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De una Religione ; De Bibliothecis ; Satira properties, to many others which inhabit
cies, one of which is a native of North Liqueur (from the French); a palat- America, and the others are confined to able spirituous drink, composed of wa- the northern and temperate parts of the ter, alcohol, sugar, and some aromatic eastern continent. They have pinnated infusion, extracted from fruits, seeds, leaves, and small, blue, violet, or white &c. The great difference in the quali- flowers, which are disposed in heads or ties of the different liqueurs is owing spikes, and are remarkable for the sweetprincipally to a variation in the propor- ness of the roots. The common liquorice tions of the sugar and alcohol. The (G. glabra) grows wild in the south of French distinguish three qualities : the Europe, and is cultivated in many places, first are the ratafias, or simple liqueurs, even in England, for the sake of the root, in which the sugar, the alcohol and the which is much used in pharmacy, and aromatic substance are in small quantities: forms a considerable article of commerce. such are the anise-water (9. v.), noyau, More than 200 tons of the extract are manthe apricot, cherry, &c. ratafias. The ufactured annually in Spain, à considerasecond are the oils, or the fine liqueurs, ble portion of which is sent to London, with more saccharine and spirituous and employed in the brewing of porter. matter ; as the anisette, curaçao, &c. It is often administered medicinally, in which are those commonly found in the coughs and pulmonary affections, and the cafés. The third are the creams, or su- aqueous infusion is exposed for sale in all perfine liqueurs, such as rosoglio, maras- the European cities, as a refreshing bevechino, Dantzic water, &c. The same ar- rage. A deep, light and sandy soil is best omatic infusion may, therefore, give its adapted to its culture. The American name to liqueurs of different qualities, in species (G. lepidota) inhabits the plains of which the materials are the same, but the the Missouri, from St. Louis upwards, exproportions different: thus one propor- tending even to the borders of the Pacific, tion of ingredients gives eau-de-noyau ; an- but is not found in the Atlantic states. other, crême-de-noyau, &c.
LIRIODENDRON. (See Tulip-Tree.) LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA, or SWEET LISBON (Lisboa), the chief city of Gum. This tree is widely diffused through Portugal, and the residence of the court, the U. States, from lat. 43° to Florida, and in the province of Estremadura, on the along the shores of the gulf into the prove right bank of the Tagus, which is here a inces of Mexico. The leaves, which mile and a half in width, and not far from somewhat resemble those of some maples, the mouth of the river, is built on three are very regularly five-lobed, and the hills, in a romantic country, and exhibits a lobes are serrated on the margin. The grand appearance from the harbor. Inflowers are inconspicuous. The fruit con- cluding the suburbs Junqueira and Alcansists of a sort of bur, supported on a long tara, it is about five miles in length, and a pedicle, and is somewhat similar to that mile and a half in breadth. It contains of the button-wood, or plane-tree, but is 40 parish churches, 75 convents, and 100 much less even, on the surface. It is chapels, 44,000 houses, and, before 1807, abundant every where throughout the had 300,000 inhabitants, but, at present, Middle, Southern, and Western States, has not inore than 200,000, among whom and sometimes has a trunk five feet in are many foreigners, Negroes, Mulattoes, diameter, with a proportional summit. Creoles, and 30,000 Galicians, who come The usual diameter, however, is from one from Spanish Galicia, and serve as porto three feet. The wood is compact, ca- ters and water carriers, and perform other pable of receiving a fine polish, and has menial occupations. The town is open, been used for articles of furniture ; but, without walls or gates. The highest hili for this purpose, it is inferior to either only has a castle, now in ruins; but the wild cherry or black walnut. It is, how- harbor is beautiful, capacious and safe, ever, employed for lining mahogany, for and is defended by four strong forts bedsteads, and for a variety of purposes in on the banks of the river (St. Juliana, St. the interior of houses, possessing great Bugio, the tower of Belem, &c.). Many strength, but requiring protection from the of the streets are very uneven, on account weather. The bark, on being wounded, of the hilly situation of the city. The vields a small quantity of a fragrant resin. finest are on the banks of the river. This tree is, however, inferior, in useful There are no elegant private buildings.
The houses of the nobility are distinguish- serve to be particularly mentioned. Among ed only by their size. The western part the literary institutions are the royal acadhas been beautifully rebuilt since the emy of sciences, the college of nobles, the dreadful earthquake (Nov. 1, 1755) which marine academy, with other seminaries, a destroyed half of the city, with the loss botanical garden, three observatories, the of 30,000 lives,* the streets being straight, royal cabinet of natural curiosities, and and regularly laid out, with fine houses several public libraries, among which is and squares. The eastern part of the city, the royal library, containing 80,000 volwhich was not affected by the earthquake, umes. Lisbon is the seat of the supreme has preserved its gloomy aspect-crooked authorities, and of the patriarch of Portustreets and old-fashioned houses, six and gal, with a numerous clergy. The inhabseven stories high. Lisbon was for- itants have but few manufactories: there merly known to be extremely filthy and are not even mechanics enough to supply unsafe ; but, at present, regulations have the demands of the city. But Lisbon is been made to provide for the public secu- the centre of Portuguese commerce, which rity, and the streets are well lighted. extends to most of the countries of EuAmong the squares, the principal are rope, to the U. States, and to the Portuthe Plaça do Commercio and the Rocio. guese possessions in other parts of the They are connected by handsome, wide, world. There are about 240 Portuguese straight streets. The former, on which and 130 foreign (principally English) merthe royal palace, now in ruins, was situ- cantile houses. From 1700 to 1800 vesated, lies on the bank of the Tagus, at sels arrive anuually at the port (Junqueithe landing-place of the harbor, is an ob- ra). The beautiful environs of the town long square, of 615 paces in length and are embellished by a great number 550 in breadth, and is surrounded, on (6—7000) country seats (quintas). In the three sides, with fine buildings (the fourth vicinity are Belem and the castles Ramais open towards the river). In the centre Thao and Quelus. there is a bronze statue of king Joseph I. Lisle, or LILLE (Flemish, Ryssel); a The Rocio, wliere the autos da fé were for- large and strong city of France, formerly merly exhibited, is a regular oblong, 1800 the capital of French Flan ders, and now feet in length and 1400 in width, with of the department of the North, situated on the new palace of the inquisition on one the Deule, in a dead flat. The Deule is side. In this square 10 streets meet. navigable, and is divided into several Among the churches, the new church is branches, part of which supply the moats the finest, and is the most magnificent or great ditches of the citadel and town building erected since the earthquake. The form of Lisle is an irregular oval: The patriarchal church, on an elevated its length, from north-west to south-east, is situation, which affords a beautiful view, nearly two miles; its breadth, about three is magnificent în its interior, and contains quarters; its circumference, between four rich treasures and many curiosities. The and five, exclusive of the earthen rampatriarch, the head of the Portuguese. parts that surround the town, and which church, has a large annual income. The are, in their turn, surrounded by a moat. aqueduct, about seven miles in length, is a Lisle presents an imposing appearance, remarkable construction. The centre is from its extent, its fortifications, its canals, so high, that a ship of the line might pass its squares, and its public buildings. Few under it. The water is carried over the cities of France can vie with it in the valley of Alcantara, on 35 marble arches. straightness and width of its streets, the It withstood the force of the earthquake, regularity of its buildings, and its general although the keystones sunk a few inches. air of neatness. Several convents have The St. Joseph's hospital, where 16,000 survived the revolution; the hospitals are sick, and the foundling bospital, where five, one very large. Lisle is a fortress of 1600 children, are annually received, de- the first rank. Its citadel, the masterpiece
of Vauban, is the first in Europe after that * The city then contained about 150,000 inhab- of Turin. It is a mile in circuit, and is itants. The shock was instantly followed by the
surrounded by a double. moat. The fall of every church and convent, almost all the
trade of Lisle is extensive. Its manufacLarge public buildings, and more than fourth of the houses. In about two hours after tures are of camlets, serges, and other the shock, fires broke out in different quarters, woollen stuffs, cotton, calico, linen, silk, and raged with such violence, for the space of velvet, lace, carpets, soap, starch, tobacco, nearly ihree days, that the city was completely leather, glass and earthenware. The oridesolatea. The earthquake happened on a holyJay, when the churches and convents were full of gin of this town is ascribed by tradition to people, very few of whom escaped
Julius Cæsar. Louis XIV took it froin
the Spaniards in 1667. It surrendered, in in 446, when that place was visited by re1708, to the duke of Marlborough and peated calamities; the former by Gregory prince Eugene. At the peace of Utrecht, the Great, during an ipundation of the it was restored to France. In 1792, it was Tiber, and a raging plague. This conbombarded by the Austrians, who were sisted of a song of seven choirs (hence obliged to retire, with the loss of 20,000 septiformis), of clergy, monks, nuns, boys, men. In 1815, Louis XVIII spent one girls, Roman citizens, and widows and marday here, before leaving France. Popu- ried women. The litany probablyconsisted, lation, 69,860 ; 18 miles east of Tournay; at first, of the words kyrie eleeson, but was lon. 3° 4' E.; lat. 50° 37' 50% N.
gradually enlarged. The litany was annuList; the enclosed ground wherein ally sung on the dies rogationum. At a later knights held their justs and tournaments; period, the litany was not only addressed so called because encircled with barriers to the Holy Trinity, but also, as we have as with a list. Some were double, one for said, to the saints, and sung in processions. each cavalier, so that they could not ap- This latter kind of litany of course was proach nearer than a spear's length. Hence omitted by the Protestants. The usual anto enter the lists, is to engage in contest. swer of the people is, Ora pro
nobis (pray Listel; a small square moulding, for us), if the litany is direcied to the Virserving to crown or accompany a larger, gin or a saint; or Libera nos (deliver us), if and to separate the flutings in columns. it is addressed to the Deity. lydecent
L'Istesso TEMPO (Italian); a phrase parodies have often been made on litaimplying that the movement before which nies, and sung in connexion with other it is placed is to be played in the same profane songs. In early times, 'vstances time as the previous movement.
occur of this being done, even by monks. LITANY (fiom the Greek dıravela, suppli- (See the note to the article Fools, Feast of.' cation, prayer); a form of prayer or song, The following parody is taken from the used on occasions of public calamity, first Cavalier's Letanje (1647): introduced, according to Zonaras and Ni
From too much keaping an evil de corum, cephorus, by Proclus, about the year 446, From the manyfold treasons parliamentorum, at Coustantinople, in the reign of Theodo- From Oliver Cromwell, dux omniunt malorum,
Libera nos. sius; according to Paulus Diaconus, under Justinian, at Antioch, in consequence of See the Sacræ Litaniæ variæ (Antwerp, the following circumstance: An earth- 1606), and Bingham's Origines Ecclesiasquake, says the legend, having driven the ticæ, for a great variety of litanies.—Thai people into the fields, a boy was suddenly this simple form of prayer and response taken up into the air in their presence; but has, at times, been of great advantage to was again let down unhurt, on the people the people cannot be denied; and, because crying out Kyrie eleeson! The boy related many litanies are poor, all ought not to be that he h d heard the songs of the angels, condemned. (See Liturgy.) “ Holy God! Holy and Mighty, Holy and LITCHFIELD; a post-town, and capital Immortal! have mercy upon us !” and this of Litchfield county, Connecticut; 30 miles gave rise to the litany. This kind of west of Hartford, 31 north-north-west of common prayer was, perhaps, not unusual New Haven, 329 from Washington ; lun. among the Jews, and the 136th Psalm 73° 37' W.; lat. 41° 50' N.; population, in seems to have been adapted to this pur- 1820, 4610 (for the population in 1830, see pose. Litanies afterwards became very United States); organized as a town in cominon, and every saint of the Roman 1721, and contains four large territorial calendar has bis litany. It must be own- parishes. The principal village is delighted, that some of these are very unmean- fully situated on an elevated plain, affording, enumerating all the names and mira- ing extensive and beautiful prospects. It cles attributed to the saint, and, in this re- was made a borough in 1818, and conspect, not unlike those prayers of the tains a court-house, a jail, a female acadRomans, which consisted inerely of a emy, a law school, a printing-office, a catalogue of the names of the deity ad- bank, and two houses of public worship,dressed, against which St. Paul gives a one for Congregationalists, and one for particular warning. Litanies are found Episcopalians--and has some trade. In in the old hymn-books of the Lutherans, the township, there are nine houses of but are no longer used by German Prot- public worship,--four for Congregational estants. The Catholic litanies are distin- ists, four for Episcopalians, and one for guished into the greater and less. The Baptists. It is a good agricultural town, and latter is said to have been composed by contains numerous mills and manufacturbishop Mamertus, of Vienne (in France), ing establishments, cotton manufactories
iron works, &c. Mount Tom, on the history is to show the same, manjfested in western border of the township, is 700 the various political establishments and feet high. There are four ponds in this changes. In a more limited sense, literary township, the largest of which comprises history treats of learned writings, their 900 acres.
There is a medicinal spring contents, fate, modifications, translations, within half a mile of the court-house. &c. (which is bibliography, q. v.), of the The law school in this town is a private lives and characters of their authors, the institution, established in 1782, by judge circumstances under which they wrote, Reeve. In 1798, judge Gould was asso- &c. (which constitutes literary biography). ciated with him. Since 1820, judge Gould The latter has also been called external has lectured alone. The students, how- literary history, the former internal literary ever, are weekly examined by another history, because it aims to show, in a congentleman. The number of students, nected view, the developement of sciences. from 1798 to 1827, both inclusive, was From its nature, it is obvious that literary 730. The number has been somewhat history could not fairly begin until manreduced, by the establishment of another kind had acquired extensive knowledge school in connexion with Yale college, of what has been done and written, wbich The students in this seminary study the required the preparatory study of centulaw by titles, in the order in which the ries, as well as a civilized intercourse lectures are given. The mode of instruc- among the various nations. This science tion is by lecturing on the several titles of is, indeed, of comparatively recent date, the law in an established order. The and we have by no means, even yet, a course of lectures occupies about 14 or 15 general literary history. What we have is months. One lecture is given every day. mostly confined to Europe ; at least, we are There are two vacations of four weeks yet too little acquainted with many parts each ; one in May, the other in October. and periods of the literary history of the The price of tuition is at the rate of $100 East, which has several times given an ima year.
pulse to the western world, to authorize us LIT DE JUSTICE was formerly a sol- to call what has hitberto been done a gen: emn proceeding in France, in which the eral literary history. The branch which king, with the princes of the blood royal, relates to Greece and Rome must remain of the peers, and the officers of the crown, surpassing importance. The ancients did state and court, proceeded to the parlia- not treat literary history as a distinct deinent, and there, sitting upon the throne partment of history. The literature of (which, in the old French language, was the Greeks, and, though not in the same called lit, because it consisted of an un- degree, that of the Romans, were so intider cushion, a cushion for the back, and mately connected with their religion and two under the elbows), caused those com- politics, that a separation of literary from mands and orders, which the parliament general bistory could not easily take place, did not approve,' to be registered in his besides, the materials were not sufficient presence. The parliament had the right to claim a separate consideration. Hence of remonstrating, in behalf of the nation, the classics contain only scattered notices against the royal commands and edicts. and detached materials for a literary hisIf the king, however, did not choose to tory, partly in biographies of poets, pliilosrecode from his measures, he first issued ophers, orators, grammarians, &c.; partly a written command (lettres de jussion) to in criticisms and extracts from their the parliament, and if this was not obey- writings. : ;
Such notices we find in the ed, he held the lit de justice. The parlia- works of M. Terentius Varro, Cicero, ment was then, indeed, obliged to submit, Pliny, Quinctilian, Aulus Gellius, Diobut it afterwards commonly made a pro- nysius of Halicarnassus, Pausanias, Athetest against the proceeding. Louis XV næus, and the biographers Plutarch, Sueheld such a lit de justice, in 1763, in order tonius, Diogenes Laertius, &c. Suidas to introduce certain imposts, but, on ac- and Photius likewise contribute names count of the firm resistance of the parlia- and titles. The iniddle ages contribute ments, he was finally obliged to yield. The only detached facts to the history of their last lits de justice were held by Louis literature, partly in chronicles, partly XVI, in 1787 and 1788.
in the confidential communications of LITERARY HISTORY is the science poets and other authors, respecting their whose object is to represent the develope- own lives. The first rude attempt at a iment or the successive changes of human compilation of general literary notices, yet civilization, as far as these are manifesi- without systematical order, was made by d in writings, as the object of political Polydore Virgil of Urbino in his work
De Inventoribus Rerum, which first ap- universities, and in higher schools, at least peared in print in 1499. The true father in Germany. To these lectures we owe of literary history is the famous Conrad several Introductions, General Views, and Gesner, whose Bibliotheca Universalis Systems of literary history. We mention, contains stores of knowledge not yet ex- in chronological succession, Burkhard hausted. In his 25th year, he began to Gotthelf Struvius, professor at Jena ; execute his grand plan of a general work Matthew Lobetanz, professor at Greifson literature, and, in three years, his ma- wald; N. H. Gundling, professor in Halle; terials were so far prepared, that they Gottlieb Stoll, professor in Jena; G. G. could be arranged for printing. Accord- Zeltner, professor in Altorf; c. C. Neuing to his plan, the work was to be divided feld, professor in Königsberg; F. G. Bierinto three parts—an alphabetical dictiona- ling, professor in Rinteln; and others. ry of authors, a general systematic view Reimmann must also be mentioned on acof literature, which even cites single dis- count of his Introduction to Historia Intsertations and passages, and an alphabeti- eraria (1708), and his Idea Systematis Incal index of matters and subjects treated. tiquitatis Literaria. Still more important (See Ebert's Bibliog. Ler., article Gesner.) was Chr. Aug. Heumann's Conspectus The first edition of the first division ap- Republica Literariæ, a work much superior peared in 1545.* Peter Lambeck gave in- to any that had preceded it, in arrangestruction in literary history at the gymna- ment, acute criticism and richness of masium of Hamburg, in 1656, on the plan of terials. John Andrew Fabricius's Sketch Gesner and Virgil, and published, in of a General History of Literature (1752) 1659, outlines, as a text-book for his lec- is a comprehensive work, and unites the tures, the title of which is Prodromus synthetic and analytic method. A. Y. Historie Literara. Daniel George Mor- Goguet was the first to introduce a more hof's Polyhistor. Literarius, Philosophicus philosophical treatment of literary history; et Practicus, the first edition of which and the Italian Denina rivals him in appeared in 1688, contributed to promote brilliancy of manner, without equalling the study of literary history. Since the bim in thoroughness and originality of beginning of the eighteenth century, lite- views or in judgment. It began to be rary history has been a favorite study of more and more clearly felt, that literary the learned, and has been taught in the history, though an independent branch of
* Lord Bacon, in his Advancement of Learning history, would remain a mere list of (De Aug. Sci. ii. 5), seems to have been the firsi names, titles, and dates, if it were not (1605) to have traced out the objects and extent treated with constant reference to the of a general literary history (Hisioria Literarum, state of religion, politics, morals, and the Historia Literaria). History,” says he, “iś natural, civil, ecclesiastical and literary; where
arts. Attempts have been made to treat of the first I allow to be extant, the fourib I note it as a part of the general history of civilias deficient. For no man hath propounded to zation by Iselin, Ferguson, Home, and himself the general state of learning to be de- particularly by Herder. In recent times, scribed and represented from age to age, as many the Germans have taken the lead in this have done the works of nature, and the state civil and ecclesiastical, without which the history of
science, both in extent of knowledge and the world seemeth to me to be as the statue of comprehensiveness of views. J. G. EichPolyphemus with his eye out, that part being horn's and L. Wachler's work is of high wanting which doth show the spirit and life of the value, as are also those of S. G. Wald, J. person and yet I am not ignorant that in divers G. Meusel and Fr. Schlegel. It would particular sciences, as of ihe jurisconsults, the mathematicians, the rhetoricians, the philoso- exceed our limits were we to mention phers, there are set down some small memorials here the different productions upon the of the schools, authors and books; and so like- literary history of single nations and parwise some barren relations touching the invention ticular periods. A work on an extensive of arts or usages. But a just story of learning plan, though not of a general nature, is containing the antiquities and originals of knowledges, and their sects, their inventions, their tra- the great enterprise of the literary society ditions, their divers administrations and man- of Göttingen-History of Arts and Sciagings, their flourishings, their oppositions, decays, ences in Europe, since the Rest ration of depressions, oblivions, removes, with the causes and occasions of them, and all other events con
the same, until the End of the Eighteenth cerning, learning, llaroughout the ages of the Century: – Literary history is naturally world, 1 may truly affirm to be wanting. The divided into ancient, middle and modern use and end of which work I do not so much de. The ancient terminates with the retire. sign for curiosity or satisfaction of those that are lovers of learning, but chiefly for a more serious sixth century; the middle begins with
ment of science into the convents, in the and grave purpose, which is, that it will make leoried men wise in the use and administration the downfall of the great Roman empire of learning."
(about 500 A. D.) and the commencement 2