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None of the evangelists have said any thing of Judas after he became an apostle, except John, who tells us, that when our Lord spoke what is recorded, John xiv. 21. Judas saith to him,ver. 22. Lord how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself to us and not to the world ? 23. Jesus answered and said to him, If a man love me he will keep my words, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and make our abode with him; meaning, that after his resurrection, he would shew himself alive to his apostles; and that he and his Father, by the spiritual gifts bestowed on them, would make their abode with them; that is, would shew that they were present with them in all their ministrations. Accordingly, Judas the apostle was one of those to whom Jesus appeared, at different times, after his resurrection. He was also one of the 120 upon whom the Holy Ghost descended in the visible shape of fames of fire, on the memorable day of Pentecost.--Being therefore an eye-witness, and endowed with the Holy Ghost, he no doubt, as Lardner remarks, joined his brethren apostles in witnessing their Master's resurrection from the dead, and shared with them in the reproaches and sufferings, which befel them on that account.
Lardner conjectures, that Judas the apostle was an husbandman before he became Christ's disciple; founding his conjecture on a passage of the apostolical constitutions, where the apostles are made to say, “Some of us are fishermen, others tent u makers, others husbandmen.” He adds, “undoubtedly several 1 of the apostles were fishermen. But by the latter part of the « sentence no more may be meant, than that there was among “them one tent maker, even Paul ; and one husbandman, in“tending perhaps St. Jude. For Hegesippus, as quoted by “ Eusebius, writes, That when Domitian made inquiries after “ the posterity of David, some grandsons of Jude called the Lord's “ brother, were brought before him. Being asked concerning “their possessions and substance, they assured him, that they had
only so many acres of land, out of the improvement of which they “ both paid him tribute, and maintained themselves with their own "hard labour. The truth of what they said was confirmed by the " callousness of their hands," &c. On this passage Lardner's remarks are, “Hence some may argue that St. Jude himself had « been an husbandman. And from this account, if it may be “relied upon, we learn, that this apostle was married and had
children.” Lardner on the Canon, vol. iii. chap. xxi. p. 325. If Judas the apostle was the same person with Judas the author of the epistle, he lived to a great age. And his life being thus prolonged, we may suppose that after preaching the gospel and confirming it by miracles, he went into other countries for the same purpose. Lardner tells us, some have said that Jude preached in Arabia, Syria, Mesopotamia and Persia; and that he suffered martyrdom in the last mentioned country. But these things are not supported by any well attested history. With respect to his being a martyr, it may be doubted; because none of the ancients have mentioned his having suffered martyrdom. It is therefore generally believed that he died a natural death.-Jerome-in his commentary on Matt. X. 35. says,
« That " the apostle Thaddeus, called by the evangelist Luke Judas « the brother of James, was sent to Edessa to Abgarus King of “ Osroene."--Eusebius, Eccl. Hist. L. i. c. 13. says, Thomas one of the twelve, sent to Edessa Thaddeus, one of Christ's seventy disciples, to preach the gospel in these countries.
Shewing that the Epistle of Jude was written by Judas the Apostle, can
sequently that it is an inspired Writing. · I. In the inscription of this epistle, the writer styles himself, Indas 1908 Xpose dados, adea@os de lexo68, Judas a servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James. By these two characters, the author of this epistle hath shewed himself to be an apostle. For, 1. His name Judas, is precisely the same with that of the apostle Judas. 2. His designation is the same, and brother of James. If it be objected that Judas, the writer of the epistle, hath not called himself an apostle, but only a servant of Jesus Christ, the answer is, First, As there was another apostle named Judas, to have called himself an apostle, was no distinction at all. Whereas by styling himself the brother of James, he hath made himself known to all who are acquainted with the catalogues of the apostles given by the evangelists, to be a different person from Judas the traitor, and hath as effectually declared himself to be an apostle, as if he had expressly assumed that title. Besides, by calling himself the brother of James, he hath asserted his relation to Christ, as his cousin-german, (see Pref. to James, sect. I. paragr. 1.) and thereby hath secured to him. self whatever respect was due to him on account of that honourable relation.--Secondly, Some others who were undoubtedly
apostles, have in their epistles omitted to take that title, and have called themselves simply, servants of Jesus Christ. Thus, in Paul's epistle to the Philippians, chap. i. 1. we have Paul and Timothy servants of Jesus Christ. And in the epistle to Philemon, Paril a Prisoner for Jesus Christ, without any addition. Also, in the inscription of the epistles to the Thessalonians, we have Paul and Silvanus and Timothy to the church of the Thessalonians, without any designation whatever. In like manner James in his epistle, chap. i. 1. calls himself simply, a servant of Jesus Christ, Yet no one, on account of the omission of the word apostle in these epistles, ever doubted of the apostleship, either of Paul, or of James. Farther, in the first epistle of John, the writer, neither in the inscription nor in any other part of his letter, hath called himself an apostle, or so much as mentioned his own name. Yet, by his manner of writing, he hath made himself known so fully, that his epistle, from the very first, hath been universally acknowledged as John's, and respected as a writing divinely inspired. Why then should Judas be thought no apos, tle, or his epistle be reckoned an uninspired writing, merely because he hath not called himself an apostle, but only a servant of Jesus Christ.
If, in this epistle, there had been any thing inconsistent with the true Christian doctrine, or any thing tending to reconcile the practice of sin with the hope of salvation, there would have been the justest reason for calling the apostelship of its author in question. But instead of this, its professed design, as shall be shewed by and by, was to condemn the erroneous doctrines, which, in the first age, were propagated by corrupt teachers for the purpose of encouraging their disciples in their licentious courses; and to make those, to whom this letter was written, sensible of the obligation which their Christian profession laid on them, resolutely to maintain the faith, and constantly to follow the holy practice, enjoined by the gospel.
Grocius, however, fancying that the author of this epistle wsa not Judas the apostle, but another person of the same name who lived in the time of the emperor Adrian, and who was the fifteenth bishop of Jerusalem, hath boldly affirmed that the words, and brother of James, are an interpolation; and that the true reading is, Judas a servant of Jesus Christ, to them who are sanctified, &c: But as he hath not produced so much as a shadow of autho. rity from any ancient MS. or from the fathers, in support of his emendation, it deserves not the least regard; and should not
have been mentioned, had it not been to make the reader sen. sible, how little the opinion of the greatest critics is to be regarded, when they have a favourite notion to maintain, or wish to make themselves conspicuous by the novelty or singularity of their pretended discoveries.
From the inscription, therefore, of this epistle, I think it certain that it was written by Judas the apostle ; and that it is an inspired writing of equal authority with the epistles of the other apostles, which by all are acknowledged to be inspired and canonical.
II. The genuineness of this epistle, is established likewise by the matters contained in it, which in every respect are suitable to the character of an inspired apostle of Christ. For, as was already observed, the writer's design in it was to characterize and condemn the heretical teachers, who in that age endeavoured by a variety of base arts to make disciples, and to reprobate the impious doctrines which they taught for the sake of advantage, and to enforce the practice of holiness on all who professed the gospel. In short, there is no error taught, nor evil practice enjoined, for the sake of which any impostor could be moved to impose a forgery of this kind on the world.
To invalidate this branch of the proof of the authenticity of the epistle of Jude, it hath been objected both anciently and in modern times, that the writer of it hath quoted the apocryphal book entitled Enoch and thereby hath put that book on an equality with the canonical books of the Old Testament. But to this objection learned men have replied, that it is by no means cer. tain that Jude quoted any book whatever. He only says, ver. 14. Now Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied even concern. ing these men, saying, Behold the Lord cometh with his holy myriads, &c.-Besides, we have no good evidence that in Jude's time there was any book extant entitled Henoch, or Henoch's prophecy. In the second and third centuries indeed, a book with that title was handed about among the Christians. But it seems to have been forged, on occasion of the mention that is made of Enoch's prophecy in the epistle of Jude; and was universally rejected as a manifest forgery. In the apostolical writings, there are a variety of ancient facts mentioned or alluded to, which are not recorded in the Jewish scriptures; such as, The sin and punishment of the evil angels, 2 Pet. ii. 4. and their confinement in everlasting chains under darkness to the judgment of the great day, Jude ver. 6.-The prophecy of Enoch
concerning the judgment and punishment of the wicked, Jude,
Allowing then, that there were revelations anciently made 10 mankind which are not recorded, and that the revelations which are recorded were accompanied with some explications not mentioned, it is natural to think that these things would be verbally published to the ancients, who considering them as