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Q. 162. What is a sacrament?
A. A sacrament is an holy ordinance instituted by Christ in his church, (1) to signify, seal, and exhibit (2) unto those that are within the covenant of grace, (3) the benefits of his mediation; (4) to strengthen and increase their
done. [His baptism, notwithstanding, was ineffectual to any saving purpose, for Peter said to him] ver. 23,I perceive that thou art in the gall of bitterness, and in the bond of iniquity. 1 Cor. iii. 7. So, then, neither is he that planteth any thing, neither he that watereth; but God that giveth the increase. 1 Cor. vi. 11.-But ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.
(1) Matt. xxviii. 19. Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Matt. xxvi. 26, 27. And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body.
(2) Rom. iv. 11. And he [Abraham] received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had, yet being uncircumcised; that he might be the father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed unto them also. 1 Cor. xi. 24, 25.
(3) Rom. ix. 8.-The children of the promise are counted for the seed. Gal. iv. 28. Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. Rom. xv. 8,9.
(4) Acts ii. 38. Then Peter said unto them, Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. 1 Cor. x. 16. The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? Acts xxii. 16.
faith, and all other graces, (1) to oblige them to obedience; (2) to testify and cherish their love and communion one with another, (3) and to distinguish them from those that are without. (4)
Q. 163. What are the parts of a sacrament?
A. The parts of a sacrament are two: the one, an outward and sensible sign used according to Christ's own appointment; the other, an inward and spiritual grace thereby signified. (5)
(1) Rom. xv. 8, 9. Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers: and that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. Gal. iii. 27.
(2) Rom. vi. 4. Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death; that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life. 1 Cor. x. 21. Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils.
(3) 1 Cor. xii. 13. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles. whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit. 1 Cor. x. 17.-We, being many, are one bread, and one body: for we are all partakers of that one bread. Eph. iv. 3, 4, 5.
(4) Eph. ii. 19. Now, therefore, ye are no more strangers, and foreigners, but fellow-citizens with the saints, and of the household of God. Gen. xxxiv. 14.
(5) Matt. iii. 11. I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance: but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire 1 Pet. iii. 21.
Q. 164. How many sacraments hath Christ instituted under the New Testament?
A. Under the New Testament Christ hath instituted in his church only two sacraments, baptism, and the Lord's supper. (1)
Q. 165. What is baptism?
A. Baptism is a sacrament of the New Testament, wherein Christ hath ordained the washing with water in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, (2) to be a sign and seal of ingrafting into himself, (3) of remission of sins by his blood, (4) and regene.ation by his Spirit; (5) of adoption, (6) and resurrection unto everlasting life: (7) and whereby the parties baptized are solemnly ad
(1) 1 Cor. xi. 23. See figure (1), page 335.
(2) Matt. xxviii. 19. Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.
(3) Gal. iii. 27. For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ. Rom. vi. 3.
(4) Acts xxii. 16.-Arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins. Mark i. 4. John did baptize in the wil derness, and preach the baptism of repentance, for the remission of sins. Rev. i. 5.
(5) John iii. 5.—Except a man be born of water, and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. Tit. iii. 5.-According to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost.
(6) Gal. iii. 26, 27. For ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus. For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ.
(7) 1 Cor. xv. 29. Else what shall they do which are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all? why are they then baptized for the dead?
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, doth signify and seal our ingrafting into Christ and partaking of the benefits of the covenant of grace, and our engagement to be the Lord's.
Q. 95. To whom is baptism to be adminis tered?
A. Baptism is not be administered to any that are out of the visible church, till they profess their faith in Christ, and obedience to him: but the infants of such as are members of the visible church, are to be baptized.
Q. 96. What is the Lord's supper?
A. The Lord's supper is a sacrament, wherein, by giving and receiving bread and wine, according to Christ's appointment, his death is showed forth, and the worthy receivers are, not after a corporal and carnal manner, but by faith, made partakers of his body and blood, with all his benefits, to their spiritual nourishment and growth in grace.
Q. 97. What is required to the worthy receiving of the Lord's supper?
A. It is required of them that would worthily partake of the Lord's supper, that they examine themselves, of their knowledge to discern the Lord's body, of their faith to feed upon him, of their repentance, love, and new obedience; lest coming unworthily, they eat and drink judgment to themselves.
Q. 98. What is prayer?
A. Prayer is an offering up of our desires unto God, for things agreeable to his will, in the name of Christ, with confession of our sins, and thankful acknowledgment of his mercies.
Q. 167. How is our baptism to be improved by us?
A. The needful but much neglected duty of improving our baptism, is to be performed by as all our life long, especially in the time of temptation, and when we are present at the administration of it to others, (1) by serious and thankful consideration of the nature of it, and of the ends for which Christ instituted it, the privileges and benefits conferred and sealed thereby, and our solemn vow made therein; (2) by being humbled for our sinful defilement, our falling short of, and walking contrary to, the grace of baptism and our engagements; (3) by growing up to assurance of pardon of sin, and of all other blessings sealed to us in that sacrament; (4) by drawing strength from the
believing husband is sanctified by the wife; and the unbelieving wife is sanctified by the husband: else were your children unclean: but now are they holy. Rom. xi. 16. Gen. xvii. 7 to 9, compared with Gal. iii. 9 to 14, and Col. ii. 11, 12.
(1) Ps. xxii. 10, 11. I was cast upon thee from the womb thou art my God from my mother's belly. Be not far from me; for trouble is near.
(2) Rom. vi. 3, 4, 5.
(3) Rom. vi. 2, 3. God forbid. How shall we that are dead to sin, live any longer therein? Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were baptized into his death? 1 Cor. i. 11, 12, 13. Gal. iii. 1.
(4) Phil. iii. 7 to 10, 11. But what things were gain to me, those I counted loss for Christ :-That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death; if by any means I might attain unto the resur