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Various Readings, &c.


Account of Manuscripts, &c.

creased, who professed to believe that these and Versions known to exist. Preparations used where the Latin language was spoken ; writings were divinely inspiral. 4. Wherev-for such an edition of the Hebrew Bible have with this agree the old Itala, the Vulgate, and er the Jeics were dispersel, they carried co-been made by Kennicot and De Rossi. For the quotations found in the Latin Fathers. pies of the Lae and the Prophets with thein; the Septuagint, by Wechel, (i. e. in the edition 2. The Alexandrian, or Egyptian Edition; and the Christians did the same with the printed by him,) Lambert Bos, Dr. Holmes, with this agree the quotations found in the Gospels, Epistles, &c. And as these copies and his present Continuators at Oxford. For works of Origen; and the Coptic Version. were formed by skitful or unskilful hands, the Greek Testament, by Robert Stephens, 3. The Byzantine, or Eastern Edition;so they would be less or more accurate in re- Bp. Fell, Dr. Mill, Bengel, Wetstein, Birch, that in general use in Constantinople, after ference to the originals, from which they Alter, Matthai, and Griesbach. We therefore this city had become the capital of the Eastern were taken. 5. If a MS which had been possess, at present, materials from which Empire. The greater number of the many Carelessly copied, became the source whence nearly immaculate editions of the Sacred MSS. written by the monks on Mount Athos others were taken, they could not be expect Writings may be formed; so that the Hebrew are evidently of this edition. To this edition ed to express a better text than was fomid in and Greek Originals, and, indeed, all Ver- may be referred the quotations found in St. that from which they were copied. 6. When sions faithfully deduced from them, may ap- Chrysostom, St. Theophylact, Bishop of Bulsuch a MS. was collated with others moe pear in all their simplicity, energy, and splen-garia, and the Slavonic or Russian Version. Carefully copied, various readings, or dif our. It is to these materials, as they exist The readings of this edition, are those which ferences between such MSS, would necessa in the above collections, that I am indebted are generally found in the printed text of the rily appear. 7. As some of these readings for the various readings of Hebrew and Greek Greek Testament. All these Recensiones, or would appear irreconcileable or comtradicto- MSS, supported by the ancient Versions, Editions, belong to ages prior to the eighth ry, subsequent scribes would alter or ament which I have introduced in these Notes. century, according to Griesbach. from conjecture, where they could not have Notwithstanding all the helps which the va- To these Michaelis adds a fourth, called, access to the original MSS. and this would rious MSS. and ancient Versions afford for 4. The Edessene Edition, which compregive birth to another class of various reulings, the illustration of the Sacred Text, the reader hends those MSS from which the Peshito, or 8. When, after the invention of printing, the must not imagine that in those MSS and old Syriac Version, was made, though no Sacred Writings were multiplied by means Versions which do contain the whole of the MS. of this edition now remains. The Phiof the press, the copy, thus prepared, must Sacred Text, there is any essential defect in loxenian Syriac Version was corrected from be one of those MSS. or one containing a col-matters that relate to the faith and practice, MSS. found in the library at Alexandria. lation of various MSS. and the printed edi- and, consequently, to the vation of the reading supported by the authority of tion must, of course, give the text of one only Christian:-there is no such MS., there is no these different editions, possesses the highest MS or a text formed from the various read such Version. So has the Divine Providence degree of probability; and may be, in geneings of several. 9. As, at the epoch of the in-ordered it, that although a number of mis-ral, fairly taken for the word written by the vention of printing, great ignorance prevail- takes have been committed by careless copy-inspired penman. This is a general rule, to ed both in literature and religion, it was not ists, as well as by careless printers, not one which there will be found very few exceplikely that the best helps, even had they been essential truth of God has been injured or tions. at hand, would have been critically used; suppressed. In this respect, all is perfect; The propriety of this classification is quesand, therefore, those primitive editions must and the way of the Most High is made so tioned in a very able pamphlet just published necessarily have been, in many respects, im- plain, even in the poorest copies, that the way-by Dr. Richard Laurence, intituled, "Reperfect; and these imperfections could only faring man, though a fool, utterly destitute of marks on the Systematical Classification of he removed in subsequent editions, by a care-deep learning and critical abilities, need not MSS. adopted by Griesbach, in his Edition of ful collation of the most ancient most au err therein. the Greek Testament," 8vo. Oxford, 1814. thentic, and most correctly written MSS. All the omissions of the ancient Manu-To this pamphlet I must refer the critical 10. As such MSS. exist in different places, scripts put together, would not countenance reader. widely remote from each other, in various the omission of one essential doctrine of the parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa, it must be Gospel, relative to faith or morals; and all a work of considerable time to find them out, the additions countenanced by the whole collate, and extract, their various readings; mass of MSS already collated, do not introcominunicate them to the public in separate duce a single point essential either to faith or elitions, or in critical dissertations; and manners, beyond what may be found in the § III. Account of MSS. in Uncial characmuch time must necessarily elapse before most imperfect editions, from the Compluters, referred to by the letters ABCD, &c. in the public would feel the necessity of having tensian Editors down to the Elzevirs. And this Work.-A. The Codex Alexandrinus, now one authentic edition of the original texts though for the beauty, emphasis, and critical in the British Museum, sent, in 1628, from Cyformed from such separate editions and criti-perfection of the letter of the New Testament, ril Lucaris, Patriarch of Constantinople, by cal dissertations. 11. All Versions, or trans- a new edition of the Greek Testament, form Sir Thomas Roe, as a present to Charles I. lations of the Scriptures into the language of ed on such a plan as that of Professor Gries. It is one of the most reputable MSS. known the different nations which had received the bach, is greatly to be desired; yet from such to exist; and is stated to have been written word of God as the rule of their faith and a one Infidelity can expect no help; false so early as the fourth century; though others practice, must have been made, previously to doctrine no support; and even true Religion assign it a much later date, and bring it so the invention of printing, from a MS. or MSS. no accession to its excellence; though a few low as the seventh. Besides the New Testa such as the translator had at hand: therefore, beams may be thus added to its lustre. ment, it contains the Septuagint Version of such Versions could be no more than a faith- The multitude of various readings found the Old, formerly edited by Dr. Grabe. A facful translation of such MS. or MSS. 12. As in MSS. should no more weaken any man's simile of the New Testament part has been the MSS. differ among theraselves, from the faith in the Divine word, than the multitude published by Dr. Wolde, London, 1786, fol. reasons assigned above, so that different MSS. of typographical errors found in printed edi-And lately, a fac-simile of the Psalms, by the would exhibit different readings in certain tions of the Scriptures. Nor, indeed, can it Rev. H. H. Baber, of the British Museum, fol. cases, though the text, in the main, was the be otherwise, unless God were to interpose, 1812, who is now preparing the Pentateuch same in all; so the Versions must differ and miraculously prevent every scribe from for the press. among themselves, according to the particular making a false letter, and every compositor It is worthy of remark, that this MS folMSS from which they were taken. Hence, from mistaking a word in the text he was co-lows in the Gospels the Byzantine edition: both the MSS. and the Versions would neces-pying. It is enough that God absolutely pre- in the Epistles of St. Paul, the Alexandrine: sarily contain various readings; and these serves the chole truth, in such a way as is and in the Acts and Catholic Epistles, the readings must be important and valuable, in consistent with his moral governinent of the Western edition. With this MS. the Syriac, proportion to their agreement with the autoworld. The preservation of the jots and tit- Coptic, and Ethiopic Versions, have a regraph from which they were all originally de-tles in every transcriber's copy, and in every markable coincidence. rived: and, upon the whole, the most ancient printer's form, by a miraculous act of Al- B. The Codex Vaticanus, No. 1209, containand carefully written MS. might be consider- mighty power, is not to be expected; and is ing the Greek Version of the Septuagint, ed as containing the purest text. 13. All the not necessary to the accomplishment of the which was published at Rome by Cardinal Versions of all countries differ, less or more, purposes of providence and grace. Caraffa, fol. 1587. The second volume of this among themselves; which is a proof that they On this subject, the intelligent reader will MS. contains the New Testament. It is a were formed from different MSS. and that be pleased with the opinion of that very emi- most ancient and valuable MS. and is supthose Versions exhibited the readings which nent critic Dr. Bentley; speaking in reference posed to be older than the Codex Alexandriwere contained in those MSS. 14. And it may to those who were needlessly alumed at the ins; and to have been written some time in be added, that the most ancient Versions multitude of various readings collected by the fourth century, and before the time of St. were likely to contain the purest text, be Dr. Mill, and said to amount to 30.000, he says, Jerome: others refer it to the fifth or sixth cause made from the most ancient MSS." Not frighted with the present 30,000 various century. It is now in the Royal Library at which, we may fairly presume, were the readings, I, for my own part, and, as I believe, Paris. There is a remarkable agreement be most accurate copies of the original; as, in many others, would not lament, if, out of the tween this MS. and the Codices D. and L., that case, the stream could not be rendered old MSS. yet untouched, 10,000 more were and it is supposed, as a whole, to be the most turbid, by a long and circuitous flow from the faithfully collected: some of which, without correct MS. we have. Michaelis prefers it fountain. This the reader may conceive to question, would render the text more beauti-greatly to the Codex Alexandrinus. have been the origin of various readings, both ful, just, and exact though of no consequence C. The Codex Ephraim. A MS. in the in the Manuscripts and ancient Verscons, pre- to the main of Religion: nay, perhaps wholly Royal Library in Paris, numbered formerly viously to the invention of printing. synonymous in the view of common readers; 1905, at present 9. The first part of it conMost copies of the Hebrew Bible have been and quite insensible in any modern Version." tains some of the smallest Greek works of St taken from the sam. MSS. as the subsequent Philadeath. Lipsiens. p. 90. Ephraim Syrus, under which was originally editions have generally copied the preceding After such a testimony as this, from one of written the whole of the Greek Bible. In the ones, with very little alteration in any thing the greatest scholars and critics of his age, it New Testament part, it is mutilated in a grea that could be considered essential to the text is hoped that no minor person will hazard variety of places, which may be seen in Mi The first editions of the Greek Testament, viz. a contrary assertion; and that prejudices chaelis's Lectures, Vol. II. p. 258. The Greek the Complutensian, and the first of Erasmus, against the collation of MSS. and collections Version of the Bible which occupied the first were taken from different MSS.; but these of various readings, will not be entertained part of this MS, has been, as far as was possisources were, in general, not the most pure by the honest and well-meaning: as such ble, wiped out with a sponge, to make way for and correct, as the text formed from them suf- may see at once, both the propriety and ne- Ephraim's works: a frequent custom where ficiently proves: and hence, most succeeding cessity of such measures, parchment was scarce and dear. It is sup elitors have found it necessary to make a va- In the MSS of the Greek Testament, critics posed by Wetstein to have been written early riety of alterations and amendments in the have noticed several which have an affinity in the sixth century. It is an invaluable MS., editions which they have published from such to each other. This affinity has been denomi- but is, through its great age and bad preserMSS as they had the opportunity of collating nated famalia, family, by Bengel: Recensio, vation, almost illegible. See P. Hence, very few of these editions agree per- Revision, by Griesbach: and Edition, by D. The Coder Beza, or Codex Cantabrigienfectly among themselves; consequently, the Michaelis These editions depend on the disis. It contains the Greek text of the four necessity of forming one general and authen-versity of time and place; and are divided by Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, with the old tic elition, from a careful, judicious and con- Griesbach into three: Itala, or Antehieronymian Latin Version. scientious collation of all the ancient MSS 1. The Western Edition, or that formerly Wetstein thinks that it is the very copy from

I shall now proceed to give an account of the most ancient Manuscripts and Versions which have been collated for the four Gospels and Acts of the Apostles.

Account of Manuscripts


which Thomas Charkel, or Heraclius, under importance; and it is judged by Michaelis to
the auspices of Philoxenius, formed the later be one of the most valuable MSS. we pos-
Syriac Version, commonly called the Phi- sess.
loxenian: but this is a groundless supposi
tion. This MS. is supposed by Wetstein to
be of the fifth century: others think it two
centuries earlier. A splendid and correct
fac-simile of the MS. has been printed at
Cambridge, by Dr. Kipling, 1793, 2 vols. royal

M. Coder Regius. This MS. contains the
four Gospels; belongs to the Royal Library,
Paris, numbered 48, and was written in the
tenth century.

N. Cortex Vindobonensis, 2. One of the Vi enna MSS. It contains only fragments of the book of Genesis, and of Luke, chap. xxiv. v. 13-21, 39-49, and was written in the seventh century.

O. A small fragment of some other MS., and contains the parable of the Pharisee and Publican.

A short account of the different Versions of the New Testament, cited in this work, viz. The Ethiopic, Arabic, Armenian, Bohe mian, Coptic, Gothic, Itala, Persian, Sahidic, Saxon, or Anglo-Saxon, Slavonic, or Russian, Syriac, and Vulgate; not in the order of the different ages in which these Versions were made, but in the order of the alphabet.


The readings in this MS frequently agree with the Latin Versions before the time of St. Jerome, and with the Vulgate. Some have argued that it has been altered from those Latin Versions: but Semler, Michaelis, Gries bach, and Dr. Herbert Marsh, have amply re- P. Coder Guelpherbytanus, A. One of the futed all those arguments. It is one of the Duke of Wolfenbuttle's MSS. It is what is oldest MSS. extant; many of the readings called a Codex Rescriptus, i. e. a book, the by which it is distinguished are found in the original writing or which has been sponged Syriac, Coptic, Sahidic, and margin of the out, to make way for some other works; Philoxenian Syriac Version. In the main, which, in this case, happen to be the works of this is the most important MS. we have of the Isidor us Hispalensis. It contains fragments It is generally supposed that the Christian Gospels and Acts; and though it has been of the four Evangelists, and was written about religion was planted in Æthiopia or Abyssi written at different times, by different hands, the sixth century. See under C. nia, so early as the times of the apostles; but yet the original parts may be safely supposed Q Coder Guelpherbytanus, B. Another of when the Scriptures were translated into the to exhibit the genuine readings of the evan- the Wolfenbuttle MSS, containing fragments Ethiopic language, is not certainly known. gelic and apostolic text, in a larger proportion of Luke and John, written in the sixth cen- We have the whole of the New Testament in than in any other MS. extant. I have mytury. It is a Codex Re-criptus, like the for- that language; and it is supposed that this self examined this MS. in the public library mer; the original writing being sponged out, version was made by Frumentius, a Chris at Cambridge; and am convinced not only of to make way for the works of Isidorus Histian Bishop, în the fourth century. It is, in its very high antiquity, but of its great ex- palensis, as in Codex P. very many respects, an important version; cellency. Every where in my Notes, I have R. Tubinginse Fragmentum. This MS, and seems to have been made immediately endeavoured to pay particular attention to the which is preserved at Tubing, contains only from the Greek text. Its various readings readings of this MS. Whiston, in his primi-a fragment of the first chapter of John. agree with the (A.) the Codex Alexandrinus, tive New Testament, Stamford and London, S. Codex Vaticanis, No. 354. One of the and with Origen. 8vo. 1745, has translated the four Gospels and Vatican MSS, written in the year 919. Acts literally from the Codex Bezæ. T. Fragmentum Borgianum. It consists (D) In St. Paul's Epistles, signifies the fof about twelve leaves; begins with John vi. mous Codex Claromontanus; it was written 29, and ends with vii. 23. It is divided into in the sixth or seventh century, and has the two columns; the first contains the Greek Itala Version, as well as the Greek Text text, the second, the Coptic or Sahidic; and is supposed by Georgi, who has published a large quarto volume on it, to have been written in the fourth century. This fragment is a valuable specimen of the Alexandrian edition.

E. Codex Basiliensis, Num. B. VI. A MS of the ninth century: it contains the four Gospels.

V. Codex Equitis Nanii Venetiis. This is one of the MSS. collated by Birch, for his edition of the Greek Testament. It was written in the tenth or eleventh century.

(E) In the Acts of the Apostles, signifies the famous Laud MS. No. 3. preserved in the Bodleian library. It has both the Greek and Latin text; the Latin evidently altered to make it correspond to the Greek This MS. was printed by Hearne, 8vo. Oxon. 1715. Wetstein supposed it to have been written in Sardinia, about the seventh century. The MS. is written in two columns; the Latin text first: each line is composed of one word, very rarely of two; and the Latin and Greek words are always opposite to each other, which shows that it was written for the use of a person little skilled in either language. F. Coler Boreeli. This MS, which contains the four Gospels, formerly belonged to Sir John Boreel, Dutch Ambassador at the court of King James L Where it now is cannot be ascertained.

X. A MS. in the public library of Ingolstad; this is in uncial characters, and has a commentary in small letters. It appears to have been written in the eleventh century.

These are all the Greek MSS. in square or uncial characters, which are referred to in Wetstein and Griesbach; and which are quored in these notes on the four Gospels and Acts. Where any of these letters appear with an asterisk, as C, it signifies that the reading there quoted, exists not in the text, but in the margin, of that manuscript, The MSS. marked A. B. C. D. E. F. G. K. and L. are (F) Is one of the Colstinian MSS. No. 1. probably, upon the whole, the best; and It contains the Septuagint Version of the Oc-their readings, the most authentic of all the tateuch; and verses 24 and 25 of Acts, chap. ix. It was written in the eighth century.

uncial MSS.

F. In the Epistles of St. Paul, denotes the Codex Augiensis, written about the ninth century, and now in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge.

There are many other MSS. written in small letters, and quoted by Griesbach and others, by Arabic numerals, viz. 1, 2, 3, &c., which, though not equally ancient with seve ral of those in uncial characters, are of great G. Codex Wolfius A. This is nor one of value and importance, and exhibit readings the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum; of equal worth with those in the preceding and is marked 5684. It contains the four MSS. These, however, I have rarely mon Evangelists, and was probably written before tioned by name in my notes, and only refer the tenth century. It is a correct and valua-to them in this way: eg Acts xvi. 25, ble MS. "ABDE. and more than forty others." Ib. G. Coder Boernerianus in the Electoral Li- xx. 24, "ABD. some others," &c. &c. 1 brary at Dresden. It has the Itala Version in-thought it was unnecessary to be more parterlined with the Greek text. ticular; as those who could prost most by such information, would naturally have Griesbach at hand; and, by referring to him, would be able to obtain much more satisfaction on the point, than the plan on which my notes were constructed could possibly afford. It is necessary just to state that both Wetstein and Griesbach, by quoting dif ferent MSS by the same letter, in the four H. Coler Coistinianus, No. 202, consists parts into which they have divided the New only of fifteen leaves, containing some frag Testament, viz. the four Gospels, the Acts ments of St. Paul's Epistles. It was written and Catholic Epistles, the Epistles of St. Paul, in the fifth or sixth century. and the Apocalypse, have produced strange 1. Codex Cottonianus. This MS. contains and needless confusion: in each of those only four leaves, in which a few fragments parts we find a distinct notation of MSS. On of Matthew and John are found. It is written this subject Michaelis has justly observed, 01 Egyptian paper of a purple colour; and is that "Wetstein has made it very difficult to a nong the Cotton MSS. in the British Muse-remember his notation of MSS. by not reum, and is marked Titus C. 15. taining the same marks throughout the whole K. Colex Cyprius, so called, because work; for his letters and figures have a dif- most valuable and genuine edition of the AR brought from the island of Cyprus. It is at ferent meaning in the Epistles of St. Paul ble Testament. These three editions are quopresent in the Royal Library at Paris. It from that which they have in the four Evan-ted in Griesbach, and in the following notes. contains the four Evangelists; agrees in its gelists; a still different meaning in the Ca- The first, Ar. Rom. the Arabic Gospels, various readings with A. B. C. D. Montfau- tholic Epistles, and Acts of the Apostles; printed at Rome, in 1591 2. Ar. Pol the con supposes it to be of the eighth century; and, lastly, they are taken in a fourth sense, Arabic, printed in the London Polyglott, 1657. Father Simon of the ninth. in the book of the Revelation."--Lectures, 3. Erp. the Arabic New Testament, printed L. Coder Regius, 62. This very valuable Vol. II. p. 185-6. This perplexity may appear by Erpen, in 1616. When all these editions MS. was one of those used by R. Stephens, evident, even in the uncial MSS., and much agree in the same reading. Griesbach signi.les for his edition of the Greek Testament, fol more in the others, . . D which means the it by Arr, and I mean the same in these notes, 1550, in which it is marked 7. It is in the Coler Beza in the Gospels and Acts, means when I say, ell the Arabic. Royal Library at Paris, No. 62, and was probathe Clermont MS. in the Epistles of St. Paul; bly written in the eighth or ninth century and B. the Coler Vaticanus 1209, in the Gos The various readings of this MS. are of great pels, Acts, and Epistles, is the Calex Mmacho

There are three principal editions of the Arabic, to which reference is made by Gries. bach, and in these notes: 1. That printed at Rome, fol. 1591, which was probably made from the Gree 2. The version printed in the Paris and London Polyglotts: but in the latter with additions and corrections. This also was made from the Greek, and not from the Syriac or Coptic, as some have supposed. 3. The edition printed by Erpen, Lugd. Pat. 1616, 4to. taken from two MSS one of the Gospels, written about A. D. 1971, and another, of the Acts, Epistles and Revelation, dated A D. 1342. See Dr. Marsh's notes to Michaelts, Vol. III. p. 603. This version is supposed to have been formed immediately from the Greek; but interpolated in many places from the Syriac. This of Erpen is the

(G.) In the Acts, &c. signifies a MS. In the library of the Augustin Friars at Rome. I has been only partially collated by Blanchini and Birch.

and different Versions.

rumi Sti. Basilii, No. 105, in the Apocalypse; and so of others.

Parther information on this subject belongs, more properly, to the editor of a Greek Testa ment, than to the province of a commentator. Those who wish to examine this branch of Biblical criticism at large, must consult Mill, Wetstein, Griesbach, Michaelis, and Dr. Her bert Marsh.

H. Codex Wolfius B. This MS is very similar to the preceding, and was probably written in the same century. It also contains the four Evangelists.

THE ARABIC. There are different Arabic versions of the New Testament, and they were probably, as Dr. Marsh conjectures, derived from these four sources-1. Soine from the Syriac; 2 Some from the Coptic; 3. Some from the Greek; 4. And some from the Vulgate. When this version was made cannot be de termined; but it is generally allowed that there was no Arabic version of the New Tes tament before the time of Mohammed, i. c. A. D. 620; and that the oldest versions we have of that language, were made between the seventh and tenth centuries, But, if this were really so, how can we well account for the knowledge which Mohammed had of the Gospels, which he terms 1 Anjeel, from Evangelium, in different parts of the Koran; see particularly Surat iii. v. 3, which Anjeel, he there mentions, as having come down from God, as well as the 3 toorat non the lair, and his own Koran; and in this same Surat, and many others, he makes seve ral quotations from the Gospels; and, though he models them, to cause them to suit his own purpose, yet his quotations afford a presumptive evidence that the Gospels did exist in Arabic before his time; unless we could suppose he read them in Greek, Syriae, or Latin; and none, even of his own partial fol lowers, have pretended that he understood those languages. As to the story of his having an apostate Christian Monk, called Sergus, with him, who might have supplied him with such quotations, it remains yet to be proved. To me, it seems probable, that a version of the Gospels at least did exist before the thae of Mohmed; as Christianity did undoubt edly neve its way into Aphia, even in the days of the apostles, as may be gathered from the Acts of the Apostles, chap. 11. and from various other testimonies. Whosoever reads the Koran carefully over, in reference to this point, will probably find reason to draw the same conclusion.

THE ARMENIAN. This version was probably made in the fifth century, or about the year 410; according to


of the New Testament

There is a remarkable addition, Matt. xxvi.
75. which is found in no other version, nor in
any MS. and is not noticed by Griesbach.
And he (Peter) went out from thence, and
wept bitterly,
and his sin was
forgiven him.

Marsh's notes to Michaelis. This is the most fat, Luke xix. 9. "Jesus said to the multitude,
likely of all the conjectural emendations of and to his disciples, To day indeed there is
St. Augustin's text yet made. This ancient a great salvation to this house, because this
Latin version, by whatever name it is called, man is of the sons of Abraham." That is, he
is supposed to be the same which is annexed is saved through Abraham's merit, and his
to the Greek text in the Coder Boernerianus, own alms-giving; so I understand the inten-
Claromontanus, and Cantabrigiensis. But tion of the original.
besides these, there are more than twenty
others which Griesbach, has noted in his
Greek Testament, which contain the same
version, or rather a version or versions made
before the time of St. Jerome, See the cata-
Matt. xxvii. 52. is thus rendered, And the
logue of thein in Griesbach's Testament,
Vol. I. Prolegom. page xcvil. All these I have
quoted under the general name Itala, or An graves were opened, and the rocks rent,
tetieronymian, without specifying the dif 335 Dh's is and the bodies of ma
ferent MSS. in which the reading is contain-ny saints who had suffered martyrdom, rose
ed, e. g. Six copies of the Itala-several copies from their graves. All these examples, (and
of the Itala-all the Itala, &c. The principal their number might be easily increased) show
fragments of this version which still remain, the family from whence this version sprang;
have been carefully collected by Sabatier, in and how little regard, in all these cases, was
his Bibliorum Sacrorum Latine Versiones paid to the Syriac, from which it is said to
Antique, fol. Rom. 1743, three vols.; and by have been taken; or, indeed, to any other
Blanchini, in his Evangeliorum Quadru-version; for these, and such like renderings,
pica Latina Versionis Antique seu Italice, are evidently made to serve a party, and sup
fol. Rom. 1749, four vols. The various read port a cread. From all this, it appears that
ings of these versions, both in those MSS. much dependance cannot be safely placed on
edited by these learned men, and in the wri- this version; and that its various readings,
tings of the Latin Fathers, are of great utility except where they agree with more authentic
in ascertaining the readings of the ancient versions, are worthy of little credit.
Greek text, from which they were made; for
many excellent readings abound in these
versions, which agree not only with the most
ancient Greek MSS. but also with the best
versions, particularly the Syriac and the
Coptic. It was out of these versions that St.
Jerome formed the Vulgate. See Vulgate.

The Coptic was the common language of
Egypt before the invasion of the Saracens; it
is a mixture of the old Egyptian and the
Greek Into this language the Scriptures ap
pear to have been translated at a very early
jenod prolably between the third and fifth
centuries. The readings of this version are
allowed to have a striking affinity to those of
the Latin version; and sometimes to those of
the Codex Beze; and, according to Wetstein,
with Origen, Eusebius, Cyril, and the Alex

There is a second Persian version of the four Gospels, which Mr. Abraham Wheeloc, professor of Arabic in the University of Carnbridge, translated into Latin, and prepared for the press, and actually began to print in andrian MSS See Sahidic. 1652; but dying shortly after, it was patronized by Thomas Adams, Lord Mayor of LonTHE GOTHIC. don, and finished under the care of Mr. PierTHE PERSIAN. The people to whom the version called Gothic, belonged, had their ancient habitation We have no very ancient version of the son, at the press of J. Flesher, 1657, fol. It to the cast of the Borysthenes: but wander New Testament in Persian. Hitherto we have seems that Mr. Wheeloc had designed to affix bg westward, they settled in Wallachia. Ulphilas, a Cappadocian by birth, who lived had only the four Gospels in this language, critical notes to each chapter; and this we under the emperors Valens and Valentinian, which are printed with the Latin translation find done to the end of the seventeenth chapmade this translation immediately from the of Dr. Samuel Clarke, in the fifth volume of ter of Matthew, about which time it is likely Greek, (though occasionally in reference to the London Polyglott. This translation was he died; for Mr. Pierson, the continuator of the Latin versions) about the middle of the finished about the year 1341, by Simon ibn his work, says, initio operis, præmatura Yuseph ibn Abraheem al Tabreezy; who is morte ereptus: death snatched him away at fourth century. Of this version only a muti said to have taken it immediately from the the commencement of his work. And as the lated copy of the four Gospels, and a few chap- Syriac. This version was made, most evi regular comment of Mr. Wheeloc appears to ters of St. Paul's Epistic to the Romans, remain. This MS, which was all written in dently, by a Christian of the Roman Catholic have been prepared no farther than to the silver letters, and hence called Coder Argen- persuasion, who acted under the most predo-seventeenth chapter of Matthew, the notes trus, was first discovered in the abbey of minating influence of his own peculiar creed; which the continuator found after the close Werden, In Westphalia; it got afterward to for it is not only interpolated with readings of that chapter, and which, most probably, Sweden, then to the Netherlands; and is from the Vulgate, but with readings from ri- Wheeloc designed to be the foundation of now in the university of Upsal. A fine edituals and legends. The Persian Gospels do more diffuse observations, are all printed at Mill, Wetstein, or Griesbach, scarcely any of Tion of the Gothic Gospels was published by not appear to have been carefully collated by the conclusion of the work. Marshall, together with the Anglo-Saxon, at the many peculiarities of this version having Dort, 165, 40 with a glossary by Junius: but a better edition was published by Dr. E. been noticed. To satisfy myself of its nature and origin, I have read the whole of it over Lye, Oxon. 1750, 416. The fragments of the eventh, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and trice, and shall extract from the remarks I Afteenth chapters to the Romans, edited by then made such proofs as appeared to me to Knittel from the Wolfenbuttle MS., may be warrant its Catholic origin; and how little formed his version. e. g. found at the end of Vol. II of Dr. Lye's Saxon, the translator regarded the text on which he Gothic, and Latin Dictionary. Mitigation of punishment promised to Tyre THE ITALA, OR ANTEHIERONYMIAN. and Sidon in the day of judgment. Previously to the time of St. Jerome, a "Now I say unto you, O cities, hat in the day great variety of Latin versions of parts or the of judgment, to Tyre and Sidon, chole of both the Old and New Testaments, there shall be repose, which shall not be to had been made by different persons for their you.' own use; and these appear to have been as Various as the skill and talents of the translators As none of these have been received foto public use in the church, so it is not likely that they had any particular name: but modern times have given the title of Italac, Thou art the rock of my religion (that is, a Rata, or Antehieronymian, to all such Latin stone,) and the foundation of my church versions. Though the word Itala be of the most shall be a building upon thee, Matt. xvi. 18. To weaken the reproof given by our Lord dubious authority, yet all allow that by it, a to Peter, which the translator probably very ancient Latin translation is intended: but bow such a translation became thus de: thought too degrading, the offensive epithet Satan is omitted, Matt. xvi. 23. Jesus turned back, and said unto Peter, nominated, no person can tell; if, indeed, it have had any such title in ancient times. Popish saying about hell, Mark ix. 46. for, This title is supposed to be mentioned by St. Get behind me, O thou unbeliever Augustin, where, speaking of the great variety of Latin versions in early use, he says, rhere their rorm dieth not and the fire is In ipais autem interpretationibus Itala, cate not quenched, Al Tabreezy translates, 5 ris praferarur; nam est verborum tenaciors who Gull Because from

It appears that neither Wheeloc nor Wai
ton knew of more than three MSS. of the Per-
sian Gospels; one of Oxford, one of Cam-
bridge, and one belonging to Dr. Pocock. It
has been supposed, I think, without sufficient
evidence, that Wheeloc compiled his Persian
many places, I think I may safely state, that
text from these three MSS. After carefully
collating both this and Walton's edition, in
Wheeloc printed his edition from the Oxford
MS. as Walton printed his from that of Po-
cock. In a few cases, he introduces in brack-
oets, or with an asterisk, a various reading
Pocock: but in his comment or critical notes,
from the Cambridge MS. rarely from that of
he refers often to both these MSS. giving the
dently followed as his text. That the MSS.
most remarkable readings where they differ
from the Oxford MS., which he has most evi-
which Walton printed in the fifth volume of
of Pocock, from which Mr. Wheeloc gives the
principal various readings, was the same
the Polyglott, is demonstrable from a collation
of those various readings extracted by Whee-
be precisely the same with those in the text
loc from the Pocock MS. which are found to
and rubrics of that printed in the Polyglott.
text, is evident from this, that his various
And that Wheeloc took the Oxford MS. for his
readings are extracted only from the Cam-
not a corrupted text, or one made up from
bridge and Pocock MSS. collated with that of
Oxford. The text, therefore, of Wheeloc, is
different MSS. It is much more simple and
appears to been made by one
much purer than that in the Polyglott, and
by any religious system, as Al Tabreezy cer-
tainly was; and by one who better under.
stood the genius and composition of the Per-
sian language.-As far as I have had the op-
portunity of examining this version, it ap-

And in verse 48, he translates the same pas-
sageli Das From thence thou
In Luke ii. 7. the blessed Virgin is called
shalt never find redemption.
Mareem pak, Saint Mary.
The title to the paragraph, Luke v. 18, &c.
is "The raising of that paralytic person who
whose name iras Alekudemus.
had lain 32 years,


tum perspicuitate sententia. "Among the thence liberation is impossible.
versions, the Itala is to be preferred, as being
more and more
Doctr. Christ. lib. if. cap. 11. Dr. Lardner
Fapposes that Hala here, is a mistake for et
Ila, and reads the passage thus: "and among
the translations let that be preferred which is
pears to me to be taken verbatim from the
most literal and most perspicuous."
Bentley, and some others, were nearly of the
Lk. vii. 12. Prayer for the dead. "And when Latin Vulgate, and not from the Greek, as
same mind. Potter thinks that Itala is ar
Jeronymo Xavier, missionary to the Indi-
early mistake for usitata, which mistake may he approached the gate, he saw a dead man, some, or the Syriac, as others, have supposed.
be accounted for thus: in ancient times, whom they were carrying out, 4, 4
ans, was commanded by the emperor Akbar
When MSS. were written in uncial charac
with prayer and lamentation."
Doctrine of the merit of good works and to translate the four Gospels into Persian,
ters, without distinction of words and sen-
tences, a copyist having written:-INIPSISAU repentance for the purchase of the remission that he might examine their importance as a
TEM STERPRETATIONIBUSUSITATACAETERIS of sins. And I say unto thee, that as a recom- system of religion. Xavier undertook this
PRAEFERATURNAMESTVERBORUMTENACIOR Tense (e awaz) for what she has done, work, and by the assistance of a person named
Moulance Aboos Sitar, a native of Lahoor,
Aret syllable of usitata, on returning to his
made a history of the life of our Lord, com-
MS for the last yllable of the word interpre-
piled out of the Gospels, and from popish le-
tationibus, which he had just written, and of
gends, and presented it to the emperor in
well he might, as the genuine history was
Course read the word itata, which he con-
1602, who is said to have smiled at it: and
cluded to be an error for itala; and hence
disgraced with fables. The MS. formed for
came the present spurious reading." See Dr.

her sins, which are many, are forgiven; for
that very cause, that she was worthy of much,
or has much merit. disalibus But lit
tle shall be forgiven to him, who has little
merit, Luke vii. 47. The same doctrine is
taught chap. xvi. 9.
The doctrine of supererogation is glanced

Account of different Versions

the Armenians themselves. The author is
universally allowed to have been Miesrob,
the same who invented the Armenian alpha-
t appears to have been first made from
the Syriac; but having been twice translates
from that language, it was last of all transla-
ted from the Greek. This is allowed by learn-
el men to be a very valuable version; and
contains various readings of great impor-
tance: but it has not as yet been accurately


THE BOHEMIAN The red writings were translated into the Bohemian language by eight Bohemian doctors, who had been sent to Wittemberg tal Bud to study the original langttages for this purpose. This translation was printed in Moravia, in the year 1539. I know nothing of the meat of this version: Griesbach has given a few readings from it, which he renivel from Professor Dobrowsky, ui Mos


Various Versions.


List of primitive Fathers, &c.

the emperor's use is now before me; but such patriarch of the Maronite Christians, in the | much still remains to be done. The text a version can be of no importance in Biblical year 1552, to Pope Julius III to acknowledge, should be settled by a further collation of the Criticism. The work of Xavier was published in the name of the Syrian church, the supre-most ancient MSS. When this is done, the with a translation and notes by L. De Dieu. macy of the Roman pontiff; and to have the Latin church may be vindicated in that boast THE SAHIDIC. New Testament printed in Europe. The eming in the Vulgate, which at present, is but Upper Egypt, or the part that lies between peror Ferdinand I. bore the expense of the incautiously applied to this version. Canira and Assuan, had a particular dialect, impression, and Albert Widmanstad, in con- I have often quoted this version, which I which in many respects differed from that Junction with Moses and Postel, edited the consider to be equal to a MS. of the fourth spoken in Lower Egypt. As this Upper Egypt work; which was printed at Vienna, 1555, 4to. century. I must, however, add, that with all was called in Arabic o sacel, the dialect This edition, from which all succeeding edi- its imperfections, there is nothing essential to has been called Sahidic. See Michelis. At tions have been taken, contains the four Gos-the faith n practice of a genuine Christian, a very early period, a translation of the Newpels, the Acts, all St. Paul's Epistles, the first that may not be proved by it; but it certainly Testament was made into this dialect; but Epistle of John, the first of Peter, and the can never come into competition with the ori the remains of this venerable version have Epistle of James. The second and third of ginal Greek text; nor, indeed, with several long been confined to perishing MSS till John are wanting; the second of Peter, the of the ancient versions. Munter published some fragments of the Epis- Epistle of Jude, and the Revelation. None tles of Paul to Timothy, 4to. Hafnie, 1739. of these is acknowledged by any copy of the And Georgius, in the same year, printed at ancient Syriac version. This version was Rome, a fragment of the Gospel of John, in made probably between the second and third the same dialect; which the reader will find centuries. described under Codex T. in the account of the MSS. in uncial characters.

An account of versions, as far as concerns the Old Testament, may be seen in the General Preface to the Book of Genesis. I have sometimes quoted these versions collectively, with VV. by which I mean the versions in general.


The Philoxenian, we have seen, was made in the beginning of the sixth century, by PoDr. Wolde, late of the British Museum, had lycarp, the rural bishop of Philoxenus, or prepared an edition of several fragments, con- Xenyas, bishop of Mabug; and we find that taining about one third of the New Testa Thamas of Charkel, or Heraclea, about the ment, which he did not live to finish: but the year 616, corrected this version and compared task has been ably executed by Dr. Ford, of it with some principal MSS. in the AlexanOxford, who has printed it at the Clarendon drian library; hence it has been called the press, 1799, fol. as an Appendix to the Coles Heraclean, as well as the Philoxenian ver Alexandrinus, by Dr. Woide. This work, | sion. This version has been printed from which is done with elegance and correctness, Dr. Ridley's MSS. by Dr. White of Oxford, has three copper plates, on which there are 4to. 1778, &c. The Philoxenian version connineteen far similes of the MSS from which tains all the canonical books of the New TesDr. Ford has printed these fragments. In tanient, even those omitted by the Peshito carefully considering this venerable version, version, from which it differs not only in the there appear to be arguments to prove its very language, but in many other respects. Those high antiquity, which Dr. Wolde refers even who wish for further information on this to the beginning of the second century. The point, must consult Michaelis's Lectures, parts already published exhibit some invalu- Vol. II. p. 1, &c. and the notes of his learned able readings; and these prove that it has a annotator, Dr. Herbert Marsh. striking affinity to the Codex Beza. It is THE VULGATE. doubtless one of the oldest versions in exis- We have already seen, under the article tence; and it is to be hoped that every frag Itala, that in the earliest ages of Christianity, ment of it will be collected and published, the New Testament had been translated into till, if possible, we get the whole of the New Latin. These translations were very nume Testament in this most ancient and invalurous, and having been made by a variety of able version. The Coptic and Sahidic are in-hands, some learned, and others not so; they dependent versions, both made from the not only disagreed among themselves, but Greek, and probably at different times; and appeared, in certain cases, to contradict each both contain different readings. See Coptic. other. This induced Pope Damasus to emTHE SAXON, OR ANGLO-SAXON. ploy St. Jerome, one of the most learned of It is said that Alfred the Great translated the primitive Latin Fathers, to correct the anthe greater part of the New Testament into cient Itala. Though, in the Old Testament, the Anglo-Saxon. The four Gospels in this he is supposed simply to have collated the language were published under the direction Itala with the Hebrew, yet in the New he of Archbishop Parker, with a dedication to asserts, Novum Testamentum Græcæ fidei Queen Elizabeth, by Mr. John Fox, the Mar- reddidi, "I have translated the New Testatyrologist, 4to. London, 1571. William Lisle ment according to the original Greek." Howpublished fragments of the Old and New Tes-ever, it appears, that in many cases he altered tament, London, 4to. 1638. Mr. T. Marshall the Itala for the worse, as the remaining frag published the Gospels with the Meso-Gothic ments of that version sufficiently testify. version, Dodrecht, 4to. 1665, which was re- This important work, which, in process of printed at Amsterdam in 1684. See Gothic. time, supplanted the Ifala, was finished A. D. The Saxon version appears to have been made 394, and was called VersioVulgata, the Vulgate, from MSS. of the old Itala version, (see Itala,) or Common Version, because received into ge some time in the seventh or eighth century. neral use. No version of the Sacred Writings See the account in the General Preface to the was more generally received than this; and Book of Genesis. From this version I have copies of it were multiplied beyond calcula made many extracts, in these notes; as may tion. And perhaps scarcely any book has be seen in different parts of the four Gospels. been more corrupted by frequent and careless The use I have made of Thwaite's Octateuch, transcription, than the Vulgate, from the year may be seen in the notes on the five Books of 384, till the invention of printing, about the Moses. No part of the New Testament, De- middle of the fifteenth century. The first sides the four Gospels, has been published in edition of this version was printed by Gutthis language. tenburg and Fust, at Mayence, in large fol. THE SLAVONIAN, OR RUSSIAN. sine titulo, et sine ulla nota, somewhere heThis version, the importance of which in tween 1450 and 1457. By the order of Pope the criticism of the New Testament, has been Sixtus Quintus, a complete edition of the but lately known, was made in the ninth cen- Vulgate was printed at Rome in 1588, but not tury, by two brothers, Methodius and Cyril, published till 1593. This, though stamped natives of Thessalonica, and apostles of the with the infallible authority of the pope, aposSlavonians. It was taken immediately from tolica nobis a Domino, tradita auctoritate; the Greek, of which it is a litera! version, and to be the authentic Vulgate, which he styles first printed in 1581. In the Catholic epistles. perpetuo valituram constitutionem, a decree and in the Apocalypse, it agrees generally that shall for ever remain in force; yet, on with the Codex Alexandrinus. It is remark-examination, it was found to be so excessively able, that of the readings which Griesbach erroneous and self-contradictory, that anohas adopted in his edition of the Greek Tes-ther corrected edition was undertaken by the tament, the Slavonian version has at least authority of Pope Clement VIII. widely differ Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, was martyred three fourths Where the united evidence of ing from that of Sixtus. This is the edition about A. D. 107.-Irenaus, disciple of Poly. ancient MSS. is against a common realing, from which all those were formed which are carp; born in Greece about A. D. 150, martyr. the Slavonian agrees with these MSS. There now in common use. ed 202 --Isidore, of Pelusium, flourished in 431. is ample proof that it has not been altered I have already stated that copies of this ver- Jerome, one of the most eminent of the Latin from either the Vulgate, or any other version.sion have been often corruptly transcribed, Fathers; author of the translation of the The learned Dobrowsky has given an excel and hence the amazing disagreement be- Scriptures called the Vulgate; born about lent description of this version, an extract tween different MSS. This version being so A. D. 342; and died 420.-Justin Martyr, a from which may be seen in Dr. Marsh's much in request, and so many persons being Christian Philosopher, martyred A. D. 167.Notes to Michaelis, V., III 634. As it appears copyers by trade, in order to save time and Juvencus, one of the first Christian poets, that this version has been taken from anci- vellum, they wrote the words in contractions Courished about A. D. 329. ent and valuable Greek MSS. it deservesto be wherever it was possible: and by this means Lucifer Calaritanus, Lucifer, bishop of Cag better known and more carefully colated. the original reading, in various instances, was liari, in Sardinia, died A. D. 370, THE SYRIAC. lost. All these causes conspired, with the Mararius, an Egyptian monk, born at Alex There are two principal versions which go ignorance of the original tongues, which al- andria, A. D. 300.-Maximus, a native of Con under this name. 1. The Peshito, which sig- most universally prevailed in the middle ages, stantinople: he died about Á. D. 652 – Maxi nifies iteral or correct, and is the most an- in the Latin church, to bring this venerable mus Taurinensis, Max us Touars, t cient, and the most important. 2 That which version into a state of great imperfection; A. D. 662. is called Philoxenian, from Philoxenes, bi- from which it has not as yet wholly emerged. Nonnus, flourished in A. D. 410, and wrote a shop of Hierapolis or Mabug; who employed I have several MSS. of this work, written paraphrase of St. John's Gospel, in Greek hexPolycarp, his rural bishop, to make this ver- from the twelfth to the fifteenth century. sion, which he finished A. D. 508. which are exceedinglydiscordant among thein-Opus Imperfectum, an ancient unfinished selves. Pope Clement VIII has certainly done Commentary on St. Matthew's Gospel, wittmuch to restore it to its primitive purity; but ten about A. D. 560.--Origen, one of the most


The Peshito was first known in Europe by Moses of Mardin; who was sent by Ignatius,

An Alphabetical List of the Primitive Fathers and Ecclesiastical Works referred to in the various Readings quoted occasionally in these Notes.

Ambrosius, Archbishop of Milan, born A. D.
340; died A. D. 397.-Ambrosius, deacon of
Alexandria, and intimate friend of Origen,
died A. D. 250.-Ambrosiaster: this writer is
supposed to be author of a commentary on
St. Paul's Epistles; and to have flourished
about A. D. 354.-Athanasius, was bishop of
Alexandria, A. D. 326; died in 375.-Athena-
goras, a Christian philosopher of Athens,
flourished in A. D. 178.
Basil the Great, bishop of Cesarea, born in
Cappadocia, A.D. 329; died 379.-Basil, bishop
of Seleucia, flourished in 450.-Bede the Ve
nerable, born at Wermouth, in the diocese of
Durham, A. D. 673-Clemens Alexandrinus,
Clement of Alexandria, the preceptor of Ori-
gen, died A. D. 2:20.- Clemons Romanus, Cle-
ment of Roine, supposed to have been fellow-
labourer with Peter and Paul, and bishop of
Rome, A. D. 91.

Chromatius, bishop of Aquileia, and friend of
St. Jerome, flourished about A. D. 370.-Chro
nicon Pascale, the Paschal Chronicle: this
Chronicle extends from the creation to the
twentieth year of Heraclius, A. D. 630.—
Chrysostom, bishop of Constantinople, born
A. D. 344; died 407.-Constitutions of the
Apostles, certain canons for the government
of the Christian church, formed at different
times, and certainly long posterior to the
times of the apostles.-Cyprian, bishop of
Carthage, in 248: was martyred A. D. 258.-
Cyrillus Alexandrinus. This Cyril was pa
triarch of Alexandria A. D. 412; died 444.-.
Cyrillus Hierosolymitanus, Cyril, bishop of
Jerusalem, was born A. D. 315; died 386.
Damascenus Joannes, John of Damascus,
born about A. D. 676.--Dionysius Alexan-
drinus, Dionysius, patriarch of Alexandria,
flourished in 247-Dionysius Areopagita,
Dionysins, the Areopagite, falsely so called,
flourished about A. D. 490.
Ephraim Syrus, Ephraim the Syrian, was
deacon of Edessa, and died about A. D. 379.
-Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, horn about
A. D. 320.-Eusebius, bishop of Antioch, fou-
rished in 331.-Euthalius: this wiiter flou-
rished about A. D. 458, and wrote a critical
work on the Acts of the Apostles. He is
supposed to have been bishop of Sulca, in
Egypt.-Euthymius Zigabenus, a monk
who flourished in the treelfth century.
Gaudentius, bishop of Brescia, flourished in
410-Gregory the Great, bishop of Rome,
flourished in 590.-Gregory Thaumaturgus,
was a disciple of Origen, and bishop of Neo
Cæsarea in 240.-Gregory Nazianzen, born
A. D. 328; died 389.-Gregory Nyssen, born
in Cappadocia, A. D. 331; die 396.
Hieronymus. See Jerome.-Hilary Picta-
vensis, Hilary, bishop of Poicters, flourish.
ed A. D. 350.-Hippolytus, a Christian oishop,
flourished A. D. 230.




eminent of the Greek Fathers, born at Alex- the exact words of the sacred writers, but the, of the oldest extant, I have not mentioned andria, A. D. 183. sense; and often rendering a word by another among the MSS. described p. x. xi. because Pacianus, bishop of Barcelona, died A.D. 390.-equivalent to it, in the same language. This it has not been quoted by Griesbach, not being Phabadius, or Phirgadius, was of the pro- sort of quotation has given rise to a vast num-published when the first volume of his Testa vince of Aquitain, of which he was bishop; ber of various readings, which should never ment went to the press. The work in which he flourished about A. D. 359.-Photius, pa- encumber the margins of our critical editions Dr. Barrett has described this, I have quoted triarch of Constantinople, A. D. 857.-Pru-of the Greek text; though many of them may largely in the notes on the genealogy of our deatius, (Clemens Aurelius) of Saragossa, in be of use, as fixing the sense in which the wri-Lord at the end of Luke, chap. iii. Spain, flourished about A D. 405. ters understood the original text. Those fa- Every biblical student, in consulting the Rufinus. Presbyter of Aquileia, an eminent thers who comment on the Sacred Writings sacred writings of the New Testament translator of Greek authors into Latin: he [are most valuable, such as Origen, Ambrosi should have at hand, if possible, the second died A. D. 410. aster, Euthalius, Chrysostom, Jerome, Theo-edition of Griesbach; I mean that printed at Scholia, or Scholieste, marginal notes in phylact, &c. because it may be always sup- Halle, two volumes 8vo. 1796, &c. On the late some ancient MSS. &c. posed they had the copies before them, froin London edition of that work, equal dependTertullian, a most eminent Latin Father, died which they quoted; and that these copies were ance cannot be placed. about A. D. 216.-Theophilus, bishop of Anti-such as were held to be authentic in the Those who have not a polyglott, to refer to och, flourished about A. D. 190.-Theophylact, churches to which they respectively belonged. the Syriac version, will find Schaaf 's edition archbishop of Acris, in Bulgaria, died A. D. But even here we find the same father incon to answer every purpose; it is generally very 1100-Theophanes Cerameus, bishop of Tau-sistent with himself in repeated quotations of correct and very valuable. A new edition of romine, in Sicily, flourished in the 11th cen- the same words; which is perhaps not so the Syriac Testament is now in the press, at tury-Titus Bostrensis; he was bishop of much to be attributed to quoting from memo the expense of the British and Foreign Bible Bostria some time in the fourth century. ry, as to mistakes made by succeeding copy Society, under the direction of the Rev. Dr. Victor Antiochenus, flourished about A.D. 400: ists of the works of these authors. The differ-Claudius Buchanan, who has made this text he wrote on St. Mark's Gospel, and on the ent MS of the Greek and Latin fathers, stand his particular study; and has brought from Catholic Epistles-Victor Tununensis, bi-as much in need of coilation as any other the east scine valuable MSS. of this important shop of Tunis, in Africa, flourished about, and some of them need this as much and ancient version. -Victorinus Afer, (C. M.) was an African, as the Greek text itself. and flourished in A. D. 360.-Vigillus Tep sensis, hishop of Tapsum, in Africa, flourish | e about A. D. 484. For farther information concerning these and other writers mentioned in the work, see Core's Historia Literaria, and Dr. Lardner's works. GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. The above writers are only referred to for the quotations from the Sacred Writings found In their works. The Latin fathers, before the time of Jerome, i. e. before the fourth century, quote from the Itala version. Toose after his time, generally make their quotations from the Vulgate The Greek Fathers quote from the different editions of the Greek text in their respective countries. Ephraim Syrus, and probly some others, from the ancient Synac version.

While the critical inquirer is availing himIn quoting the Greek text, I have generally self of every help with his reach, let him followed the second edition of Griesbach, oc- not forget humbly and fervently to implers casionally consulting Mill, Wetstein, and Ben- the help and teaching of Almighty God; withgel for the different versions, as far as they out whom, nothing is wise, nothing strong. are extant in it, I have followed the London It is only when He opens our eyes that we polyglott, occasionally consulting both the behold wonders in his law. He who does not Complutenslan and Antwerp editions. The pray, is not humble; and an unhumbled Coptic, Gothic, Sahidic, Philoxenian, Syriac, 'searcher after truth never yet found it to the and Anglo Saxon, which are not in the poly-salvation of his soul. In such a work, the glotts, I have consulted the editions to which following inimitable prayer cannot be used in they are confined. The Vulgate I have fre- vain: "Blessed Lord, who hast caused all quently consulted in my own MSS, of that Holy Scriptures to be written for our learnversion. The Codex Alexandrinus and the ing. grant that we may in such wise hear Codex Bezre, I have often quoted from the edi- them, read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest tions of Woide, and Kipling. I have taken a them, that by patience and comfort of thy few readings from some fragments of Matholy word, we may embrace, and ever hold thew's Gospel, engraven and published from fast, the blessed hope of everlasting life, which a codex rescriptus in Trinity College, Dub-thou hast given us in our Saviour Jesus lin, by the very learned Dr. Barrett, vice pro-Christ." Amen. Collect for the second Sun

Of the fathers in general, it may be said,vost and librarian of that university. This day of Advent.
they often quote from memory; not giving MS, written in uncial letters, and perhaps one! London, Feb. 21, 1914.


xxix. 45. Lev. xxvi. 15. and Deut. xxix. 12. where every thing relative to this subject is largely handled.

The term New Covenant, as used here, seems to mean, that grand plan of agreement or reconciliation which God made between himself and mankind, by the death of Jesus Christ; in consequence of which, all those who truly repent, and unfeignedly believe in the great atoning sacrifice, are purified from their sins, and united to God. Christ is called rns AcaOnens katvns μeairns. The Mediator of the New Covenant, Heb. ix. 15. And referring to the ratification of this New Covenant, or agreement, by means of his own death, in the cele bration of his last supper, Christ calls the cup, Tо nоrпptov, T Kain Aia@nen ev to alpari poy, This cup is the New Covenant in my blood: i. e. an einblem or representation of the New Covenant, ratified by his blood. See Luke xxii. 20. And from these expressions and their obvious meaning, the whole Christian Scriptures have obtained this title, THE NEW TES TAMENT, OR COVENANT, OF OUR LORD AND SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST.


THE general title of this latter collection of Sacred Books, which, as well as the former, all Christians acknowledge to have been given by immediate inspiration from God, is in the Greek H KAINH AIAOHKH, which we translate THE NEW TESTAMENT: but which should rather be translated THE NEW COVENANT; or, if it were lawful to use a periphrasis, The New Corenant, including a Testamentary Declaration and Bequest: for this is precisely the meaning of this system of justice, holiness, goodness, and truth. t. Paul, 2 Cor. iii. 14. calls the Sacred Books before the time of Christ, H ПAAAIA AIAOHKH, THE OLD COVENANT; which is a very proper and descriptive title of the grand subject of those Books. This apostle evidently considers the Old Testaments and the New, as two Covenants, Gal. iv. 24. and in comparing these two together, he calls one, zadatur čianky, the old covenant, the other kawny, the new; one пoorny, the first, the other year, that which is recent; in opposition to the old cove aant, which was to terininate in the new, he calls this kpciT Tova, better, more excellent, Heb. vii. 22. viii. 6. and atovlov, everlasting, Heb. xiii. 20. because it is never to be changed, nor terminate in any other: and to endure endlessly The word Covenant, from con, together, and venio, I come; signifies a contract or agreement, made between two parties; to fulfil the conditions of which, they are mutually bound. The Old Covenant, in its essential parts, was very simple. I WILL BE YOUR GOD: YE SHALL BE MY PEOPLE-the spirit of which was never changed. The people were to take Jehovah as the sole object of their religious worship, put their whole trust and confidence in Him; serve Him in his own way, ac- The particular title to each of the four following Books, in cording to the prescribed forms which He should lay before most Greek MSS, and printed editions, is EYAFTEAION KaTa them. This was their part. On His side, God was to accept MATOAION-MAPKÓN-AOYKAN-IOANNHN, which we them as His people, give them His Spirit to guide them, His translate, The Gospel according to Matthew-Mark-Luke→→ mercy to pardon them, His providence to support them, and John; i. e. the Gospel or history of our blessed Lord, as writ His grace to preserve them unto eternal life. But all this was ten and transmitted to posterity by each of these writers. Our connected with the strict observance of a great variety of rites word GOSPEL, which should always be written godspel or and ceremonies, at once expressive of the holiness of God, the godespel, comes from the Anglo-Saxon gocrpel, and is coinpurity of the Divine Justice, and the exceeding sinfulness and pounded of god, good, and rpel, history, narrative, doctrine, utter helpless state of man. A great part of the four latter mystery, or secret; and was applied by our ancestors, to sig Books of Moses, is employed in prescribing and illustrating nify the revelation of that glorious system of truth, which had these rites and ceremonies, and what is called the New Cove-been, in a great measure, hidden or kept secret from the founnant, is the complement and perfection of the whole. dation of the world.

Those writings, and the grand subject of them, which, preitself.viously to the New Testament times, were termed simply THE Covenant; were, after the Incarnation, called The OLD Cove nant, as we have already seen, to distinguish them from the Christian Scriptures, and their grand subject, which were called The NEW Covenant; not so much because it was a new agreement, but rather a renewal of the old, in which the spirit, object, and design of that primitive Covenant were more clearly and fully manifested.

The word Alabŋên, from dia, and roŋut, I lay down, signi fies not only a covenant agreement, but also that disposal which a man makes of his secular matters during his life, which is to take place after his death. It answers to the He brew berith, from bar, to purify, because in making covenants, a sacrifice was usually offered to God for the purification of the contracting parties; and hence the word berith, is frequently used to express not only the covenant it-dict; to prophesy, to divine: and in this latter sense, the self, but also the sacrifice offered on the occasion. See below word spell, spell, was anciently used among us, and still sigunder GOSPEL; and see the notes ou Gen. vi. 18. v. 18. Exod.nifies an incantation, or a charm; which implies a peculiar

Among Saxon scholars, the word GOSPEL has been variously explained. Mr. Somner, who writes it god rpell, explains it thus, Sermo Dei mysticus; Dei historia. "The mystic word of God; the history of God." But he upposes that it may be compounded of god, good, and rpell, a message: and very properly observes, that godrpelian, signifies, not only to preach or proclaim the Gospel; but also to foretel, or pre

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