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Whatever other men's sentiments might be, these | The VII. From the captivity to the birth of Christ. And things I thought in some measure essential, and at this The VIII. From the birth of Christ to the completion time more especially, extremely necessary in an history of the canon of the New Testament of the Bible; and to encourage my pursuit of this Each of these books I purpose to divide into several method, I have several helps and assistances which those chapters, and each chapter into three parts. The number who went before me were not perhaps so well accommo- of chapters will vary, according as the matter in each dated with.

period arises, but the parts in each chapter will be conThe foundation of a lecture by the honourable Mr stantly the same, namely. Boyle has given occasion for the principles of natural Ist, A Narrative Part, which, in plain and easy dicand revealed religion to be fairly stated and the objec- tion, will contain the substance of the Scripture-history tions and cavils of infidelity of all kinds to be fully for such a determinate time. answered. The institution of another by the Lady Moyer 2dly, An Argumentative Part, which will contain an has furnished us with several tracts, wherein the great answer to such objections as may possibly be made articles of our Christian faith are strenuously vindicated, against any passage in the history comprised in that and, as far as the nature of mysteries will allow, accur- time. And, a'ely explained.

3dly, A Philological Part, which will contain the The uncommon licence which of late years has been sentiments of the learned, both ancient and modern, taken to decry all prophecies and miracles, and to ex- concerning such remarkable events or transactions as pose several portions of scripture as absurd and ridicu- shall happen in that time ; or perhaps a summary account lous, has raised up some learned men, (God grant that of what is most considerable in profane history, towards the number of them may every day increase,) to contend the conclusion of each period. earnestly for the faith, and, by the help of eritical know- That the reader may perceive how I gradually adledge in ancient customs and sacred languages, to vance in the sacred history, and by turning to his Bible, rescue from their hands such texts and passages as the may compare the narrative with the text, and find a prowicked and unstable were endeavouring to wrest, to the per solution to any difficulty that shall occur in the perversion of other men's faith, as well as their own de- course of his reading, I shall at the top of the page of struction. The commentaries and annotations we have each section, set down the book and chapter, or chapters, upon the scriptures, both from our own countrymen, and I have then under consideration, and the date of the from foreigners, have, of late years, been very solid and year, both from the creation, and before and after the elaborate, the dissertations or particular treatises on coming of Christ, wherein each reinarkable event hapthe most remarkable facts and events, extremely learned pened. And that all things may be made as easy as and judicious ; the harmonists, or writers, who endea- possible to the reader, I shall take care not to trouble vour to reconcile seeming contradictions, very accurate him with any exotic words in the text ; but where there and inquisite ; such as have wrote in an analytical way, is occasion to insert any Hebrew expressions, for his clear and perspicuous enough, and to pass by several sake, I shall choose to do it in English characters, and others, sacred geography has been fully handled by the to reduce every thing that I conceive may be above his great Bochart, sacred chronology sufficiently ascertained capacity, to the notes and quotations at the bottom of by our renowned Usher: and the chasm in the sacred the page. story abundantly supplied by our learned Prideaux ; so The notes, besides the common references, will be that there are no materials wanting to furnish out a new only of four kinds. and complete history of the Bible even according to the 1st, Additional, when a passage is borrowed from any compass and extent of my scheme. That therefore the other author, whether foreign or domestic, to confirm or reader may be apprized of the method I propose to my- illustrate the matter we are then upon. self, and what he may reasonably expect from me, I 2dly, Explanatory, when by producing the right sigmust desire him to observe, that, according to several nification of the original, or inquiring into some ancient periods of time, from the creation of the world to the custom, and the like, we make the passage under confull establishment of Christianity, my design is to divide sideration more intelligible. the whole work into eight books. Whereof

3dly, Reconciliatory; when, by the help of a parallel The I. Will extend fronı the creation to the deluge. place, or some logical distinction, we show the consisThe II. From the deluge to the call of Abraham. tency of two or more passages in Scripture, which, at The III. From the call of Abraham to the departure of first view, seem to be contradictory. the Israelites out of Egypt.

4thly, What we call Emendatory, when, by considerThe IV. From the departure of the Israelites to their ing the various senses of the original word, and selectentrance into the land of Canaan,

ing what is most proper, or, by having a due attention The V. From their entrance into Canaan to the building to the design of our author and the context, the mistakes of Solomon's temple.

in our translations are set right. The VI. From the building of the temple to the Baby

The chronological and other tables must be reserved lonish captivity.

to the conclusion of the work. vii

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In the following Abstract of Contents, the large mass of interesting information and illustration contained in the Notes could not be

noticed, and can only be appreciated by examination.


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INTRODUCTION: On the Necessity of a Divine

Revelation; and of the Genuineness, Authenticity, Inspiration, &c., of the Old Testament Scriptures. Definition and true meaning of the terms SCRIPTURE, BIBLE, and TESTAMENT. Composition of the New and Old Testament. Objects of Man's knowledge: an express Revelation of the Will of God probable, as well as to be desired by him, Glance at Pagan Theology: the wisest of the heathen vainly longed for that Divine knowledge which has been vonchsafed to us. A Revelation was necessary, as well as to be expected. General reasons why. Mental darkness, even among the wisest, reigning among tho ancients of Heathendom, Some of their purblind speculations on the existence and nature of God. The Soul of man, its origin and destiny, particularized. Pagan notions of a Future State. The ancients knew not of the Resurrection of the Body. Their opinions of Man's Accountability being vague and imperfect, their Theology put a slack curb or none on the pas. sions; as a consequence, vice abounded in the best ordered communities of antiquity. Mental condition of the modern heathen world. Degrading and bloody rites of Hindostan, &c. Inefficacy of the lights derived from the book of Nature,” held up by Deists for the guidance of mankind in this world, and securing his wellbeing in the next; that even if such a directory existed, it would require to be supplemented by a more comprehensivo system, derived from the Divine Author of that Nature. Two kinds of Revelation noted; viz., 1, Individual; and 2, General Revelation : that the former was not to be reasonably expected by all men. Superiority of writing (or SCRIPTURE, properly so called) over traditional communications. Evidences of the genuineness of the Sacred text considered; and the Inspiration of its writers maintained. Collateral testimony to its authenticity derivable from ancient Pagan and even hostile sources. Corroborations added in the present day, or during times near our own. Character of Moses; his upright and ingenuous nature. Review of his “five books," or Pentateuch; their internal evidence to the truth of his Divine legation satisfactory to every candid inquirer. That the same observation applies equally to the other books of the Old Testament, some of the claims of which are separately noticed. Translations of the Scriptures into English, and of the editions of them previous to the Author. ized Version; the latter a great work, but still capable of emendation. Origin of the division and subdivision of the books into chapters and verses. Eminent uses of a careful study of the Bible; to do this profitably, what auxiliary knowledge is most useful. The speculations of Geologists, and the inferences drawn from natural appearances, to be received with due caution.


the Introduction. Chief design of Moses in writing the opening “five books" of the Bible, or Pentateuch. How we are to interpret the language he uses; what is to be understood literally, and what otherwise. Chap. II. The History: Beginning, progress, and consummation of the creation of all things, with its attendant circumstances, as given in the Sacred text.III. An objection of certain gainsayers stated and answered.-IV. Wisdom of God in the Works of Creation; manifested in the starry heavens, atmosphere, alternation of day and night, &c., in the bodily frames and habitudes of animated beings, and especially in the body and spirit of Man, the lord of them

all, Sect. II. — Chap. I. OF THE STATE OF MAN's Inno

CENCE: History. Facts reproduced from Sacred Writ, and opinions given thereon from the works of the best writers, Jewish and Christian. The sum of all being, that neither our first parents nor their posterity were to be liable to sorrow or misery of any kind, but to be possessed of a constant happiness on earth, and finally to be taken up into a heavenly paradise.II. Difficulties obviated, and Objections answered : Probable site of the terrestrial Paradise, as conjectured by the learned Bishop Huet, whose opinion is adopted, without prejudice to that of others; but that a desire for determining that point is more curious than im. portant.-III, Оf the Image of God in Man: what we are to understand by the passages (Gen. i. 26, 27). Opinions thereon, of Jewish doctors, and of early Christian authors. Purity of nature in primitive man, and rectitude of his earlier actions, considered. How best the former may be partially restored here below, when lost; and whereunto we are to apply to obtain directions for our guidance for a never-failing

right rule of life, and assurance of grace, Sect. III. OF THE FALL OF MAN.-Chap. I. History:

The Tempter, who and what he was. Steps he took to gain his ends, and their success. Wrath and vengeance of the Omnipotent against him and his victims. -II. Difficulties obviated, and Objections answered : Man proved to be a free agent, and that he is responsible for evil, done or thought, bis state here below being one of probation. The “Serpent :” what species the Evil One embodied in his transformation. Plausible hypothesis thereon, of a learned Jew. Re.

flections and Reasonings on the whole narration.ix

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III. On the sentiments entertained by the Ancients

concerning the origin of Moral Evil (supplemental).

Notion of the Magi of Plutarch, and of the Mani-

cheans; antagonist principles of Good and Evil.

Opinion of Origen regarding Plato's speculations.

The Serpent an object of fear, respect, and worship,

in several ancient nations. The primitive innocence

of Man a belief common to all antiquity.-IV. Of

Original Sin : various opinions thereupon stated and

considered. The innate depravity of Man's nature,

a doctrine fairly, and indeed inevitably, deducible

from Scripture,



MENT OF CAIN.-Chap. I. History, with a Commen-

tary on the facts narrated. Order of succession, and

fate of Cain's descendants.-II. Difficulties obviated,

and Objections answered: The Mosaic account of the

early ages of the world, the actions of its early prin-

cipal inhabitants, and the succession of families, per-

fectly reconcilable to other reported facts, when pro-

perly interpreted, and due allowance made for pro-

babilities regarding matters variously or not at all

recorded elsewhere. This consideration brought to

bear, more especially, in respect to the first murder

and the fate of its perpetrator.—III. Of the Institu-

tion of Sacrifices : First examples, probably those

offered by Cain and Abel. Early Jewish and Pagan

Sacrifices; became universal in the Ancient World;

however misunderstood and perverted, they were of

Divine appointment, and prove the religious tenden-

cies of the soul of Man, even when most benighted.

All superseded by the blessed Gospel, in which man

is invited “to present himself a living sacrifice."-

IV. On the design of Sacrifice. On the Sacrifices of

the Patriarchal Dispensation (supplemental). That
they prefigured the great and final sacrifice made on
Mount Calvary. This manifested more especially
in the immolation of Abel. The Divine origin of Sac-
rifice, under the Olden Dispensation, an incontrover.
tible point of faith,



-Chap. I. History: Genealogy of Adam's posterity

in Seth's line, till the Deluge. Ever-growing depra-

vation of Manners; its punishment and extinction de-

creed in the counsels of God; exception made in the

case of Noah and his family.-II. Difficulties obviated,

and Objections answered: Criminality of the Antedilu-

vians. Their Idolatry and unlawful mixtures and

pollutions had risen to such a pitch, that “the earth

was corrupt before God." That the Cainites sinned

against knowledge, and in defiance of every call made

upon them to repent. Meaning of the terms, “sons

of God,” and “daughters of men.” Opinions of

various interpreters thereupon. Speculations of the

learned on the Giants, Demons, &c., of the early

world. Righteousness of Enoch, and his transmission

from Earth to Heaven, without passing through the

gates of death. Notices of the universal belief in

a great Deluge, and accordance of opinions, ainong

the ancients, as to its miraculous cause, and the cir-

cumstances attending it.—III. Of the Heathen His-

tory. The Chronology, Religion, Learning, Lon-

gevity, &c., of the Antediluvians. Accounts by

Berosus, Sanchoniatho, and Manetho, of the early

Chaldeans, Phænicians, and Egyptians, respectively.

Three computations of the lapse of time between the

Creation and the Flood ; namely, that founded on

the data given by Moses, as recorded in (1) the He-

brew text; (2), the computation according to the

Samaritan version ; (3), that we find in the Septuagint.

Opinions of the best expositors cited, with a view to

reconcile the discrepancies in the Sacred Chronology,

which are proved to be easily explicable without

calling into question its authenticity. Progress of

Civilization on Earth, and nature of Man's intercourse

with Heaven during that period. Abridgment of the

duration of human life, &c.,

Sect. VI. OF THE DELUGE.-Chap. I. History: Revela-

tion of God's intent to Noah. Construction of the
Ark, under Divine direction. Beginning, progress,
and end of the Flood, with the attendant perdition of
all animated beings left at large.-II. Difficulties ob-
viated, and Objections answered : Probable over-popu-
lousness of the morally corrupt early world. The
Deluge being universal, as is proved by the records
and traditions of every people on earth, nothing short
of a miraculous interposition, for the saving of a few,
could have prevented the extinction of all animated
nature. Physical evidences extant of a universal sub-
mersion of the earth at some time long past. General
traditions of its occurrence. Secondary means taken
by Omnipotence to effect it, and also to preserve alive
those creatures who were exempted from its opera-
tion, to re-animate the postdiluvian world.—III. The
reality (and universality) of the Deluge proved from
Natural History, including a recapitulation of the facts
adduced, and opinions propounded upon the subject,
in the best scientific works of modern times (supple-
mental). Testimony of the great French physiologist
Cuvier; of our own most eminent geologists, past
and present; of the profound Hunboldt, &c. Notices
regarding the surface of the earth, its mountains,
valleys, seas, &c., with inferences in respect to its
antediluvian condition. Answers, in detail, to the
objections brought forward against the verity of the
Mosaic account of the Deluge. Epoch of that great
event considered; with a review of the dissentient
opinions of scientific men upon the subject.-IV. Of
Mount Ararat: its site, as indicated or conjectured
by various authors and travellers. Objection brought
to invalidate the Sacred text, in this particular, ex-
amined and disposed of. Origin and uses of monn-
tains.-V. The same subject continued (supplemental).
Account of visits to Mount Ararat and its neighbour.
hood, by Messrs. Parrot and Antonomoff, two recent

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of Noah till the time of his death ; with conjectures

regarding the place and career of that Patriarch dur-

ing his postdiluvian life.--II. The History, as given

in Sacred Writ, with passing remarks. Difficulties

obviated, and Objections answered. Question of Sac-

rifices mooted and disposed of.—III. God's covenant

with Noah, and the atmospheric sign which sealed it.

Renewal of Man's right of dominion over all inferior

creatures. Liberty of killing animals, and using their

bodies for food, considered. Probable place assigned

where the Ark rested. Concluding reflections.-

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IV. Of the Prohibition of blood. True sense of the
passage, Gen. ix. 4, considered and expounded by
lights derived from other parts of Holy Writ,
strengthened by the opinions of the best interpreters
and most accredited commentators; whence we may
fairly infer, from close examination of the whole case,
the prohibition of using blood, as an aliment, was
meant to affect the chosen people alone, and that
only for a time; the very genius of the Christian
religion being a freedom from ceremonial restraint,
and an allowance of men's likings in things indiffe-


Sect. II.-Chap. I. OF THE Confusion of 'lan:

GUAGES: the History. Early settlement of the post-

diluvians; their rapid increase of numbers. Pros-

perity followed by vainglorious wishes for distinction

in the face of Heaven. Period of the Confusion of

Tongues; the opinions of chronologers thereupon.-

II. Objections answered, and Difficulties explained.

Where lay the land of Shinar? this question con-

sidered; also that of the true time of the miraculous

variances of language. Early dreams of universal

empire; the wisdom of God, and the constant regard

of Providence for man, alike opposed to their realiz-

ation for any length of time. The Confusion of Babel

verbal merely, and not meant to be accompanied by

a dissidence of sentiment among the sons of men.

Philological conclusions drawn from an examination

of the most ancient tongues. The Confusion of Lan-

guages of the Old Testament, and the Apostolic Gift

of Tongues recorded in the New, equally unaccount-

able, if not of immediate Divine appointment. —

III. Of the Tower of Babel; its existence proved, by

the concurring testimony of ancient writers, sacred

and profane; also, “That there was before its founda-

tion one language among mankind; that the attempt

was offensive to Heaven; and that, therefore, the
building of the huge edifice was miraculously inter-
rupted, and the workers dispersed over the face of
the earth.” Regality and power of Nimrod; auxiliary
testimony to that given in the Sacred text, of his

a mighty hunter.” The tower (so called) of
Babel, and that in the temple of Belus, probably
identical. The “Birs Nimroud" ruins extant in our
own days,




location of the immediate descendants of Noah effected

on a regular and premeditated plan, and possibly

under Divine direction. Plantation of the three sons

of Noah, as deduced by the best commentators and

biblical historians from the Sacred text.-II. Diffi-

culties obviated, and Objections answered. Mosaic

genealogy of the Patriarchs. Probable increase in

the numbers of men stated and accounted for. Origin

of the Assyrian, or first great Monarchy. Prodigious

antiquity of Chaldean, Egyptian, and Chinese history,

as deduced from astronomical data, uncertain annals,

or tradition, controverted and shown to be untrue

or improbable at least. Early peopling of Asia,

America, &c. Diversity and import of geographical

names, and conclusions to be legitimately deduced

from them.-III. Of the Sacred Chronology and Pro-

fane History, Letters, Learning, Religion, Idolatry,

&c., during the period when nations were forming.

Reconsideration of the Sacred Chronology, and their

apparent discrepancies reconciled or accounted for.

Government originally patriarchal, then monarchical.

Babylon the earliest seat of extensive kingly domina-

tion; and Nimrod, its monarch, the first conqueror.


HIS CALL TO HIS DEATH: History. Abram's career

traced, in terms of the Sacred text, with observations

on the facts narrated, as they arise in order of time.

Preternatural conception of Sarah. Sins and destruc-

tion of Sodom and Gomorrah, &c. Lot and his family,

their character and experiences. Abraham's wander-

ings and perils. Birth of Isaac. Hagar and Ishmael.

Prescribed sacrifice of Isaac prevented. God renews

and extends his covenant with Abraham, to reward

his faith, &c. Other particulars of his life. Isaac

marries Rebecca. Death of Abraham.-II. Difficul-

ties obviated, and Objections answered. Vindication,

at length, of the character of the patriarch Abraham,

in which are interspersed explanations of the true

meaning and objects aimed at in every principal pas-

sage of Sacred writ regarding him, either in his private

capacity, or as the great father of Israel; many par-

ticulars in which having been subjects of cavil to

infidel and sceptical writers.--III. Of the Destruction

of Sodom and Gomorrah. Reality of this catastrophe

proved from historical evidence, sacred and profane.

Cities of the Plain : their prosperity, pride, luxury,

and vices natural and unnatural, brought upon them

God's signal vengeance. Manner of its infliction dis-

cussed. The Dead Sea : its site, and bitterness of its




MARRIAGE TO HIS DEATH: History. Famine in

Canaan, and expatriation of Isaac and his family;

their several experiences among strangers; Jacob and

Esau, their characters and actions, as narrated in the

Sacred text, with short comments thereon.-II. Dif-

ficulties obviated, and Objections answered. Rapid

increase of the house of Israel, nothing less than

miraculous. Separate destinies of Isaac and Esau

noted and accounted for, without impugning God's

justice in preferring the former. Yet was not the

ile of Jacob and Rebecca to be commended, still less

ought it to be an exemplar for us. Concluding with

familiar notices of the patriarchal mode of life.-III.

Of Isaac's blessing to Jacob: History. That paternal

benediction, though of an inspired nature, yet not of

a sacramental character, demonstrated. Its true

nature and extent stated. Received its consumma.

tion in the advent of our blessed Saviour, Isaac's

lineal descendant,

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considered and impartially estimated. Origin and

GOING INTO MESOPOTAMIA, TO HIS RETURN: History, growth of Divine knowledge in the spirit of Moses,
His heavenly vision, and its import. Laban and his

with notices of the incidents of his middle life.
daughters. Jacob preparing to return to Canaan;

Miracles and magical delusions, their real nature con.
encountered by Esau, whom he happily propitiates sidered and contradistinguished, &c.—III. Of the
with gifts. Defilement of Dinah and its results.

Sacred Chronology, and Profane History, Learning,
Jacob reaches Mamre, but Rachel dies by the way.-

Idolatry, and Monumental Works, &c. (but chiefly

II. Difficulties obviated, and Objections answered.

of the Egyptians), during the period between God's

Jacob's selfishness and craft noted, but not com-

call to Abraham out of Mesopotamia and the exodus
mended or even excused in the Sacred annals. Still,

of Israel; with an attempt to settle the attendant
though not absolutely excusable, his regard for worldly

chronology, by reference to the best sources; and
interests admits of some personal palliation. His

answers given by anticipation to such exceptions as
dealings with Esau as a rival and adversary fairly

may probably be taken to the exposition. Remarks

considered. Their reconciliation, however effected,

and conjectures advanced,


was by Divine appointment. Question mooted and

resolved of bi-sororal marriages. Incident of Jacob's

wrestling with an angel commented on. Explanatory

notices of contemporary idolatry (teraphim, &c.)

Two notable Hebrew words and phrases, their ac.


tual or probable meaning ascertained. How Pagan

mythology changed to fables certain facts in Jewish


history.-III. Of Jacob's Ladder and Pillar. Re-


consideration of that vision, comprising the opin-

ions of various accredited interpreters of the Sacred







Introductory Observations, showing that the deliverance

of Joseph's brothers; its effect and results narrated,

of the Israelites effected by Moses certainly fore-

with a passing comment. Episode of Judah, &c.

shadowed, as it long preceded, the spiritual freedom

Exaltation of Joseph, and his noble return of good

obtained for the human race by Jesus Christ, . 268

for evil. Death of Jacob; and of Joseph.-II. Diffi- Sect. I.-Chap. I. HISTORY OF THE ISRAELITES, FROM
culties obviated, and Objections answered. Considera-

tion of the texts, Genesis xlix. 10, and xlviii. 22.

with a running commentary, and reflections on the
Brevity being the character of the Mosaic narrative,

events as they occur in succession.-II. Objections
its occasional omissions exposes it to plausible though

answered, and Difficulties explained. On the direct-
unfair cavilling; also opens a too wide door for spe-

ing pillar of cloud, and that of fire. Scriptural reason
culative interpretations. Heathen testimony to the

for seeking and sojourning in the Wilderness con-
reality of Joseph's experiences and great merits.-

sidered. Circumstances attending the giving of the
III. Of the Person and Book of Job. Question if

law from Mount Sinai, and comments on its enact-
he was a real character, and probably a direct de- ments. Comparison of Mosaic and contemporary
scendant of Abraham, though the precise time he heathen codes, &c.—III. Of the Israelites passing the
lived in be not satisfactorily made out. An at-

Red Sea; of the particular manner in which it was
tempt made to ascertain that period; and to de.

done, and by what circumstances accompanied and
fine Job's malady. Characters of those called Job's

followed. That it was of a truly miraculous charac-

friends, &c.,

208 ter, however such may have been denied or disputed,


is as certain as Revelation itself; an opinion deduci-


ble from a variety of particulars passed in review.-

EGYPT: History. Settlement and multiplication of

IV. On the passage of the Red Sea, and the journey-

the descendants of Israel in the kingdom of the

ings of the Israelites (supplemental). Traces given

Pharaohs. The reigning king and his subjects become

by Mr. Mansford, in his Scripture Gazetteer, of the

jealous of their increase; treat the Israelites with

journeyings of the Israelites in the Desert. Par.

rigour, yet strive to reduce their numbers in vain. ticulars given by Mr. Bryant, and by Bruce, the

Birth and exposure of Moses, with their happy re- Abyssinian traveller, with his decision regarding the

sults. Early career of that great lawgiver, and de-

doubts raised upon the subject. Different maps

liverer of God's chosen people. He receives his Divine

published of the journeyings in the Wilderness;

commission, in which he is associated with his brother

their errors, discrepancies, &c. Recapitulation of

Aaron. More grievous oppression exercised on the

the whole,

Israelites, who, becoine desperate in bondage, endea- Sect. II.-Chap. I. FROM THE BUILDING OF THE TA:

vour, through Moses, to escape from by renouncing


their homes. God avenges their wrongs, by inflicting

God manifests his care for the Israelites and their

sundry plagues on the Egyptians, &c. The Israelites leader in sundry notable ways. Appointment and

desired, nay entreated, to depart.-II. Dificulties ob-

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inspiration of the seventy elders. Further wander-

viated, and Objections answered. Egyptian then an

ings in the Desert. Mission of espial, led by Joshua

unwarlike and subjugated country; hence, probably,

and Caleb, with its reports. Signal punishment

the fear among its people of foreign domiciliated races,

of the distrustful emissarics. Intrigues and plots

such as that of Israel. Character of Moses; his in.

against Moses, thwarting the decrees of Divine pro.

genuousness its most prominent feature. As a leading vidence, which are signally avenged. A sign given

individual of an aggrieved community, and the chosen that the chief priesthood should reside for ever in

champion of their claims, not impeachable; but his Aaron and his descendants.-II. Objøctions answered,

peculiar situation and his people's are to be fairly and Difficulties obviated. Eighty days' fasting of


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