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but to none who are not then present in the congregation. (1)
IV. Private masses, or receiving this sacrament by a priest, or any other, alone ;(2) as likewise the denial of the cup to the people; (3) worshipping the elements, the lifting them up, or carrying them about for adoration, and the reserving them for any pretended religious use; are all contrary to the nature of this sacrament, and to the institution of Christ. (4)
V. The outward elements in this sacrament, duly set apart to the uses ordained by Christ, have such relation to him crucified, as that truly, yet sacramentally only, they are sometimes called by the name of the things they represent, to wit, the body and blood of Christ ;(5) albeit, in substance and nature,
(1) Acts xx. 7. And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, (ready to depart on the morrow) and continued his speech until midnight. 1 Cor. xi. 20. When ye come together therefore into one place, this is not to eat the Lord's supper.
(2, 3) IV. Because there is not the least appearance of a warrant for any of these things, either in precept or example, in any part of the word of God. See all the places in which the ordinance is mentioned; the most important of which are cited above.
(4) Matt. xv. 9. But in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.
(5) V. Matt. xxvi. 26, 27, 28. And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, 'Take, eat; this is my body. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it: for this is my blood of the new testament which is shed for many for the remission of sins.
they still remain truly, and only, bread and wine, as they were before. (1)
VI. That doctrine which maintains a change of the substance of bread and wine, into the substance of Christ's body and blood (commonly called transubstantiation) by consecration of a priest, or by any other way, is repugnant, not to Scripture alone, but even to common sense and reason; overthroweth the nature of the sacrament; and hath been, and is the cause of manifold superstitions, yea, of gross idolatries. (2)
VII. Worthy receivers, outwardly partaking of the visible elements in this sacrament, (3) do then also inwardly by faith, really and indeed, yet not carnally and corporally, but spiritually, receive and feed upon Christ crucified, and all benefits of his death: the body and blood of Christ being then not corporally or carnally in,
(1) 1 Cor. xi. 26, 27. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the Lord's death till he come. Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord.
(2) VI. Acts iii. 21. Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets, since the world began. 1 Cor. xi. 24, 25, 26. This do in remembrance of me.- This do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the Lord's deatn till he come. Luke xxiv. 6, 39. He is not here, but is risen. Remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee.-Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.
(3) VII. 1 Cor. xi. 28. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. 1 Cor v. 7, 8.
with, or under the bread and wine; yet as really, but spiritually, present to the faith of believers in that ordinance, as the elements themselves are, to their outward senses. (1)
VIII. Although ignorant and wicked men receive the outward elements in this sacrament, yet they receive not the thing signified thereby; but by their unworthy coming thereunto are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, to their own damnation. Wherefore all ignorant and ungodly persons, as they are unfit to enjoy communion with him, so are they unworthy of the Lord's table, and cannot, without great sin against Christ, while they remain such, partake of these holy mysteries, (2) or be admitted thereunto. (3)
(1) 1 Cor. x. 16. The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? 1 Cor. x. 3, 4.
(2) VIII. 1 Cor. xi. 27, 29. Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation (judgment) to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. 2 Cor. vi. 14, 15, 16. Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers; for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness ? and what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial ? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel? And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols ? For ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. 1 Cor. x. 21. Ye cannot drink he cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils.
(3) 1 Cor. v. 6, 7, 13. Your glorying is not good.
OF CHURCH CENSURES.
THE Lord Jesus, as king and head of his church, hath therein appointed a government in the hand of church-officers, distinct from the civil magistrate. (1)
Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us. But them that are without, God judgeth. Therefore put away from among yourselves that wicked person. 2 Thess. iii. 6, 14, 15. Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the tradition which he received of us.-And if any man obey not our word by this epistle, note that man, and have no company with him, that he may be ashamed. Yet count him not as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother. Matt. vii. 6. Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you.
(1) I. Isa. ix. 6,7. For unto us a child is born, unto as a Son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder; and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this. 1 Tim. v. 17. Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine. 1Thess. v. 12. And we beseech you, brethren, to know them which labour among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you. 1 Cor. xii. 28 And God hath set some in the church: first, apos II. To these officers the keys of the kingdom of heaven are committed, by virtue whereof they have power respectively to retain and remit sins, to shut that kingdom against the impenitent, both by the word and censures; and to open it unto penitent sinners, by the ministry of the gospel, and by absolution from censures, as occasion shall require. (1)
III. Church censures are necessary for the reclaiming and gaining of offending brethren, for deterring of others from like offences; for purging out of that leaven which might infect the whole lump; for vindicating the honour
tles; secondarily, prophets; thirdly, teachers; after that, miracles; then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues. Ps. ii. 6, 7, 8, 9. John xviii. 36.
(1) II. Matt. xvi. 19. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven; and what soever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed in hea
Matt. xviii. 17, 18. And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church; but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. Verily I say unto you, whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. John xx. 21, 22, 23. Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: as my Father hath sent me, even so send I you. And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained. 2 Cor. ii. 6, 7, 8. Sufficient to such a man is this punishment, which was inflicted of many. So that contrariwise, ye ought rather to forgive him, and comfort him, lest perhaps such an one should be swallowed up with overmuch surrow. Wherefore I beseech you, that ye would confirm your love toward him.