Imatges de pàgina


On translating the Greek Language used by the Writers of the New

Testament. The author hath judged it necessary to make the following additions to Essay iv, for establishing more fully the translations which he hath given of the Greek particles, &c. as used by the writers of the New Testament, because, as he hath more than once remarked already, by rightly translating the Greek particles, most important alterations have been made in the sense of many passages of the apostolical epistles, whereby the meaning of these passages hath been placed in a more clear, unambiguous, and beautiful light, than forinerly Wherefore, if the, reader is of opinion, that the meaning of any Greek word, mentioned in Ess. iv, is not sufficiently established by the examples there produced, he is desired to consult this supplement.

N. B. The paragraphs of E88. 4. being all numbered, the figures prefixed to the following additions, point out the paragraphs of that Essay to which they belong.

No. 1. Active verbs express the agent's attempt or intention, &c. John i. 9. That was the true light which lightesh, which is designed to light, every man that cometh into the world.-Rom. ii. 4. Not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth, is designed to lead, thee Lo repentance :- John i. 10. If we say we have not sinned, we make, we attempt to make, him a liar.-Rev. xii. 9. Called the. Devil and Satan, who deceiveth, who endeavours to deceiye, the whole world.

4. Active verbs express, not the doing, but the permission of a thing. 2 Sam. xxiv. 1. T'he anger of the Lord was moved against Israel, and he moved David, that is, permitted David to be moved by Satan against Israel: as is plain from 1 Chron. xxi. 1. And Sa lan stood up against Israel, and provoked David to number Israel.

9.-1. The subjunctive mode put for the indicative. 2 Cor. xiii. 9. We are glad (όταν ημεις ασθενωμεν, υμεις δε δυνατοι ητε) τυhen τυε are weak, and ye are strong.

2. The infinitive with the article prefixed, is put for the subjunctive. Philip. iii. 10. To guavas, That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection. *


3. Also for the corresponding substantive noun. Philip. iii. 21. Κατα την ενεργειαν τη δυνασθαι αυτον. According to that strong working whereby he is able even to subdue all things.

10.-1. Buxtorff, in his Thesaur. p. 91. observes, that among the Hebrews, “ Frequentissima est temporum commutatio et “ enallage, ut preteriti pro futuro, et futuri pro preterito : et in o continuata sententia sequens tempus trahitur plerumque in naturam precedentis."

2. The preterite used for the future. Col. ii. 13. You being dead through the sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, (curESWOT 06266) he hath, he will make alive together with him; with Christ.-Jude ver. 11. (Kui amwhorto,) And (have perished) shall perish in the rebellion of Korah.

12.-1. The present tense put for the preterite. 1 John üi. 8. The devil sinneth (hath sinned) from the beginning.

2. Also for the future. i Cor. xi. 24. This is my body (to ÜTED luar xhapLEVOY) which is broken, (which shall be broken; or, which is about to be broken) for you. 16.-1. The Greek participles have sometimes an adtersatice

Heb. xi. 13. All these died in faith (rem dobOrtes) though they did not receive the things promised. For, seeing them afar off, &c.—Jude ver. 5. I will therefore put you in remembrance, (61dotes) though ye once knew this, &c.*

2. The participle is put for the present of the indicative. Rom. ix. 5. 'O av, Who is God over all.* Rev. i. 8. I am Alpha and Omega, (o ww) which is, and which was.*

3. Beza, in his note on 2 John ver. 7. saith, the participle of the imperfect of the indicative, is used in innumerable places for the aorist. See 2 John ver. 7. note 1.

18.-1. When pne substantive governs another, the latter must be translated as an explication of the former. Iliad A. line 350. Ποιον σε επος Φευγεν ερκος οδοντων, What kind of speech hath escaped the guard of your teeth? That is, your teeth which are a guard, namely to your tongue.

19.-1. Two substantives joined by a copulative particle, must be translated in regimen. Philip. i. 25. Eis tu ima mgorotey nel xogacy TNS TISEWS. For your furtherance and joy of faith.* For the advancement of the joy of your faith.

21.-1. Genders of noups. The neuter is sometimes put for the masculine. Gal. iii. 22. But the scripture hath shut up to, gether (Ta Futu, all things) all men under sin.-Ephes. i. 10. To gather together (Ta nartu) all men, Jews and Gentiles, under Christ.--2 Thess. ü. 6. And ye know (TO HATE YOU) what now re. straineth; ye know the person who now restraineth.

22.-1. The sacred writers, to render their discourse of greater extent, sometimes put the relative in the plural number, notwithstanding its antecedent is in the singular number. 1 John V.16. If any one see his brother sinning a sin not unto death, tet him ask God, and he will grant to him life for those, &c.

24.-2. Genitive case denoting possession. Rom. xv. 8. Exeygehias T&Tepa, Promises belonging to the fathers. Ephes. iii. 1. Paul (i derulas T8 Xgr5x) a prisoner belonging to Christ Jesus.

3. Denoting the end for which a thing is done, or suffered. Philemon ver. 13. He might minister to me (sv tous decuais tou EU@YVE268) in these bonds for the gospel.

27.-1. Comparison in the third degree, by'a repetition of the word. Eph. ii. 4. Through his great love with which he loved Us : that is, through his exceeding great love.- James v. 17. Kai teoriVx ngoonutato. And (he prayed with prayer, that is, he prayed earnestly. See also Ephes. vi, 18.

31.-1. All, signifies sometimes a considerable part only. John iv. 29. Come see a man who told me all things that ever I did.-Acts i. 1. All that Jesus began both to do and teach. 1 Cor. ii. 15. The spiritual mun examineth indeed all things.I Cor. ix. 22. To all I have become all things.-Wherefore 1 Pet. iv. 7. The end of all things hath approached ; signifies the end of the Jewish church and state only.

41.-1. Elect, elected, in the following passages may signify approved. Rom. xvi. 13. Rufus (ExdEXTOV EY Kugiw) the approved by the Lord.-Col. iii. 12. Put on therefore (a's eXMEXTOI 18 Oc8) as persons approved of God, holy, and beloved, bowels of mercies,

59.-1. Walk. In scripture, one's moral conduct is denoted by the metaphor of walking, because as walking in a road ends in one's arrival at a place, so his moral conduct will at length end, either in happiness or in misery to him.

60.-1. Word, (royos) sometimes denotes eloquence. 2 Cor. viii. 7. Therefore as ye abound in faith (reu doymu) and in ela quence.-Ephes. vi. 19. That (royos) eloquence may be given me in the opening of my mouth.

2. Aoyos, a promise. Tit. i. 3. Hath manifested (ror dogov av78) his promise, by preaching with which I am intrusted. See note 1. on this verse.

3. Soyos, a prayer. 1 Kings xvii. 1. Elijah said to Ahab, As the Lord God of Israel liveth, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these three years, but according to' Dry word; my prayer. See James v. 17, note 2.

4. Aoyos, a doctrine. Tit. i. 9. Holding fast (TX misy Roys) the true doctrine.

5. Aogos, an history, a narration, a discourse. Acts i. 1. The former (Royov) treatise * or narration.—2 Pet. ii. 3. Will make merchandise of you (KH&otong royors) by fictitious tales.

6. sayos, an appearance or shew of a thing. Col. i. 23. IVhich things have indeed (royov) a shew of wisdom.*

63.-1. The relative pronouns refer to the remote antecedent. Luke xxiii. 14. 1 hude found no fault in this man.-15. No nor yet Herod; for I sent you to him, and lo nothing worthy of death is done by him. Not Herod, who is last mentioned, but Jesus, who is mentioned ver. 14.-1 Cor. xv. 25. For he must reign till (avtos) he (God, who is mentioned in the preceding verse) hath put all the enemies under his feet.

65.-1. The pronoun écutos is often used in the sense of addon dos, one another. 1 Cor. vi. 7. Ye go to law (ur.' xUt wy) one with another. * See also Ephes. iv. 19. 32. v. 19.-Col. ii. 16. - Thess. v. 13.-Jude ver. 20.-John vii. 35.

66.-1. The relative pronoun sometimes differs in gender from ils antecedent, regarding its meaning rather than its form. Matth. xxviii, 19. Teuch (FATH TH EJvn ButtI GOUTES AV785) all nd. tions baptizing them.-John xv. 26. To trveureEXELVOS USE TUONT, The Spirit-he shall testify.-Rom. ix. 23, 24. Exeun E1885—'s Kill ExameTeV.—Gal. iv. 19. Texvox M8 ós muniv.-Philem. ver. 10. I beseech thee (Tigi T8 EM8 Texv8 óv) for my son whom I begat in my bonds.

2. The relative pronoun sometimes differs in number from its antecedent. Philip. iii 20. Our conversation is (ev oqerais et ou) for heaven, from whence also ve look for the Saviour.

67.-1. The relative pronoun (os) is sometimes put for the demonstrative (outos). 1 Cor. ii. 9. 'A 09.9a Amos 8* Eide. Those things eye hath not seen, &c. So 'A must be translated, because in the end of the sentence there is another ‘A, signifying which. --2 Cor. ii. 16. 'Ois lev; To these indeed it is the savour of death ending in death, (ors de) but to those, &c.

81.-1. Adna, However, 1 Tim. i. 16. Adro dece T87). How. beit for this cause I obtained mercy.*

85.-1. Απο, ιη. Luke xii. 57. Τι δε και αφ' εαυτων 8 κρινετε, And why also in yourselves do ye not judge what is right? xxi. 3. Ye see and knowo (« AUTO) in yourselves, that the summer is now nigh.-Luke xix. 30. And some of the Pharia, sees (*** T8x28) in the crowd said.—Wherefore, Philip.iv. 15. may be thus translated; when I went forth (670) in Macedonia. See the note on that passage. 2. Ano, By, By means of. Matt. vii. 16. Ato TB ragt wy as

By their fruits ye shall know them. 3. Ato denotes sometimes the efficient cause.

Mark viii. 31. And be rejected (ato twv *PCOUTE pav) by the elders.-James i. 27. Unspotted (ato 78 x00ux) by the world.

90.-1. reep, often hath a causal signification. So our translators thought. Rom. iv. 15. 'ο γαρ νομος οργην κατεργαζεται: Because the law worketh urah.*-Heb. vii. 11. If indeed perfection were through the Levitical priesthood, (o aseos yop ez' autn) be. cause on account of it the people received the lazo.

92.-1. ræp, is used to introduce a reason for something in the writer's mind, which he hath not expressed. Thus Roin. iv 2. Ει γαρ Αβρααμ εξ εργων εδικαιωθη, For if Abraham τoere justified by works, he might boast. Here the proposition suppressed which this is produced to prove, is, Abraham did not obtain jus. tification by the flesh. For if Abraham were justified by the work of circumcision, which he performed on his flesh, he might have boasted.

94.-1. fup, is used as an affirmative particle, and must be translated, Indeed, certainly. Rom. viii. 7. Tw weep voulon T8 Ot8 εχ υποτασσεται, εδε γε δυναται. For it is not subject to the las of God, neither indeed can be.*

97.-1. ræep, Now. "Ephes. v. 9. 'O gap raptos, Now the fruit of the Spirit.

98.-1. Fæp has the adversative sense of da, But, yet, although. Rom. xv. 4. 'Ota yop, But whatever things were before written, were written for our instruction.--Philip. iii. 20. 'Huwe yap to RoditeUpz, But our conversation is in heaven.—2 Pet. i. 9. 'S2 gap pen tepesi nauta, But he thut lucketh these things is blind.* 101.-2. As, Also. John viii. 17. Kat sy tw youqu

de τω υμετέρω, , And in your law also it is written, that the testimony of two men is true, *

Sce Parkh. Dictionary. 104.-1. As, Besides, Farther. 2 Pet. i. 5. Kot GU TOT8To do σπoδην πασαν. . And besides this, giving all diligence, add to your faith virtue.*

114.-l. A1kg To, Forward. Acts iïi. 16. Yea the faith which is, (di avts) toward him ; that is, which hat la him for its object. -Rom. iv. 25. Was raised again (dice tomu doxalmas huwe) to our justification : ad justificationem, nempe, ad testificandam justificationem nostri. This is Pasor’s translation. See his Lexicon, in



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