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: CHAPTER XXVIII. Men Punctuation.
11 The Comma (,) is a pause in reading long enough to count one; and usually requires that the voice should be kept up.
The Semicolon (;) is a pause long enough to count one, two; and the voice should usually be kept up:
The Colon () is a pause long enough to count one, two, three; and requires that the voice should partially fall; except in comparative sentences; when it should be kept up.
The Period () is a pause long enough to count one, two, three, four; and the voice should always fall.
The Interrogation Point (?) shows that a question is asked: it requires a pause long enough to count one, two, three; and that the voice should be raised; except when the question cannot be answered by Yes, or No, and then it must fall as at a period.
The Exclamation Point (!) is used to denote some passion or emotion: it requires a pause until you may count four; and the voice must generally fall.
The Parenthesis' (includes one sentence within another to explain it; and should be read in a quicker and lower tone than the rest.
The Dash (-) when used alone is to be treated much like the comma; when used with
2. another pause, it lengthens it.
The Accent is used to show which syllable of a word is accented.
The grave accent (') is sometimes applied to long syllables; and the acute() to short.
The grave accent also denotes the middle sound of a; and the acute is sometimes used to denote" those sounds of a, e, and correspond with short u.
A Breve () shows that a vowel is short.
A Hyphen ) is used to join words and syllables. The same mark placed over a vowel denotes that it sounds long.
A Circumflex (^) denotes the broad sound of d, and the middle sound of ó and u.
A Diætesis parts two vowels into two syllables, as aërial.
Brackets () and sometimes the Parenthesis are used to include words that explain a foregoing word or sentence.
A Quotation (" ") includes a passage taken from another author, in his own words.
An Apostrophe () is the sign of the Possessive case, as John's book; and also denotes the omission' of a letter, as lov'd' for loved.
A Caret ( 1 ) shows where to bring in what was omitted by mistake; as John gone.
An Ellipsis (or 23.-) shows that something is intentionally omitted; as k--g, for king.
An Index or Hand (or) points to something that requires particular attention.
A Páragraph (1) denotes the beginning of a new subject.
A Section ($)'is used to divide chapters into
lisk (1), Parallels (II), Section (s), and letters and figures, are used as references to notes at the bottom of the page.
The Lord's Prayer.
Our Father, who art in heaven: hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil; for thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever. Amen.
The Ten Commandments.
I. Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
II. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and showing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. III. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.
IV. Remember the Sabbath-day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work; but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the LORD thy God : in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor the stranger that is within thy gates ; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: Wherefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath-day, and hallowed it.
V. Honour thy father and thy mother; that thy days may be long upon the land, which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
VI. Thou shalt not kill.
IX. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.
X. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.
Abbreviations used in Writing and
A. or ans.
American Academy of Arts Cwt. Hundred weight.
Dan. Daniel. A. B. or B. A. Bachelor of d. a penny. Arts.
D. D. Doctor of Divinity. Abp. Archbishop.
Dec. December. Acct. Account.
Del. Delaware. A. D. In the year of our Dep. Deputy. Lord.
World. Before noon. Dr. Doctor. Debtor.
dr. Dram. Aug. August.
dwt. Pennyweight. bbl. Barrel.
E. East. Bart. Baronet.
e. g. For example.
F. A. S. Fellow of the AntiChap. Chapter.
quarian Society. Chron. Chronicles.
F. R. S. Fellow of the Royal Co. Company. County. Society. Col. Colonel. Colossians. Feb. February Com. Commodore.
Fol. Folio. Comr. Commissioner. Fur. Furlong Con. Connecticut.
Gal. Galatians. Gallon. Cor. Corinthians.
Geo. George. Georgia ·