule, according to which God will proceed in the judgment, "that unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall much be required." Luke xii. 48. Rulers have much committed to them; unfaithfulness in the use of it, will render their guilt very great, and their doom very dreadful. If they are now conscious of being habitually and allowedly unfaithful, they may well tremble, as a wicked governor once did, upon hearing of a judgment to come.
But a prospect happily different from this—a prospect as bright and glorious as this is dark and gloomy, opens upon that ruler, who cultivates in his heart the principles of undissembled piety and virtue, and forms his conduct upon them; whose governing aim is to comply with the will of God in all things, and to secure his approbation. He can look forward to that important day, in which God will judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, with calmness and comfort. He then shall receive the plaudit of his Judge, before assembled worlds of angels and men-" Well done, good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful in a few things; I will
make thee ruler over many things; enter thou into the joy of thy Lord!" Matt. xxv. 21.
Finally. Our subject suggests the duty of a people to their rulers. Rulers and subjects are correlate terms; they cannot subsist separately. If God sets some in the place of rulers, and invests them with a power to govern, he certainly appoints others to the place of subjects, and makes it their duty to submit to government. People are bound to regard the will and agency of God in clothing persons with civil authority. When they do so, they will obey "not only for wrath, but also for conscience' sake;" (Rom. xiii. 5.) and treat them according to the nature and design of their offices, and their fidelity in the discharge of them.
It is incumbent on a people cheerfully to support civil government. This is not to be viewed as the part of charity and generosity, but of justice. The support of those, who employ their time and talents to serve the public, should be made easy and honorable. Those who diligently attend to the duties of their stations, have care, labor and anxiety enough: People should not increase these, by withholding from them an adequate reward for their services. This would tend to dishearten them, and to weaken their efforts for the public good.
A respectful treatment of their rulers is also the duty of a people. It is an apostolical injunction, that we "render honor to whom honor is due." Rom. xiii. 7. It is due to those, who are
raised to important seats of government. We should pray for them. We should treat their persons with veneration and esteem. We should speak of them, and to them, in decent and respectful language. To act contrary to this, is to weaken the springs of government, and to encourage those to "speak evil of dignities," who are already too much inclined to do it. "It is written, thou shalt not speak evil of the ruler of thy people." Acts xxiii. 5.
A people are in duty bound to submit to their political fathers, in every thing lawful. If they refuse this, they frustrate the design of God and men, in clothing them with this character; and government is at an end. Submission is enjoined on a people, by several of the inspired writers. The passages in which it is so, have been often quoted, on occasions similar to the present, and are I trust too well known to need repeating at large. Rom. xiii. 1-7. They have by some been made to prove too much. They are no doubt to be understood with some limitation. "He is the minister of God to thee for good," says St. Paul, of the civil magistrate. This implies, that so far as he pursues the end for which God placed him in office, he is to be obeyed. Nor should small instances, in which we imagine he fails of this, be looked upon sufficient ground for refusing submission. These may arise rather from human frailty, than any settled disposition in him to