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characters and state, types of the people of God under these covenants. So the apostle Paul assures us, Gal. iv. 22. "It is 66 written, that Abraham had two sons; one by the bond-maid, "and one by the free woman. 23. But he verily who was born "of the bond-maid, was begotten according to the flesh but "he who was born of the free woman was through the promise. "24. Which things are an allegory: For these women are the "two covenants: The one verily from Mount Sinai bringing "forth children into bondage, which is Agar. 25. For the "name Agar denotes Mount Sinai in Arabia, and she answereth "to the present Jerusalem, and is in bondage with her children.
26. But the Jerusalem above is the free woman, who is the "mother of us all." See Gal. iv. 24. notes 1, 2. and ver. 25. notes, where, and in the commentary, this allegory is explained.
7. The third typical person I shall mention is David, who was raised by God to the government of the natural seed of Abraham, that in his office as their king, and in his wars against their enemies, he might be a type of Christ the ruler and saviour of Abraham's spiritual seed. This appears from what the angel who announced our Lord's birth said to his mother, Luke i. 32. "The Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father "David, and he shall rule over the house of Jacob for ever, and "of his kingdom there shall be no end." For in what sense could our Lord's spiritual dominion be called the kingdom of his father David, unless David's kingdom was a type thereof? In fact, the power and success with which David governed the natural seed and subdued the neighbouring heathen nations, their enemies, was a fit prefiguration of the power and success with which Christ rules the spiritual seed, and subdues their enemies.-That David was a type of Christ appears from this also, that the prophets who foretold to the Israelites the coming of Christ, named him David, and David their king: by a common metonymy giving the name of the type to the person typified. See Jerem. xxx. 9. Ezek. xxxiv. 23. xxxvii. 24. Hosea iii. 4, 5. and Isa. lv. 3. Acts xiii. 34. particularly the last mentioned passage, where the benefits which the spiritual sced derive from the government of Christ, and in particular their safety from their enemies, are termed, The sure mercies of David.-In short, unless David in his government of the natural seed was a type of Christ in his government of the spiritual sced, no just interpretation can be given of the divine revelations and promises which were made to him, and which are recorded by Ethan,
Psal. lxxxix. 19.-37. Whereas, if these things were spoken to David as an image or type of Christ, the whole is plain, and hath received a complete accomplishment.
8. The fourth typical person whose history is given in scripture is Solomon, who in his ruling the natural seed, and in his building the temple, prefigured Christ the ruler of the spiritual Israel, and the builder of the Christian church, the great temple of God which in its perfect form will subsist in the heavenly country. For as David's government was so ordered by God, as to be a striking representation of the powerful government which Christ now exercises, for protecting his people, and subduing their enemies, so God raised up Solomon, a peaceful king, and made Israel enjoy peace and prosperity under his government, and appointed him to build the temple of God at Jerusalem, 1 Chron. xxii. 9, 10. to prefigure the peace and happiness which the spiritual Israel shall enjoy after all their enemies are completely destroyed, and they themselves are introduced into the heavenly country, and formed into one great church or temple for the worship of God. This appears from Psal. lxxii. where Solomon's character and actions as a king, are delineated, and the happy effects of his government are described. For in that Psalm things are spoken of him which do not belong to him, unless as a type of Christ: particularly ver. 5. "They shall fear "thee as long as the sun and moon endure, throughout all gene❝rations."-Ver. 11. "All kings shall fall down before him, "all nations shall serve him. 12. For he shall deliver the needy "when he crieth, the poor also, and him who hath no helper.— "14. He shall redeem their soul from deceit and violence ; and "precious shall their blood be in his sight.-Ver. 17. His name "shall endure foever; his name shall be continued as long as "the sun and men shall be blessed in him: all nations shall "call him blessed."-This last circumstance indisputably proves Solomon to have been a type of Christ, for it was one of the dis. tinguishing characters of Christ Abraham's seed, That "in him "all the nations of the earth were to be blessed "-Moreover, Psal. xlv. cannot be interpreted of Solomon, unless on the supposition that he was a type of Christ: for in his natural character, it could not be said to Solomon, ver. 6. "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever; the sceptre of thy kingdom is a sceptre "of rectitude. Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated wick
❝edness, therefore O God, thy God hath anointed thee with the "oil of gladness above thy associates." See Heb. i. 8. note 1.
9. The fifth allegorical or typical person spoken of in scripture, is the son of the prophetess whose birth was foretold, Isa. vii. 14. "The Lord himself shall give you a sign, Behold a virgin "shall conceive and bear a Son, and shall call his name Im"manuel. 15. Butter and honey shall he eat, that he may "know to refuse the evil, and choose the good. 16. For before "the child shall know to refuse the evil and choose the good, "the land that thou abhorrest shall be forsaken of both her 66 kings.". .”—B. Lowth says this passage should be translated in the following manner. "Behold this virgin shall conceive, and "bear a Son, and thou shalt call his name Immanuel: butter " and honey shall he eat when he shall know to refuse evil and "choose good. For before this child shall know to refuse evil "and choose good, the land shall be desolate, by whose two kings "thou art distressed." On Isaiah page 63.-Lowth adds, " Har"mer has clearly shewn, that these articles of food (butter and "honey) are delicacies in the east; and as such denote a state " of plenty, See also Josh. v. 6. They therefore naturally express the plenty of the country, as a mark of peace restored to "it." And in confirmation of his opinion, he cites Jarchi, “ Bu"tyrum et mel comedet infans iste, quoniam terranostra plena "erit omnis boni." He then proceeds thus, page 64. “ Agree"ably to the observations communicated by the learned person "above mentioned (Harmer) which perfectly well explain the "historical sense of this much disputed passage, not excluding "a higher secondary sense, the obvious and literal meaning of "the prophecy is this, That within the time that a young woman, 66 now a virgin, should conceive and bring forth a child, and that "child should arrive at such an age as to distinguish between "good and evil, that is, within a few years (compare viii. 4.) the "enemies of Judah should be destroyed." And to shew that this prophecy actually hath a higher secondary meaning, that learned expositor reasons as follows: "But the prophecy is "introduced in so solemn a manner; the sign is so marked, as "a sign selected and given by God himself, after Ahaz had ❝rejected the offer of any sign of his own choosing out of the "whole compass of nature; the terms of the prophecy are so "peculiar, and the name of the child so expressive, containing "in them much more than the circumstances of the birth of a VOL. VI.
"common child required, or even admitted; that we may easily "suppose, that, in minds prepared by the general expectation "of a great deliverer to spring from the house of David, they ❝raised hopes far beyond what the present occasion suggested: "especially when it was found, that in the subsequent prophecy, "delivered immediately afterward, this child called Immanuel "is treated as the Lord and prince of the land of Judah."(Chap. viii. 8.) To the things mentioned by Lowth, I add, that the account of the character and actions of this child given, Isa. ix. 5. is by no means applicable to the Son of the prophetess, unless as a type of the divine person who was to be the deliverer of the people of God. “Unto us a child is born, unto us a son " is given, and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and "his name shall be called wonderful, counsellor, the mighty "God, the everlasting father, the Prince of Peace. 7. Of the "increase of his government and peace, there shall be no end, upon the throne of David and upon his kingdom to order it, "and to establish it with judgment and with justice, from hence"forth even for ever: the zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform ❝ this."
That the prediction of a virgin's conceiving and bearing a Son who was to be called Immanuel, was at that time understood to be a promise of the birth of a great and even a divine person, B. Lowth says, " may be collected with great probability from "a passage of Micah, a prophet contemporary with Isaiah, but "who began to prophesy after him; and who, as I have already "observed, imitated him, and sometimes used his expressions. "Micah having delivered that remarkable prophecy, which de"termines the place of the birth of Messiah the ruler of God's "people, whose goings forth have been of old, from everlasting, that "it should be Bethlehem Ephrata; adds immediately, that never"theless in the mean time God would deliver his people into "the hands of their enemies; he will give them up, till she who "is to bear a child shall bring forth, Micah v. 3. This obviously "and plainly refers to some known prophecy concerning a "woman to bring forth a child; and seems much more properly "applicable to this passage of Isaiah, than to any other of the "same prophet, to which some interpreters have applied it. St. "Matthew therefore, in applying this prophecy to the birth of "Christ, chap. i. 22, 23. does it not merely in accommodating the "words of the prophet to a suitable case not in the prophet's view, "but takes it in its strictest, clearest, and most important sense,
" and applies it according to the original design and principal "intention of the prophet."
10. The sixth allegorical or typical person mentioned in scripture, is the prophet Jonah, whose preservation in the belly of the whale during three days and three nights, and his being after that vomited up alive, Christ himself declares was a type of his own continuance in the grave, and of his subsequent resurrection from the dead. Matt. xii. 39. "An evil and adulterous gene❝ration seeketh after a sign, and there shall no sign be given to "it but the sign of the prophet Jonah. 40. For as Jonah was "three days and three nights in the whale's belly: so shall "the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart "of the earth." Farther by saying, Luke xi. 30. "As Jonah "was a sign to the Ninevites, so shall also the Son of Man "be to this generation;" our Lord insinuated that as the miraculous preservation of Jonah in the whale's belly, when related to the Ninevites, induced them to give credit to the message which he brought to them from God, so Christ's resurrection from the dead preached to mankind by his apostles, would induce many to believe on him as the Son of God. Wherefore in both these particulars, Jonah was a type of Christ.
II. Having said thus much concerning persons, who in their natural characters, and actions, and fortunes, are declared to have been types of future persons and events, it remains to speak of events happening to the ancient church and people of God, which by the circumstances wherewith they were accompanied, are shewed to have been typical of greater events that were to happen to the people of God under the gospel dispensation. Now concerning these I have two observations to make. The first is, that the things respecting the ancient people of God which prefigured the greater things to happen to the people of God under the gospel dispensation, were in some instances forctold before they happened to the ancient people. My second observation is, that the prediction of these figurative events were also predictions of the events which they prefigured. Of this double sense of prophecy various instances might be given. Suffice it however to mention one instance only; namely, the deliverance of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, and their restoration to the land of Canaan. These, though natural events, prefigured the much greater and more important deliverance of mankind from the captivity of sin, and their introduction into the heavenly Canaan. For, in the writings of the evan